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Full text of "9th to 15th Annual Report of Commissioners on Fisheries and Game of Massachusetts (1874-80)"

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http://archive.org/details/9thto15thannualr00mass 



i:lL.m. 



SENATE L I f.....^o. 26 



NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 



Tn.oaaJS', 
' COMMISSIOJSTEES 



INLAND FISHERIES, 



Year Ending January 1, 1875. 



BOSTON: 

WRIGHT & POTTER, STATE PRINTERS, 
79 Milk Street (corner of Federal). 

1875. 



^ 



\ 



3 



CONTENTS 



Report, 5 

AprEXDix A. List of Commissioners, 23 

B. Leased Ponds, and reUirns of the same, ... 25 

C. Smelts. It. J. P. Ordway, 36 

D. Distribution of yomig Sliad and Salmon, . . 38 

E. Decrease of Sea-fisheries on the Coast, ... 42 

F. Laws on Fish-cnltm-e, 54 



d^oinmontoealll) of Ulcissaxljusetls. 



To His Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Council. 

The Commissioners on Inland Fisheries beg leave to 
present their Kinth Annual Keport : — 

The fish way at Holyoke, leading from the river into the 
canal above, was finished last fall. 

Early in the spring, two of the Commissioners — one from 
Connecticut and one from this State — visited Turner's Falls, 
in order to note the effect of high-water at the time fish 
would be most likely to run, and also to make a general 
survey of the dam. On the third of August, the Commis- 
sioners of Vermont, New Hampshire, Connecticut and 
Massachusetts met at the Falls to decide upon the best 
location for a fishway. This was by no means an easy 
matter. It could not be taken into the canal, as was the 
case at Holyoke ; and the bank on the north side of the river 
is so steep and rocky that a fishway built there would not 
only be very expensive, but liable to be carried away by a 
freshet. Fortunately, the dam is divided in the middle by 
an island extending several hundred feet down the stream, 
and, by blasting a channel thereon some eighteen feet wide 
and three hundred feet long, a very fair location could be 
made. Satisfied that this was not only the most feasible, 
but by fiir the least expensive plan that could be adopted, 
negotiations w^ere at once opened with the Turner's Falls 
Company, which, we regret to say, were not met with 
the spirit that former communications had led us to expect. 
Delay alter delay followed, and it was not until the matter 



6 INLA:ND fisheries. [Jail. 

was placed in the hands of their treasurer that a satisfactory 
settlement was arrived at. The work is already under way, 
with the understanding that it shall be so far completed by 
the first of May as to all ow the easy passage of salmon over 
the dam. 

The plan of the Holyoke fishway was unanimously adopted 
by the Commissioners of the four States interested. No 
doubt was felt or expressed as to its capacity for salmon ; 
for enough was known of the habits of these fish, both in this 
country and in Europe, — where salmon-ways have long been 
in use, — to settle the question. 

But with the shad there had not been sufficient experience 
to render it equally certain ; yet there was reason to believe 
that it would answer equally well for both species of fish. 
Your Commissioners did not understand nor expect that shad, 
or even salmon, would go over «???/ fishway, if bred bdoic and 
not above it. All migratory fish return to the place where 
they are hatched, provided there are no insurmountable ob- 
stacles in the way. This holds good whether there is or is not 
a dam across the stream or river. Even in an unobstructed 
river, migratory fish do not pass beyond their spawning-becls. 
In rivers where one or more branches are stocked with these 
fish, as is often the case, they pass up the main river until 
they reach the branch, and ascend that, leaving the open 
river behind. Without this migratory law, the stocking of 
particular rivers would be impossible. Throughout these 
reports we have endeavored to make this understood, for it 
is one of the most important axioms of fish-culture. When 
the shad came, last spring, to the foot of the Holyoke dam, 
where many of them still spawn, they passed directly over the 
mouth of the fishway, paying no attention to it. This was a 
great disappointment to many, who would not or could not see 
that the fi&h were bred below and had no motive to go above. 
In part to satisfy these good people, and partly to test some 
experiments we had in view, a screen was placed across the 
foot of the fishway, and eighty shad were dipped up and put 
into the lower part of it. These fish, finding themselves out 
of their accustomed locality, tried to force a passage through 
the screen. Finding their way barred in that direction, they 
turned their heads to the current, and all that were not hurt 



1875.] SENATE— No. 26. 7 

in clipping up passed through the lishway — four hundred and 
forty feet long — with more ease tlian they had ascended the 
rapids in the river below. Fifty-two were known to have 
passed through the canal and into the river above. From 
these facts it will be seen that there is no mecltanical diffi- 
culty in the way of shad passing over the fishway. When 
those that have been bred above return, seeking a place to 
deposit their spawn, which will be in two or three years, 
there is every reason to expect that they will pass freely 
over. Possibly some plan may be devised by which even 
this time can be abridged. 

As far as possible, we have acted upon all matters brought 
before us. The continued liigh-w\ater, during the spring and 
summer, made it difficult to construct fishways without put- 
ting mill-owners to unnecessary expense. The application 
from the town of Carver, to have the Weweautit River 
opened up to Simpson's Pond, has been considered, and the 
fishways will probably be completed by the first of May. 
Plans have been drawn for fishways on the West field and 
Agawam Rivers, and negotiations are now pendiug w^ith the 
As^awam Canal Co. for the construction of the same. Sur- 
veys have been made of the Shawshine ; and the first instal- 
ment of young salmon was put into that river by the towns 
of Bedford and Billerica, last spring. 

By a vote of the town of Lancaster, April 6, 1874, your 
Commissioners were called upon to open Nashua River. 
The New Hampshire Commissioners were notified of the call, 
but, a change having taken place in their commission and a 
new board appointed, the request was not acted upon. At 
the annual meeting of the New England Commissioners, to 
be held this winter, the attention of the present board will 
be called to the demands made by this State for a fishway 
on that river. 

Alewife {Aloso Tyrannus). 
The information received of the increase of these fish, and 
the efforts that are being made to open and re-stock the rivers 
and streams along the coast, is very encouraging. We have 
in former reports pointed out the advantages of this culture, 
not only as a matter of profit, but as tending greatly to at- 



8 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

tract the sea-fish in shore.* In the report of 1870 is an 
account of small fish found at Mystic Dam, supposed to be 
yearling ale wives. Examination, in June, showed that the 
female was full of spawn. As alewives are not known to 
spawn until the fourth or fifth year of their existence, the 
study of these fish became a matter of some interest. Fur- 
ther observation renders it more than probable that they are 
not the aloso tyr annus, but a distinct species, seldom measur- 
ino^ over five inches in lens^th, and w^eic^hinor less than three 
ounces. They are not necessarily migratory, since they are 
found in the ponds connected with the Mystic Eiver at all 
seasons of the year, and are often seen in shallow water, in 
large schools, in the spring, after the breaking up of the ice. 

Shad (^Aloso JPrcestahilis) . 
The number of shad and spawn taken during the last sea- 
son at North Andover, under the care of Mr. A. C. Hardy,, 
was as follows : — 

* See Appendix C. 



1875.] , 



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t-9 























12 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

Total number of shad caught, 1,G80 

of spawn taken, 6,240,000 

Hatched and turned in above Lowell, . . . . 1,950,000 

Young fish turned in above Lawrence Dam, . . . 800,000 
Delivered to George S. Est3', of Milton, for Neponset 

River, 550,000 

Delivered to Simeon C. Keith, of East Bridgewater, for 

the Satucket River, 200,000 

The balance were turned in at North Andover. 

At the last session of the legislature, an Act was passed 
allowing fishing in the Merrimac with net and seine, three 
days of each week, from the first of March till the tenth of 
June. The number of shad reported was 16,077. From 
several of the seining grounds no report could be obtained ; 
and as there was considerable violation of the laAv, it is 
probable that not less than 20,000 was the catch from this 
river last spring. We recommend the passage of a law re- 
quiring all persons using seines, nets, or traps of any kind, 
for the taking of fish in the waters under the jurisdiction of 
the Commonwealth, to report to the Commissioners on Inland 
Fisheries, on or before the first day of September of each 
year, the number and variety so taken, and the market value 
of the same. To such a law, we think, there would be no 
serious objection, as many of the fishermen have expressed 
themselves in favor of some regulation of this kind. The 
statistics thus obtained would be of great value to the State, 
as showing the magnitude of the fishing interests and the 
rapid increase that is everywhere following a more intelligent 
system of culture. 

Hatching was continued at South Hadley, under the direc- 
tion of Prof. Baird and the Connecticut Commissioners (Mas- 
sachusetts furnishing the hatching-boxes) , and the superin- 
tendence of Charles Smith. 

The following is his report : — 



1875.] 



SENATE— No. 26. 



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1-5 







14 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



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1875.] 



SENATE— Xo. 26. 



15 



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CO 



16 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

Total catch of shad, 3,016 ; spawn, 44,556,000. By com- 
paring the two reports, it will be seen that the 608 females, 
taken at North Andover, yielded 6,249,000, — an average of 
10,278 to each female; w^hile Mr. Smith reports 1,964 
females, and 44,556,000 ova, — an average of 22,691 to each 
female. The establishment at North Andover is manaered 
with great care by Mr. Hardy ; and we have reason to 
know, by personal observation, that his estimate of spawn is 
generally correct. It is easy to approximate, very closely, 
the number of spawn by measuring. 

An agreement was made with the Connecticut Commission- 
ers, that all young fish, not wanted by Prof. Baird, should 
be placed at the disposal of the Massachusetts Commissioners, 
to be taken above the Hol^'oke dam, and a man was employed 
for that purpose. But, for some reason unknown to us, Mr. 
Smith did not comply with the orders given him, and only 
about 2,300,000 were thus disposed of. A portion of these 
were put in at Bellows Falls, and the remainder between 
there and Smith's Ferry. 

We are under obligations to Prof. Baird for assistance 
rendered in transporting these fish. 

Smelts (Osmerus viridescens) , 
Smelts have been very plenty this fall, and many persons, 
out of employment, have had abundant reason to feel thank- 
ful for the efforts made during the last four years to increase 
these fish. 

As high as eighty dozen have been taken with a single rod 
in one day. To the Massachusetts Anglers' Association 
(composed of several hundred of some of the most influ- 
ential men in the State) mainly belongs the credit of en- 
forcing the law for their protection. 

Trout (Sahno Fontinalis). 
The artificial hatching and rearing of trout continues with 
increasing interest. But many who are engaged in this pur- 
suit have experienced much disappointment and vexation in 
consequence of a disease which attacks the young fry soon 
after they begin to feed, causing severe loss. We are satis- 
fied that this trouble does not arise from artificial fecundation : 



875.] SENATE— No. 26. 17 

for, if the eggs are perfectly ripe when taken from the female, 
there can be no difference between this method of impreg- 
nation and that produced in the ordinary way. We have 
hatched trout-spaw^n, impregnated in both w^ays, without 
being able to discover any difference either in health, vigor 
or growth of the young fish. The cause of this mortality 
is undoubtedly lack of proper food : for trout, to be healthy, 
should have, not only animal, but a certain amount of vege- 
table and mineral food. Young trout have generally been 
reared, for the first year at least, in tanks and runways. Of 
these two forms, the tank is the least desirable ; runways are 
sometimes successful, but this success depends entirely upon 
the nature of the soil through which the trench is cut and 
whether the water supplying it contains a sufficient number 
of small insects to vary their food. 

If those engaged in the cultivation of trout will abandon 
the tanks, and, in most cases, the runways, and substitute 
properly constructed ponds, they will have little cause to 
complain of loss from disease. The ponds should be in the 
shape of the letter Y, or, what perhaps would be better, 
pear-shaped. At the apex, or small end where the water 
flows in, it should be three or four feet deep ; from this point 
to the other end where the water flows out, the bottom should 
rise on an inclined plane, giving at that end a depth of about 
six inches. In the shallow portions of this pond (which will 
be about one-half of it) should be planted Avater-cresses and 
such weeds as generate the largest amount of insect life. In 
this pond the young trout should be placed as soon as the 
yolk-sac is absorbed, and fed, for the first two months at 
least, on rennet-curd, as described in a former report. 

Salmon {Salmo SaJar), 
The proportion of salmon-spawn due this State, last year, 
from the Bucksport salmon-breeding establishment, was 
180,000. To this was added 100,000, presented to the State 
by Prof. Baird, United States Commissioner, making in all 
280,000. These w^ere received in January, at the state 
hatching-house, in remarkably good condition, and hatched 
with a loss of less than four per cent., producing 271,000 
healthy young fish. In accordance with an agreement made 

3 



18 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

with the States of Xew Hampshire, Vermont, and Connec- 
ticut, these were deposited in the Connecticut River and its 
tributaries. Fifty thousand were put into the Westfield 
River, and the balance taken by Dr. M. C. Edmunds, Com- 
missioner of Vermont, to the tributaries above Bellows Falls. 

About 800,000 were put in by the four States. This is 
probably the largest number of young salmon ever hatched 
and turned into any river in one year. The Bucksport 
establishment, originally started in the interests of Maine, 
Connecticut and Massachusetts, for the purpose of re-stock- 
ing their exhausted rivers, has become a complete success ; 
and the States can now have, from this place, at a small 
expense, all the salmon-spaWn that may be required. A 
note just received from Mr. Atkins informs us that he has 
this fall secured 2,900,000 spawn, and that there is more yet 
to be taken. 

This can be repeated yearly, and the number increased if 
need be, and entirely removes the difficulty which so long 
retarded our eiforts in that direction. The question of re- 
stocking, by artificially hatching salmon, and turning them 
into rivers where they have been destroyed, oy stocking ^h^vQ 
none heretofore existed, is no longer an open one. The ex- 
periments of the last twenty-five years in Europe have made 
it as certain as the planting or sowing of any crop. The 
experiment of increasing salmon in rivers already stocked 
has also been successful. In 1852, the rental of the River 
Tay, in Scotland, had fallen to $39,866.25. In 185.3, a small 
establishment was started at Stormontfield, near the head- 
waters of the river, for breeding salmon. The fish were 
hatched and kept in small ponds until they were ready to go 
to sea. It is doubtful if the rearing of young salmon in this 
way is desirable. Probably a much larger percentage would 
have lived had they been turned into the river as soon as the 
yolk-sac was absorbed. In 1864, the rental reached $85,000, 
an increase of $45,133.75. This river, like all other salmon 
rivers, fluctuates, producing in some years much more than 
in others. The lowest yield, during the last eight years, has 
not flillen below $27,000, and the rental, on an average, has 
more than doubled. The cost of procuring, yearly, the same 
number of salmon, for the Connecticut or Merrimac, annually 



1875.] SENATE— No. 26. 19 

turned into the Tay, would not exceed $1,000. Salmon are 
beo:innino: to return in both these rivers. On the 27th 
of June, Mr. Hardy caught, at North Andover, while taking 
shad for spawn, a salmon weighing nineteen pounds. Sev- 
eral have been taken on the Connecticut, and quite a 
number were caught with hook and line in Massachusetts 
Bay during the summer. Also one weighing twenty pounds 
was reported found dead on lower Mystic Pond. 

In the Appendix will be found a report from the United 
States Commissioner on the distribution of young shad and 
salmon, giving some idea of the work done up to 1872. This 
statement does not include the hatching and distributing of 
other species of hsh, or the great amount of labor of a local 
character not necessarily claiming the attention of the de- 
partment at Washington. The hatching and distribution of 
young salmon and shad in the several States, for 1873 and 
1874, was several times greater than the whole number given 
in that report. 

Land-locked Salmon. 

Six thousand spawn of these salmon were received from 
Sebec, in February, producing about 5,500 young fish, 
which were distributed as follows : to G. Parlon, for Long- 
Pond, head of Namasket Kiver; O. Whitney, for pond 
leased by town of Ashburnham ; Mr. Hey wood, for pond 
leased by town of Gardner ; Mr. Murray, for pond leased by 
Pittsfield ; towns of Bedford and Billerica, for Shawshine 
River; and Winchester and Medford, for Mystic Pond. 

It is designed, as heretofore stated, to furnish towns 
having suitable waters with these fish, — they either paying 
for transportation, or sending a competent person to the 
state hatching-house for them. All applications should 
give a careful description of the ponds, streams or rivers 
intended to be stocked, that the Commissioners may judge 
whether they are suitable. 

Sacraihento Salmon (Sahno Quinnai), 
Two hundred thousand spawn of this species were received, 
presented to the State by Prof. Baird. Unfortunately, they 
Were so injured by transportation that only about seven thou- 
sand were hatched. 



20 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

Great Ponds. 

A very healthy state of feeliDg is rapidly growing up in 
regard to the cultivation of fish in the great ponds, and con- 
stant applications are made for leases, both by private parties 
and by the inhabitants of the towns wliere such ponds are 
located. The jealousy which heretofore more or less excited 
the public mind, in reference to the control of such waters 
by individuals, is fast dying out, and a more enlightened 
view taking its place. Few, if any, attempts are made to 
interfere with the rights of lessees, and a general disposition 
is shown to encourage all efforts to restock the ponds. 

A few of the great ponds should be under the direct control 
of the Commissioners, for the purpose of more carefully 
studying the best methods of culture, and also to serve as a 
nucleus for raising and distributing fish throughout the State. 
That our great ponds are to become the source of consider- 
able wealth is shown, not only by what a few of them have 
already produced, but also from the statistics of other 
countries, where a more general system of culture has been 
successfully carried out. 

In France, 493,750 acres of lakes and ponds yield an 
annual rental of $2,000,000. This is so much clear gain, — 
so much additional food for the people ; for, after lakes and 
ponds are well stocked, with proper care and regulation they 
become self-sustaining, requiring little or no labor to keep 
them up. Of course, it would be folly to suppose that any 
pond, no matter how thoroughly stocked, would stand the 
indiscriminate slaughter which some persons, regardless of 
the spawning season, consider themselves privileged to in- 
dulge in. The public right to the fisheries is under the con- 
trol of the legislature, which has an undoubted right to 
regulate them. But something besides law is necessary if 
we hope to develop the wealth whicli our waters may be 
made to produce. The State of Massachusetts has 196,342 
acres of lakes and ponds, and it may be well to consider 
their present value. With the exception of one or two 
ponds on the Cape and a few that have been leased, under 
the care of intelligent and thoughtful men, scarcely one of 
them would yield a fair meal for a good-sized family, once a 



1875.] SENATE— Xo. 26. 21 

week. The same number of acres of water in France pro- 
duces over $800,000 a year. And yet, fish-culture in that 
country admits of mucli improvement ; it has by no means 
reached its highest point. If we compare the two countries, 
the natural advantages will be found to be largely in our 
favor. AVe are not subject to the severe drouths that nearly 
dry up their rivers and often deplete them ; nor is there any- 
thing in their water, or in the food it contains, leading to the 
production of a larger crop. The difference is not, then, in 
the climate nor in the water, but in the fostering care of the 
government and the practical knowledge of those who man- 
age their fisheries. 

Here everything depends upon the intelligence of the peo- 
ple ; and, if we expect success, there should be an earnest 
cooperation, and, to some extent, the subordination of self to 
the public good. 

So long as it is desirable to encourage the mechanical arts, 
or to render aid to agricultural improvements, so long will 
this question press itself upon our consideration ; and a wise 
economy demands that it receive its full share of attention. 

In conclusion, it is gratifying to be able to state, that at 
no time has there been so much interest shown in fish-culture 
as during the last year. 

For the continuation of hatching and distributing young 
fish, and the necessary expenditures of the Commission, we 
recommend an appropriation of five thousand dollars. 

THEODORE LYMAX, 
E. A. BRACKETT, 
ASA FRENCH, 

Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 



12 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Jan. 



EXPENDITUEES OF COMMISSION. 



Salan', 

Travelling expenses, 

Salmon and land-locked salmon enterprise, 

Packing and transporting spawn and fish, 

Taking shad-spawn, transporting young shad, and re 

pairing hatching-boxes. 
Pails and cans for transporting fish, 
Postage, expressage and telegrams. 

Printing, 

Plans of fishways, 

Rent of land for state hatching-house, 
Breakwater at South Hadley Falls, 
Labor at state hatching-house. 



Total, . 
December 1, 1874. 



$1,549 99 

305 78 

1,000 00 

152 28 

613 55 

31 25 

23 15 

20 17 

G3 00 

50 00 

300 00 

9 00 



S4.118 17 



1875.] 



SENATE— No. 26. 



23 



APPENDIX. 



[A.] 
COMMISSIOKEES Ol^ FISHEEIES. 



OSriTED STATES. 

i>,,^T, o„^. ^^,, -c •».. S Smithsonian Institute, 

Prof. Sfekceh F. Baird, ^ Washington, D. C. 

MAIXE. 

E. M. Stilatell, Bangor. 

Hejtry O. Stanley, , - Dixfield- 

NE W HAMPSHiaE. 

Oliver H. Noyes, Henniker. 

John S Wadleigh, Laconia. 

A. C. FiFiELD, Enfield, 

VERMONT. 

M. C. Edmunds, Weston. 

M. Goldsmith, Rutland- 

MASSACHDSETTS. 

Theodore Lyman, Brookline, 

E, A. Brackett, Winchester. 

Asa French, South Braintree. 

CONNECTICDT. 

William M. Hudson, Hartford. 

Robert G. Pike, Middletown. 

James A. Bill, Lyme. 

RHODE island. 

Newton Dexter, Providence. 

Alfred A. Reed, Jr., Providence. 

John H. Barden, Scituate. 

new YORK. 

Horatio Seymour, Utica. 

Robert R. Roosevelt, . New York City. 

Edward M- Smith, Rochester. 



24 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

N E AV J E R S X V . 

J. R. Shotwell, ■ Rah\vay, 

G. A. Anderson, Trenton. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

H. J. Reedee, Easton. 

B. L. Hemitt, HolIidaysTMirg. 

James Dupfy, Marietta. 

MARYLAND. 

T. B. Ferglson, Baltimore. 

P. W. Do^YNES, Deuton. 

VIRGINIA. 

William B. Ball Mid Lothian. 

Asa "Wall, Winchester. 

ALABAMA. 

Charles S. G. Doster, Montgomeiy. 

Ro. Tyler, Montgomery. 

D. R. Hundley, Conrtland. 

OHIO. 

John Hlsset, Lockland. 

John H. Klipfart, • Colnmbus. 

Dr. Elisha T. Stirling, Cleveland. 

MICHIGAN. 

J. J. Baglet, Detroit. 

Andre^y J. Kellogg, Allegan. 

Geo. Clark, Ecoise. 

IOWA. 

Samiel B. Evans, Ottumiva. 

B. F. Shayv, Anamosa. 

Charles A. Haynes, Waterloo. 

MINNESOTA. 

A. W. Latham, Excelsior. 

David Day, St. Paul. 

Horace Austin, St. Paul. 

CALIFORNIA. 

B. B. Redding, Sacramento. 

S. R. Throckmorton, San Francisco. 

J. D. FAR^VELL, San Francisco. 

dominion of CANADA. 

W. F. Whitcher, Ottawa. 



1875.] SENATE— No. 26. 25 



[B.] 

List of Ponds leased by the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries, un- 
der authority given by Chap. 384, Sect. 9, of the Acts of 1S69.* 

1870. — Feb. 1. Waushakum Pond, in Framingham, to Sturtevant 
and others, 20 jxars. 

Mar. 1. Tisbury Great Pond, in Tisburj- and Chilmark, 
Allen Look and others, 10 years. 

Apr. 1. Chauncey Pond, in Westboro*, to Trustees Re- 
form School, 5 3'ears. 
1. Mendon Pond, in Mendon, to Leonard T. ^Yilson 
and another, 20 years. 

June 20. Silver Lake, in Wilmington, to Charles O. Bil- 
lings and others, 20 3'ears. 

Sept. 12. Baptist Lake, in Newton, leased to J. F. C. 
Hj'de and others, 20 3'ears. 

Oct. 15. Archer's Pond, in Wrentham, to William E. 
George, 15 years. 
1871.— Jan. 10. Nine Mile Pond, in Wilbraham, to B. F. Bowles, 
10 3'ears. 
30. Little Pond, in Falmouth, to F. H. Dimmick, 10 
3'ears. 

Apr. — . Spectacle, Triangle and Peter's Ponds, in Sand- 
wich, to G. L. Fessenden and another, 5 years. 

17. Long Pond, in Falmouth, to Joshua S. Bower- 

man and three others, 20 years. 
May 15. Pratt's Pond, in Upton, to D. W. Batcheller, 20 
3'ears. 

18. Little Sandy Pond, in Plymouth, to William E. 

Perkins, 15 years. 

* "We would remind lessees of ponds that they are required, by their leases, to use 
all reasonable efforts to stock their ponds and keep accurate records of the same, and 
make returns of their doings to the Commissioners on the Jirst of October, each year, 
of the number and species of fish which they have put in or removed from their 
ponds. Any failure to comply with these conditions is a breach of contract invali- 
dating their lease. It is important that the State should know just what is being 
done; and, Avhere there appears to be mismanagement, or apparent failures, the Com- 
missioners will visit the ponds and ascertain, if possible, the cause. 
4 



26 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

1871. — Nov. 1. Punkapoag Pond, in Randolph and Canton, to 

Ilenr}^ L. Pierce, 20 years. 
1872. — Jan. 1. Sandy Pond, Forest Lake, or Flint's Pond, in 
Lincoln, to James L. Chapin and others, 20 
years. 
Apr. 1. Onota Lake, in Pittsfield, to William H. Murray 

and others, 5 years. 
July 20. Little Pond, in Braintree, to Eben Denton and 
others, 20 years. 
1873. — May 1. Meeting-house Pond, in Westminster, to Inhab- 
itants of Westminster, 15 3-ears. 
1. Great Pond, in Weymouth, to James L. Bates 
and others, 15 3'ears. 
July 1. Little Sand}' Pond, in Pembroke, to A. C. Brig- 
ham and others, 16 3'ears. 
Sept. 1. Pontoosuc Lake, in Pittsfield and Lanesboro', 

to E. H. Kellogg and others, 15 years. 
Oct. 1. Farm Pond, in Sherburne, to Inhabitants of 
Sherborn, 15 years. 

1. Spot Pond, in Stoneham, to Inhabitants of 

Stoneham, 15 3'ears. 

Nov. 1. Big Pond, in Webster, to Inhabitants of Web- 
ster, 5 years. 

Dec. 1. Lake Wauban, in Needham, to HoUis Hunne- 
well, 20 3'ears. 
1874. — Mar. 1. Walden and White Ponds, in Concord, to Inhab- 
itants of Concord, 15 years. 

2. Upper Nankeag, in Ashburnham, to Inhabitants 

of Ashburnham, 20 years. 
Apr. 1. Elder's Pond, in Lakeville, to Inhabitants of 
Lakeville, 15 years. 
20. North and South Podunk Ponds, in Brookfield, to 
Inhabitants of Brookfield, 15 years. 
May 2. Brown's Pond, in Peabod}-, to John L. Shore3', 
15 years. 
2. Maquan Pond, in Hanover, to the Inhabitants of 
Hanover, 15 years, 
16. Wickaboag Pond, in West Brookfield, to Lemuel 

Fullam, 15 3'ears. 
20. Unchechewalon and Massapog Ponds, to the In- 
habitants of Lunenburg, 20 3'ears. 
July 1. Hardy's Pond, in Waltham, to H. E. Priest and 
others, 15 yedrs. 



1875.] SENATE— Xo. 26. 27 

1874. — July 1. Hockomocko Pond, in Westboro', L. N. Fair- 
banks and others, 15 years. 
11. Mitchell's Pond, in Boxford, R. M. Cross and 
others, 15 years. 
Oct. 1. East Washacum Pond, in Sterling, to Inhabitants 
of Sterling, 20 years. 



To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 

Gentlemen: — In accordance with your request of the 16th inst., 
I furnish the accompanying particulars concerning the fish in Wau- 
shakum Pond. As the habits of the bass, both as studied in our 
pond and elsewhere, show them to be a very uncertain fish to the 
angler, on account of what at present, from limited information, 
seems but a caprice, I again, this year, confine m3'self to a tran- 
script of disconnected notes, which are reliable. At some future 
day, I hope that the historj' of the life of this interesting fish may 
be complete!}' known. 

1874. May 14, saw the first bass of the season, — a little fellow 
about 3^ inches long. 

Ma}' 15. A fish nine inches long seen about boat-house, and the 
first catch ; a male fish ( ?) weighing about three-quarters pound. 
No appearance of spawn or milt to be obtained by pressure. 

May 22. Black bass spawning in G. B. Brown's pond, — a shallow 
sheet of water supplied by springs. The nests are on the shelving 
bank, in about eight inches deep of water, the gravel being cleanly 
swept. The 3-pound female and a f-pound male fish, keeping side 
by side, sweep from the adjoining deep water in circles, which in- 
clude the prepared nest. When the fish arrive over the bed, they 
both incline their sides until their bellies are in contact, and the 
milt and spawn, apparently emitted at the same time, come into 
contact, and, mixed with each other, seek the bottom. As they 
pass from the gravel into deep water, they resume their proper posi- 
tion on their circular course, which, again, in a short time, brings 
them to the former spot, where the same performance is repeated. 

June 4. Although I have been unable to find any spawning- 
beds, and have seen but one or two black bass this year, yet this 
morning the pond about the boat-house and in places along the 
shore, both on the north and south sides, is filled with small fish, 
with the yolk-bag, or a central prominence which I take for such, 
unabsorbed. These little fellows are about three-eights inch long. 



28 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

have black e3'es and a spot or a bar on the tail. I think they are 
black-bass fr3\ 

June 6. Seven small black bass, from four to five inches long, 
about boat-house. 

Aug. 20. Plenty of young bass all along shore ; length all the way 
from two to four inches. From a constant watch of these small 
fish, continueel during the summer, I am confident that these fish of 
difierent sizes are all from this year's spawn. 

Oct. 1. Fish scarce about boat-house. Where formerly a dozen 
or so youngsters could be seen, now with difficulty can I find one or 
two. 

Nov. 1. For the last week or ten daj's, not a youngster in sight. 
Gone to deep water? 

The catch of 1874, as reported to me, has been as follows : — 

Feb. 14. Two fish ; 1^ pounds, 2 pounds (through ice). 

Apr. 11. Two fish ; 1^ pounds, 2f pounds. 

May 15. One fish ; | pound, 

Jun. 8. One fish ; 1 pound. 

10. One fish ; 1 pound. 

14. One fish ; | pound. 

19. One fish ; 2 pounds. 

July 1. Two fish ; 2 pounds, 2J pounds. 

20. One fish ; 11 pounds. 

21. One fish ; 3^ pounds. 

25. Three fish; 1 pound, l^ pounds, 1\ pounds. 
27. Two fish ; | pound, 2 pounds. 

30. Two fish ; 1 pound, 1 pound. 

31. Six fish ; | pound, 1 pound, 1 pound, 1| pounds, 2 pounds, 2^ 

pounds, 
Aug. 1. Two fish; 1 pound, 2 pounds. 
14. One fish ; 1 pound. 

17. One fish ; | pound. 

18. Four fish ; | pound, 1 pound, 1 pound, 2 pounds. 

19. Three fish ; 1 pound, 2 pounds, 2\ pounds, 

21. Four fish ; 1 pound, 2\ pounds, 2^ pounds, 2-^ pounds. 

22. One fish; Impounds. 

26. One fish ; 1^ pounds. 
Sept. 5. One fish ; If pounds. 

8. Three fish ; 2 pounds ; 2f pounds ; 3 pounds, 

12. One fish; 2^ pounds, 

13. Three fish ; f pound, 1^ pounds, 2\ pounds. 
Oct, 9. One fish ; 3 pounds. 

The summary is as follows : — 



1875.] 



SENATE— No. 26. 



29 



Febmary, . 
April, . 
May, 
June, 




2 fish. 
2 " 
1 " 
4 " 


July, . 
August, . 
September, 
October, . 


17 fish. 
17 " 

8 " 

1 " 


Ifish 
6 " 
13 " 
1 " 
3 " 


> • 




^ pound. 

• f " 
. 1 

1| pounds. 


9 fish, 
4 " 
4 " 
2 " 
2 " 


2 pounds. 

. 4 " 

. 2| " 

. 3 


5 " 
1 " 






• 1* " 
. li " 


1 " 


. 3^ " 


In 1870, 
1872, 
1873, 


largest fish placed in pond, 

largest fish caught, .... 

(( (( (( 


1 pound. 
2i pounds. 
3 




1874, 




(( {( (( 


. 


34 



These fish seem to prefer different bait at various seasons of the 
year. Judging from a limited experience, live bait is always the 
stand-by ; angle-worms excellent in the earh' season ; grasshoppers 
very telling for a week or two. At some seasons, water from five to 

six feet deep furnishes the best fishing ground ; at other times, 
water of considerable depth. 

Very respectfuU}' j^ours, 

E. LEWIS STURTEVANT. 



West Tisbury, Nov. 20, 1874. 



Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 



Gentlesien : — We have not put any new kinds of fish in the pond 
since my last report. We have removed from the pond twelve bar- 
rels of white perch, some two hundred barrels of herrings, and about 
ten barrels of smelts. 



Net proceeds, 
Town's part, 



S485 20 
24 26 



You will perceive that the catch was smaller than last year, not 
owing, however, to the scarcity' of fish. We selected out some 
twelve barrels of the largest perch, and let them go as breeders. 
Also released all the smallest sized fish, which were verj' numerous. 
Herrings were very numerous, but, in consequence of the dullness 
of the market, we caught but a very small proportion of what were 



30 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

in the pond. I should say that there were, certain!}', six hnndred 
barrels of herring left to spawn. They were about one-sixth larger 
than they were a few years ago. Smelts were not very plenty, and 
we fished but a very little for them. I noticed that there was an 
abundance of smelt-spawn attached to the pebbles and grass in the 
streams where they deposited their eggs during the month of April. 
I saw, also, a large number of smelts passing from the pond to the 
sea, about the middle of April. I caught some of them, and found 
that they had spawned. As far as I have noticed, it is ver}' easj- to 
raise fish ; you not only want to let the small fish go, but a good 
many of the largest, and by so doing, and keeping the pond in good 
condition, you are sure of success. 

Very truly yours, 

AJAjBI^ LOOK, for the Lessees. 



Newton Highlands, Nov. 28, 1874. 
To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 

Gentlemen : — It is now four 3'ears since WiswalFs or Baptist 
Pond, in Newton Centre, was stocked with black bass. Following 
your advice, we have not caught man}^ fish 3'et, preferring to let the 
pond become well stocked before even the members of our small club 
of twelve allow themselves to fish ad libitum, Xbe club voted that 
each member be allowed to catch three fish this year, which would 
make thirty-six in all, but only eleven have, so far as we know, 
been taken. These eleven weighed twenty- three and a quarter, or 
over two pounds each on an average. Some more were caught, and 
put back, because they were small. We were told that the average 
growth of these fish was a quarter of a pound a year. We are now 
satisfied that this is substantially correct. We have caught them 
weighing a pound, which must have been of the first year's hatching, 
for we put in none that weighed much less than that when put in 
four years ago. We caught others that weighed three-fourths of a 
pound, and still others that weighed half a pound, all of which we 
put back into the pond after they had been weighed. These fish we 
suppose to be of successive years' spawning. We have put no feed 
into the pond, which has the peculiaritj^ of having no stream running 
into it. There were many small fish in it when we put in the bass, 
upon which they have doubless fed. We propose to go on in the 
way we have begun, and by and by it will come to bass eating bass, 
as all the small fish of other sorts will have been eaten. Many fish 



1875.] SENATE— No. 26. 31 

were seen during the spring and summer, and we believe the experi- 
ment is a complete success. We have caused the large pickerel, so 
far as possible, to be destroj'ed, b}' spearing, in the spring. It is 
not an easy thing to clean out the pickerel. We have had but one 
case of poaching since we leased the pond. Though we were told 
that the bass would not bite at live bait in winter, we are fulh' satis- 
fied that the}^ will. The experiment was tried with us, and several 
fish were caught, but were put back. The bass is a fine game-fish, 
and of good qualit}- for the table. So far we have enjo3'ed the sport 
of catching them ver}' much, and we look forward with pleasant 
anticipations to the future. We did not lease this pond to make 
mone}' b\' the operation ; and we expect, when it is well stocked, to 
give permits to our friends to fish. If the experiment should prove 
as successful as some predict, there is no reason why manj' may not 
enjo}' the sport of fishing in this pond. We hope to obtain some 
small fry of land-locked salmon, and try the experiment of growing 
them in the same pond. We advise all who can control ponds, 
lakes, or streams, to stock the same with some useful fish, and thus 
add not onl}- to their own enjoyment, but actually add to the wealth 
of the country. 

With best wishes for the success of your eflbrts, 

I remain, 3'ours truly, 

JAMES F. C. HYDE. 



LixcoLX, Mass., Nov. 17, 1874. 
To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 

Gentlemen : — Your notice to the lessees of Sandy Pond, dated 
November IG, is received, and I hereby acknowledge our neglect to 
make the return, pleading, as m}' only excuse, so much other busi- 
ness, that I had forgotten it, until yesterday-, when I saw the face of 
Mr. Commissioner Brackett, on the streets of Boston. 

The lessees of Sandy Pond, in the month of Ma}^ 1872, placed 
in said pond fift3'-two black bass, the average weight of which was 
two pounds. Two of them were the largest known to have been 
moved alive, weighing not less than fourteen pounds. Our expenses 
have been for — 

Fish, $184 65 

Lease and other expenses, . . . . 9 92 

Rent, 2 00 



e.l96 57 



32 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

No fish have been taken b\' the lessees, nor permission given to 
any person to take an}' from the pond. A plenty of young fish, 
presumed to be the black bass, have been observed both in the pond 
and in the brook running out of it. In the summer of 1872 and 
1873, very man}^ bream, a worthless fish, were seen floating on the 
shores of the pond, mutilated in such a manner as to warrant the 
conclusion that they were destroyed by the bass. Pickerel, which 
were taken in moderate quantities before stocking the pond with 
bass, have been more scarce since, leading us to suppose the two 
are not congenial inhabitants of the same waters. I omitted to 
state what 3'ou may readil}' infer, that oui' income has been nothing. 

Respectfully yours, 

JAMES L. CHAPIN, 

For Lessees of Sandy Pond. 



Stoxeham, Mass., Nov. 20, 1874. 
Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 

Gentlemen : — During the summer just passed, we have, in accord- 
ance with our lease, stocked Spot Pond with one hundred black bass, 
weighing not less than one and a half pounds each. The largest 
bass put in the pond weighed about five pounds. The fish were put 
in the pond as soon as Mr. Holmes could secure them, but not until 
after the spawning season, and we have seen but little of them since. 
We have taken no fish from the pond, nor given permission for any 
to be taken, since the granting of the lease to the Commissioners. 
Our townspeople are \Qvy generall}' satisfied with the lease and the 
investment of their money. Some dissatisfaction is manifested by 
one of our citizens living on the border of the pond, but we believe 
that he will soon see that it is for his interest, as well as others, 
that the pond should be stocked. 

AMOS HILL, 
Chairman of Selectmen of Stoneham. 



South ABiyexox, Oct. 1, 1874. 
To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 

Dear Sirs : — In compliance with the the terms of our lease, we 
herein submit the following report : — 

We leased Little Sand}' Pond, in Pembroke, containing fort}-- 
nine acres, from your board, Jul}' 1, 1873, for sixteen years, for the 



1875.] SENATE— No. 26. 33 

purpose of cultivating black bass. There were in the pond at that 
time, pickerel, j^ellow perch, shiners, roaches and minnows. We 
contracted with Mr. Robert R. Holmes, of East Wareham, to stock 
the pond b}' putting in fifty black bass, not to weigh less than two 
pounds each. 

September 16, 1873, Mr. Holmes delivered and liberated in the 
pond, fifteen black bass, one weighing six ponds. 

October 4, 1873, received and put in the pond, twentj^-two bass, 
all fine fish, and in good condition. 

October 23, 1873, Mr. Holmes delivered to us, and placed in the 
pond, fifteen black bass, weighing fort}- pounds. 

This makes fifty-two black bass which we have put into the pond, 
all in good condition ; and, considering the size of the fish, we 
think the pond is well stocked, for breeding purposes. And here we 
would like to sa}', in justice to Mr. Holmes, that he filled his part of 
.the contract to our entire satisfaction, even putting in man}' larger 
fish than the contract required of him, and also that he proved him- 
self an expert in the transportation of live fish hy losing but one fish 
out of fifty-three large bass which he delivered to us. Just how well 
they have done this 3'ear, we are not able to sa}-. "We have seen 
numerous swarms of small fry in the shallows, but not being 
acquainted with bass fry, could not distinguish them from the fry of 
native fish ; but in August we netted some small fish three inches 
long, which we knew to be black bass, and which we had seen at 
different times along the shores. 

Hoping to give you next 3'ear a good and satisfactory report, 
which we feel confident we shall be able to do, I am, 

Truly yours, 

A. C. BRIGHAM. 



PiTTSFiELD, Nov. 19, 1874. 
To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 

Your circular of inquirj^ in regard to the stocking of Onota Lake 
with useful fish, was dul}' received, and herewith I present you with 
the facts as regards what fish we have put into the lake ; there has 
not been suflScient time to report as to the success of our efforts, 
only we know that several species are evident!}' proving successful. 
We had put in several kinds of fish before leasing ; since leasing, 
we have put in 40,000 lake-trout, 400 land-locked salmon and a few 
black bass. We have issued notices governing the modes of catch- 
ing and the time of catching, which are in accordance with the gen- 
eral state law, and prohibit all winter-fishing. The law is very 
5 



34 INL A ND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

generally observed in this vicinit}'. As regards the public feeling 
here in regard to fish-culture, the}' seem to take a verj- favorable 
opinion of the matter. I am unable to give any suggestions in re- 
gard to the culture which wo id be of any service to the Commis- 
sioners or State, having had no experience in the business. 

Very truly your3, 

WM. H. IMURRAY, 

For the Lessees of Onota Lake, Pittsjield. 



Sandwich, Nov. 18, 1874. 
To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 

Your circular of the 16th received. I have little to add to my 
returns of last j'ear, — nothing further than that I am fully assured,* 
from m}' own observation and the evidence of others, that the black 
bass are increasing rapidh^ in the three ponds. I fished Spectacle 
Pond for a few hours, in October ; caught several bass ; three of 
them fish bred in the pond ; all were returned to the pond. I do 
not doubt but that the ponds will be well stocked at the expiration 
of the lease. I think that we have ponds adapted to the land-locked 
salmon. Should like much to procure two or three hundred young 
fish for trial. Don't care to bear all the expense, as it will benefit 
the public. Could you not help me officially ? 

Yours truly, 

GEO. L. FESSENDEN. 



AsHBURNHAM, December 3, 1874. 



To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 



Sirs : — Pursuant to the authority granted by the legislature of 
1873, this town, at their last annual March meeting, voted to take 
a lease of Naukeag Lake, or Meeting-house Pond, situated within its 
limits ; and, as their agent, duly appointed, a lease for twent}' 3'ears 
was received b}' me from your board. 

The lake is a beautiful sheet of water, has considerable local re- 
pute, contains some five hundred acres, and varies in depth from 
twent}' to fift}' feet. Its situation is such that it is almost surrounded 
by hills, having but one outlet, and this into the Connecticut River, 
hy wa}' of Miller's River. It is fed by mountain-streams and from 



1875.] SENATE— No. 26. 35 

a number of springs which well up from its bed. A portion of the 
shore is a white sand, sloping gently to the centre, while a larger 
part is bold and rock}'. It will be seen that here are requisites, in 
its cool spring-water, deep coverts and spawning-grounds, for a suc- 
cessful cultivation of some of the best varieties of fresh-water fish. 
The present kinds of fish which have been caught and are known to 
live in its waters are pouts, pickerel, perch, shiners and bream. 

It was decided to attempt to stock the lake with land-locked 
salmon and black bass ; and I obtained from Mr. Commissioner 
Brackett some four hundred and fift}^ land-locked salmon fty, which 
were transferred in fine order, with a loss of only four. On the 
15th of May last, I received from Mr. Livingston Stone forty-six 
Lake Champlain bass, and, on the 23 I day of the same month, fifty- 
four more, which were immediately put into the lake in capital con- 
dition. They were fine and lust}' specimens of this variety of fish, 
and weighed from two to five pounds each, the females being very 
heav}' with spawn. It is, of course, now too short a time in which 
to present any data as to the success of the enterprise. Occa- 
sionally during the year I have visited the lake for the purpose of 
watching any movements which they might make. During the 
spawning-season I was rewarded by finding them upon their nests ; 
and later saw them frequently in pairs, swimming about in shallow 
feeding-ground. 

The interest attendant upon fish-culture, when once awakened, 
and the considerable success I have met with in breeding trout in 
my own private ponds, — in which I have some ten thousand fish, 
varying in size from the yearling to the speckled beauty weighing 
some four pounds, the greater number of which I have hatched and 
raised myself, and from which I am now taking some seventy-five 
thousand spawn, — lead me to assure your board of the success o^ 
this enterprise. 

And, looking to the promotion of the interest in fish-culture, I 
shall always be glad to meet and show to the members of your 
board, or any person who may apply to you for information, my 
private ponds and some original appliances, which have proved 
themselves of much value in their management. 

I am, with great respect, your obedient servant, 

OHIO WHITNEY, Agent, 



36 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 



[C] 



Boston, Dec. 12, 1874. 



To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 



Gentlemen : — In repl}- to 3'our inquiries as regards the practical 
working of the smelt-law, passed bj our last legislature, and the 
effect of the close time, allow me to sa}- that it has exceeded the 
most sanguine expectations of the friends of this beautiful fish. 
Smelt of enormous size have been caught, whilst thousands of 
small smelt have shown the beneficial result of allowing the females 
to throw their spawn last spring, instead of being stolen bj a few 
seines. Besides this, hundreds and tens of hundreds of poor 
mechanics have had a chance to catch a good mess for their fami- 
lies after their daj^'s work was over. In addition to this, the dealers 
have reaped a good harvest, from the fact that thej' have had a 
better class of smelts, and received better prices. But perhaps I 
cannot do better than to give 3'ou a few extracts from letters sent 
me by gentlemen who take an interest in smelts. These are but a 
few of the many which have been sent, all expressing similar views. 
A gentleman, writing from Salem, says, " You have done a great 
and good work in increasing the smelts in this vicinit}'. It seems 
like old times to see the boys with their baskets well filled." Dr. 
E. J. Thompson, writing from Lynn, sa3's, " It would do your soul 
good to come to L3'nn and visit the wharves at the present time 
(October 12), and see the smelt-fishers at it, — old and young, rich 
and poor, split-bamboo and bean-poles, all together, and such smelt- 
fishing as they have not seen for 3'ears. Ever3^ one thought that 
smelt-fishing was played out ; but now some of the best fishermen 
have caught as high as twenty and thirty dozen in one day." Beuj. 
P. Ware, Esq., writing from Marblehead, after speaking of the 
wholesale and wasteful methods of slaughtering fish with seines 
and trawls, especially in the spawning season, sa3's : " Smelts, 
which were becoming quite scarce, have this fall been ver3' abundant. 
In Swampscott, where smelts in previous years have been almost 
unknown, the3' have been taken in great numbers, man3^ of them 
weighing half a pound each. This change is doubtless due to the 
close time and legislative Acts passed in relation to the catching of 
smelts." 

In this connection, I would say that man3' persons have, to my 
knowledge, made from ten to twent3- dollars a day catching, legallj', 



1875.] SENATE— No. 26. 37 

with hook and line, so pleutj^ have smelt become ; and I have no 

doubt that this winter, as the result of the law, hundreds of persons 

who perhaps could not get work, will be enabled to make excellent 

wages by catching through the ice. I have no hesitation in saying 

that the law has worked splendidly, and that another close time, 

next spring, will produce excellent results ; viz., still larger smelts, 

and in greater numbers. 

» 

Yours truly, 

JOHN P. ORDWAY. 



38 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 



[D.] 

CONCLUSIONS AS TO DECREASE OF COD-FISHERIES 
ON THE NEW ENGLAND COAST. 

[Report of U. S. Commissioner on Fisheries]. 

Of all the various fisheries formerl}^ prosecuted directly off the 
coast of New England, north of Cape Cod, the depreciation in that 
of the cod appears to be of the greatest economical importance. 
Formerly' the waters abounded in this fish to such an extent that a 
large supply could be taken throughout almost the entire year along 
the banks, especially in the vicinity of the mouths of the larger 
rivers. At that time the tidal streams were almost choked up with 
the alewives, shad and salmon that were struggling for entrance in 
the spring, and which filled the adjacent waters throughout a great 
part of the year. 

As is well known, the erection of impassable dams across the 
streams, b}' preventing the ascent of the species just mentioned to 
their spawning-grounds, produced a very great diminution, and 
almost the extermination, of their numbers ; so that, whereas in for- 
mer years a large trade could be carried on during the proper season, 
now nothing would be gained by the effort. 

Of late, the attention of the legislatures of the New England 
States has been called to this fact, and to the importance of restor- 
ing their fisheries, and a great deal has been already accomplished 
toward that end. Unfortunately, however, the lumbering interest in 
Maine, and the manufacturing in New Hampshire and Massachusetts, 
are so powerful as to render it extremely difficult to carry out any 
measures which in any way interfere with their convenience or 
profits ; and, notwithstanding the passage of laws requiring the 
construction of fishways through the dams, these have either been 
neglected altogether, or are of such a character as not to answer 
their purpose. The reform, therefore, however imperatively re- 
quired, has been very slow in its progress, and many 3'ears will 
probabl}^ elapse before efficient measures will be taken to remedy 
the evils referred to. 

It would, therefore, appear that while the river-fisheries have been 
depreciated or destroyed by means of dams or b}' exhaustive fishing, 
the cod-fish have disappeared in equal ratio. This is not, however, 
for the same reason, as they are taken only with the line, at a rate 



1875.] SENATE— No. 26. 39 

more than compensated b}' the natural fecundity of the fish. I am 
well satisfied, however, that there is a relation of cause and effect 
between the present and past condition of the two series of fish ; 
and in this I am supported b^- the opinion of Capt. U. S. Treat, of 
Eastport, by whom, indeed, the idea was first suggested to me. 
Captain Treat is a successful fisherman, and dealer in fish on a 
very large scale, and, at the same time, a gentleman of very great 
intelligence and knowledge of the many details connected with the 
natural history of our coast fishes, — in this respect worthily repre- 
senting Captain Atwood, of Provincetown. It is to Captain Treat 
that we owe many experiments on the reproduction of alewives in 
ponds, and the possibility of keeping salmon in fresh waters for a 
period of 3'ears. The general conclusions which have been reached, 
as the result of repeated conversations with Captain Treat and other 
fishermen on the coast, incline me to believe that the reduction in 
the cod and other fisheries, so as to become practicall}' a failure, is 
due to the decrease off our coast in the quantity, primarilj', of ale- 
wives ; and, secondaril}-, of shad and salmon, more than to any 
other cause. 

It is well known to the old residents of Eastport, that from thirty 
to fifty years ago cod could be taken in abundance in Passama- 
quoddy Bay and off Eastport, where onl}* stragglers are now to be 
caught. The same is the case at the mouth of the Penobscot River 
and at other points along the coast, where once the fish came close 
into the shore, and were readily captured with the hook throughout 
the greater part of the 3-ear. That period was before the multipli- 
cation of mill-dams, cutting off the ascent of the alewives, shad and 
salmon, — especially the former. The Saint Croix River was choked 
in the spring with the numbers of these fish, endeavoring to ascend ; 
and the same maj' be said of the Little River, — the outlet of Boyn- 
ton's Lake, — about seven miles above Eastport. The lake in ques- 
tion is one of considerable size, and was visited by immense num- 
bers of alewives, which could be dipped out, to an}- extent, on their 
passage upward, while the waters of the adjacent bay were alive 
with the young fish on their return. 

The fish themselves enter the waters of the streams in May or 
June, and return almost immediately after spawning, to the sea. 
But they may be taken by the drift-nets along the shores as earl}- as 
March and April ; and, indeed, it is quite probable that the whole 
period of their abode in the salt water is spent adjacent to the 
rivers in which they were born. The young come down from the 
ponds in which they are batched, from August to October, keeping 
up a constant stream of the young fish. In this way a supply of 
alewives was to be met with throughout the greater part of the 



40 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

year, and nearer the coast the^^ furnished every inducement for the 
cod and other ground fish to come in-shore in their pursuit. 

It is true that the sea-herring is also an attraction to these fish, 
and probably but for their presence, our pollock, haddock and hake 
fisheries would be greatl}^ diminished. Nevertheless, the alewife 
appears to be more attractive as a bait ; and furthermore, the sea- 
herring are less constantly on the coast, especially in-shore, occur- 
ring as the}^ do at stated intervals, when they come in from the 
deep sea to spawn. It is possible, too, that they are less easily 
captured by the cod, since they swim nearer the surface than the 
alewives. Corroboration of this idea is furnished in the testimony 
of Mr. W. B. McLaughlin, of Southern Head, Grand Manan. This 
gentleman informs me that the onl}^ stream in the island which ever 
furnished alewives to any extent was Seal Cove Creek, which dis- 
charges to the east of the southern extremity of Grand Manan, and 
into which these fish entered in immense numbers in the spring. 
At that time cod, haddock, and pollock, as well as halibut, were 
taken in great abundance in Seal Cove Sound, between Hardwood 
Cove, on Wood Island, and Indian or Parker's Point, on the main 
island. The}^ were to be met with during the greater part of the 
year, especially from May to Januarj^ ; and the fishery in the chan- 
nel-wa}', within a quarter of a mile of the shore, was really more 
productive than on the banks, much farther out to sea. 

Although still a young man, Mr. McLaughlin recollects the cap- 
ture of these fish ; and, indeed, as a mere boy, enjoyed the sport 
within a very short distance of his father's house. Soon after that 
time a dam was built across this stream about two hundred yards 
above its mouth, cutting off entirely the upward passage of the 
alewives ; and, by a remarkable coincidence, if it be nothing more, 
the cod-fishery in question diminished very soon after, and in a few 
years ceased almost entirel}^, so that up to the present time there 
are not enough cod in those waters to repay the experiment of 
attempting to catch them. A few alewives still find their way up to 
the foot of the dam, but in such small numbers as to make it often 
doubtful whether there are any there or not. 

The other fishing-grounds about Grand Manan are farther out to 
sea, at the northern end of the island, where there are no alewives, 
and where herring appear to be the principal food, although the 
variation in the abundance of these, in different seasons, appears to 
have an important bearing upon the number of hake and cod. 

If these conclusions be correct, — and I am quite satisfied of their 
general validity, — we have, for the efforts made to establish fish- 
wa^'s in the rivers of Maine, New Hampshire and Massachusetts, a 
much more weight}^ reason than that of merely enabling a few 



1875.] SENATE— No. 26. 41 

salmon to enter the streams in order to permit their capture while 
on their wa}'. 

Whatever may be the importance of increasing the supph^ of 
salmon, it is trifling compared with the restoration of our exhausted 
cod-fisheries ; and should these be brought back to their original 
condition, we shall find, within a short time, an increase of wealth 
on our shores, the amount of which it would be diflficult to calcu- 
late. Not onl}' would the general prosperit}' of the adjacent States 
be enhanced, but in the increased number of vessels built, in the 
larger number of men induced to devote themselves to maritime 
pursuits, and in the general stimulus to everything connected with 
the business of the seafaring profession, we should be recovering, 
in a great measure, from that loss which has been the source of so 
much lamentation to political economists and well-wishers of the 
countr}'. 



42 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Jan. 



[ E . ] Salmon-hatching operations in the 



Place where spawn 
was collected. 



Place where eggs 
were hatched. 



In charge of 
Hatching. 



Waters stocked. 



§1 



Newcastle, Ont. 



MiramichiR., N. B., 

Penobscot River,Or- 
land, Me. 

Penobscot River, ) 
Bucksport, Me. \ 



MiramichiR., N.B. 



11 



Penobscot River, 
Bucksport, Me. 



Miramichi R., N.B. 



Penobscot River, 
Bucksport, Me. 



MiramichiR., N. B. 



Penobscot River, Or- 
land. Me. 



Penobscot River, 
Bucksport, Me. 



Newcastle, Ont., 

Penobscot River, 
Bucksport, Me. 



Whiting, Me., . 
Alna, Me., 
Augusta, Me., . 
Norway, Me., . 

Bucksport, Me., 

Woodstock, N. H. 
Concord, N. H., 
Meredith, N. H., 



Cbarlestown, N. H. 



Chester, Vt. 



Rochester, N. T., 



E. Warebam, Mass., 

West Barnstable, 

Mass. 
Winchester, Mass., 



Poneganset, R. I., 



<( i( 



W. S. Peavey, 
David C. Pottle, 



Crockett & Ilolmes 
Charles G. Atkins, 

W. W. Fletcher, 

Robinson Ss Hoj^t, 



W. W. Fletcher, 
Livingston Stone, 

A. D. Hager, . 

(C 

Seth Green, . 



S. T. Tisdale, 



Dexter, Coolidge 

Bacon. 
E. A. Brackett, 



J. H. Barden, . 



Cobscook River. 

Sheepscot River. 

Kennebec River. 

Androscoggin R. 

Penobscot River. 
St. Croix River. 
Androscoggin R. 

Merrimac River. 



Lake Champlain. 
Connecticut River. 



Lake Champlain. 



Str'm on Cape Cod. 
Mystic River. 
Str'm on Cape Cod. 
Merrimac River, 
It (( 

Mystic River. 
Red Brook. 

Pawtuxet River. 



kstone River. \ 
tucket River. > 
catuck River. ) 



Blackstone River. 

PilWtl 

Pawcatuc 



1875.] 



SENATE— No. 26. 



43 



United States, heticeen 1S66 and 1872. 







i 


o 
1 




Tributaries in which 
Fisli were placed. 


If- 


o 




Eeferences. 






1 


1 = 






^ 


1870 


225 


Atkins's Report, p. 232. 


Little Audroscog'n R. 




1871 
1871 
1872 


1,500 

800 

21,000 


Fourth Report Commission of Fisheries, 
Maine, 1870, p. 28. 

\ Sixth Report Commission of Fisheries, 
^ Maine, 1872, p. 15. 


Tributaries, 
Tributaries, 


50,-585 
77,550 
98,150 


1873 
1873 
1873 


67,000 

10,000 

130,000 


> Atkins's Report, Table XI., p. 288. 


Pemigewasset River, 




1866 
1867 


15,000 
250 


\ Report Commission of Fisheries, New 
^ Hampshire, 1869, p. 6. 


Pemigewasset River, 




1809 


5,000 


_ _ _ 


It u 




1870 
1872 
1873 


1,000 

16,000 

160,000 


Report Commission of Fisheries, New 
Hampshire, 1871, p. 6. 

} Report Commission of Fisheries, New 
C Hampshire, 1873, p. 4. 


Tributaries, 


14,000 


1873 


14,000 


Atkins's Report, Table XI., p. 288. 


Winooski River, 
West River, 


\- ■ 


1869 


2,500 


\ Report Fish Commission of Vermont, 
1 1869, p. 11. 


Williams River, 


\- ■ 


1870 


30,000 


Report Fish Commission of Vermont, 
1871-72, p. 5. 


"Winooski and Lamo- 
Ule Rivers. 


7,000 


1873 


7,000 


Atkins's Report, Table XL, p. 288. 


Agawam River, ( ?) , 




1870 


3,000 


1 

!> Massachusetts Report, 1871, pp. 11, 12. 






1870 


1,500 






1870 


700 


J 


Pemigewasset River, 




1872 
1872 


5,000 
16,000 


> Massachusetts Report, 1873, p. 16. 





21,450 


1873 


165,000 


•Atkins's Report, Table XI., p. 288. 




1,430 


1873 


11,000 




1,430 


1873 


11,000 






• . 


1872 


9,000 


Third Annual Rept. Rhode Island, p. 4, 




6,400 


1873 


&4,000 


Atkins's Report, Table XI., p. 288. 



44 



INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

Sahnon-lmtcldng operations in the United 



•C 3 



Place where spawn 
was collected. 



riace where eggs 
were hatched. 



In charge of 
Hatching. 



Waters stocked. 



MiramichiK.,N.B., 



Newcastle, Ont 



Penobscot River,Or 
land, Me. 



Penobscot River, 
Bucksport, Me. 



>.r 



o < 



Penobscot River, 
Bucksport, Me. 



Penobscot River, 
Bucksport, Me. 



Penobscot River, 
Bucksport, Me. 



Newcastle, Ont. 



Penobscot River, 
Bucksport, Me. 



Penobscot River, 
Bucksport, Me. 



Charlestown, N. H., 
Poquonnock, Conn. 



N. Branford, Conn. 
Middletown, Conn. 
Poquonnock, Conn. 



N. Branford, Conn. 
Westport, Conn., 



Poquonnock, Conn, 



Caledonia Springs, 
N. Y. 



Bloomsbury, N. J., 



Dutchess Co., N.T. 
Easton, Pa., 



Castalia, Ohio, 



Livingston Stone, . 



Poquonnock Co. 



Waltonian Hatching 

Societv. 
Robert G. Pike, 

Poquonnock Co., 

William Clift,* 



"Waltonian Hatcb'g 
Society. 



Waltonian Hatch'g 
Society. 



William Clift, 



Seth Green, 



J. H. Slack, M. D. 



Thaddeus Norris, 



John Iloj-t, 



Great Brook. 

Quinnebaug River. 

Housatonic River. ") 

FarmingtonRiv'r. > 

Quinnebaug Riv'r. J 

Saugatuck River. 

Farm River. 

Connecticut River. 

Quinnebaug River. 

Great Brook. 

Saugatuck River. 

Southport River. 

Connecticut River. 

Mystic River. 

Thames River. 

Housatonic River. 

Stream at X. Bran- 
ford. 
Great Brook. 

Hudson River, 
Lake Ontario. 



Long Island Sound. 
Raritan River. 
Delaware River. 

Delaware River. 



Lake Erie. 



* Private enterprise. 



1875.] SENATE— No. 26. 45 

States, betiveen 1866 and 1872 — Continued. 



Tributaries in which 
Fish were placed. 


No. furnished by 
U. S. Commis- 
sion of Fibh 
and Fislieries. 


o 


=3 

1 . 

c ^ 


References. 


Tributary to Long Is- 
land Sound, 
(1 (i 


• 


1870 
1871 


2,000 
90 


> Atkins's Report, p. 230. 


Broad Bi-ook, . 


• • 


1871 


1,876 


Connecticut Report, 1871, p. 20. 


Tributaries, 


• . 


1871 


8,000 


Connecticut Report, 1872, p. 28. 


Tributaries, 


, , 


1872 


17,377 


^ 




. 


1872 


t900 


> Connecticut Report, 1872, pp. 27, 28. 


Little River, 


• 


1872 


1600 


J 


Tributaries, 


. 


1872 


17,000 


Connecticut Report, 1872, p. 28. 




. 


1872 


5,000 


Atkins's Report, p. 241. 




1,365 


1873 


4,500 






1,3G5 


1873 


4,500 




Tributaries, 


34,880 


1873 


115,000 






1,500 


1873 


5,000 




Tributaries, 


3,000 


1873 


10,000 


> Atkins's Report, Table XI., p. 283. 





21,200 


1873 


70,000 






10,100 


1873 


35,000 








1873 


43,000 


J 


Peating and Inglesby 

Creek-s, 
Salmon River, . 


30,000 
15,000 


1873 
1873 


30,000 
15,000 


•Letter from Setb Green. 


Oswego River, . 


15,000 


1873 


15,000 


J 


Small tributaries, 


2,500 


1873 


2,500 


>| 


Headwaters, 


15,000 


1873 


15,000 


'Letter from Setb Green. 


Musconetcong Creek, 


18,000 


1873 


18,000 


^ 


Bushkill River, . 


. 


1871 


2,500 


Pennsylvania Report, 1873, p. 15. 


«« 


. 


1872 


11,000 


Pennsylvania Report, 1873, p. 16. 


Heitzman Spr'gBr'k, 


25,000 


1873 


25,000 


- - - 


Castalia Spr'g stream, 


2,500 


1873 


2,500 


Atkins's Report, p. 288. 



t Doubtful. The distribution was proposed in 1872, and no subsequent references made. 



46 



INLAISTD FISHERIES. [Jan. 

Salmon-hatching operations in the United 



riace where spawn 
was collected. 



•O 3 

C 05 



riace where eggs 
were hatched. 



In charge of 
Hatching. 



"Waters stocked. 



Penobscot River, 
Bucbsport, Me. 



Clarkston, Mich. 



Penobscot Kiver, 
Buclisport, Mo. 



Total, 



"Waterville, W 



Nelson W. Clark, 



n. F. Dousman, 



Lake Saint Clair. 
Lake Erie. 



Lake Michigan. 



Lake Huron. 



Lake Michigan. 



1875.] SENATE— No. 26. 

States, between 1866 and 1872 — Concluded. 



47 



Tributaries in which 
Fish were placed. 



S'ssl 






^ ^ 
H 



References. 



Lord's Lake, 
Orchard Lake, . 
Walled Lake, . 
Whitmore Lake, 
Gun Lake, . 
Barrier Lake, . 
Diamond Lake, . 
Barren Lake, . 
Lake near Marshall, 

Headwaters St. Jo 

seph Rivur, 
North Branch St. Jo 

seph River, 

Stream tributary to 
St. Joseph River, 

Headwaters Kalama. 
zoo River, 

Grand River, . 

Muskegon River, 
Manistee River, 
Ausahle River, . 

Menomonee River, 
Oconomowoc Lake, 
Milwaukee River, 



33,900 



1873 
1873 
1873 
1873 
1873 
1873 
1873 
1873 
1873 
1873 
1873 
1873 
1873 
1873 
1873 
1873 
1873 
1873 

1873 
1873 
1873 



517,805 



400 

500 

500 

500 

500 

500 

1,000 

500 

500 

500 

1,000 

1,000 

1,500 

500 

500 

1,500 

1,500 

2,000 

7,000 
1,000 
11.000 



'Information from N. "W. Clark. 



Letter of H. F. Dousman. 



1,258,841 



48 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Jan. 



Table of the distribution of young Shad 



Shad-hatching Stations ■where young Shad 


Waters stocked with 


Xame of City or 


were procured. 


Shad. 


Village. 

i 


Conducted hy U. S. Commission. 
Cocymans, X. Y., Hudson River, . . \ 


Alleghany River, 
Mississippi River, 


Salamanca, N. Y. 
Samt Paul, Minn. 


r 


Alleghany River, 


Salamanca, N. Y. 




Cuyahoga River, 


Kent, Ohio. 


South Hadley Falls, Mass., Connecticut^ 
iiiver, "^ 


^Vhite River, 


Indianapolis, Ind. 




Missouri River, . 
Platte River, 


Washington and Her- 
man, Mo, 
Denver, Colorado. 


Washington, D, C, Potomac River, . 


Greenbrier River, 
New River, . 


Bonceverte, W. Va. 
Central Station, Va. 


r 


Calumet River, . 


South Chicago, HI. 


Coej'tnans, N. Y., Hudson River, 


Fox River, . 


Appleton, Wis. 


i 


Ashtabula River, 


Ashtabula, Ohio. 


Lambertsville, Iin". J., Delaware River, 


Monongahela River, . 


Greensburgh, Pa. 




Wabash River, . 


Logansport, Ind. 


Coeymans, N. Y., Hudson River, 


Jordan River, 


Jordan, Utah. 




Sacramento River, 


Tehama, Cal. 




Winooski River, . 


Burlington, Vt. 




Housatonic River, 


New Milford, Conn. 


South Hadley Falls, Mass., Connecticut 
River ' 


Penobscot River, 
Otter Creek, 


Mattawaumkeag, Me. 
Vergennes, Vt. 




Detroit River, . 


Detroit, Michigan. 


i 


Grand River, 


Ionia, Michigan. 


Conducted by 2T. H. Commission. 


Lake Winnepiseogee, 




North Andover, Mass., Merrimac River, .• 


(1 (t 




Conducted by Vermont Commission. 


(Not recorded;, . 




South Hadley Falls, Mass., Connecticut $ 





River ^ 


Merrimac River, 


Concord, Vt. 


Coeymans, N. Y., Hudson River, 


Lake Champlain, 


Burlington, Vt. 


Conducted by Massachusetts Commission. 

South Hadley Falls, Mass., Connecticut; 

River \ 


Whitney's Pond, 


, Mass. 


North Andover, Mass., Merrimac River, . ). 


Mystic River, 
Ipswich River, . 


Winchester, Mass. 



a A few fry. 



b A certain amount of spawn. 



c Some spawn. 



1875.] 



SENATE— No. 26. 



49 



in the waters of the Iftiited States. 



Date of Plant- 
ing. 


No. of Shad 
Avhen start- 
ing. 


No. of Shad 
at destina- 
tion. 


Time young Shad 
remaiued in the 
cans. 


In charge of Transfer. 


June 30, 18T2, 


25,000 


25,000 


Ab't 7h. 30 m. 


Jonathan Mason. 


July 5, " 


25,000 


25,000 


Ab't 60 h. 


J. Mason and Chester Green. 


3, " 


2,000,000 


400,000 


24 h. 30 m. 


1 


3, " 


. 


a 


35 h. 15 m. 




4, " 


. 


400,000 


43 h. 


> Rev. William Clift. 


6, " 




a 


78 h. 25 m. 




7, •« 


. 


2,000 


124 h. 30 m. 




6, 1873, 


50,000 


30,000 


15 h. 15 m. 


James W. Milncr. 


June 10, 1873, 


40,000 


40,000 


25 h. 30 m. 


H. W. Welsher. 


16, •« 


70,000 


70,000 


38 h. 


\ James W. Milner and J. Ma- 


20, " 


70,000 


70,000 


62 h. 


V son. 


24, •' 


50,000 


50,000 


25 h. 


Jonathan Mason. 


25, '« 


15,000 


15,000 


15 h. 


J. H. Slack, M. D. 


30, " 

30, " 

July 2, '« 


40,000 
40,000 


40,000 

5,000 

35,000 


40 h. 
Ab't 121 h. 

170 h. 30 m. 


James "W. Milner and J. Ma- 
son. 

\ Livingston Stone and H. W. 
\ Welsher. 


5, " 


100,000 


100,000 


15 h. 




8, " 


90,000 


90,000 


5h. 




12, - 


100,000 


100,000 


28 h. 


^ James W. Milner and J. Ma- 
son. 


20, " 


100,000 


100,000 


12 h. 


24, " 


100,000 


20,000 


44 h. 




24, •« 




80,000 


53 h. 30 m. 


J 


1868, 




6 




- 


1869, 
1870, 




400,000 
c 




William W. Fletcher, M. D., 
and W. A. Sanborn. 


1872, . . 




d 




- 


1867, . . 

1867, 




e 
f 




Albert D. Hagcr and Charles 
Barrett. 
William W. Fletcher, M. D. 


1872, 




50,000 




1 ~ " 


1867, 




5,000 ^ 




- 


1868, . . 




b 




• «• 


1869, 




100,000 




- 



d Several thousands of eggs. 

7 



e A few in a bottle. 



/ Several millions. (?) 



50 



INLAND FISHERIES. 

Table of the distribution of young Shad 



[Jan. 



Shad-hatching Stations Trhere j'oung Shad 
were procured. 



"Waters stocked with 
Shad. 



Name of City or 
Village. 



Mass. Commission — Continued. 



North Andover, Mass., Merrimac River, 



South Hadley Falls, Mass., Connecticut ) 
Kiver, i 

Conducted by Rhode Island Commission. 

South Hadley Falls, Mass., Connecticut! 
River, 1 



Conducted by Connecticut Commission. 



South Hadley Falls, Mass., Connecticut 
River, 



I 



Conducted by New York Commission. 



CoejTnans, N. Y., Hudson River, 



Conducted by 3fic7iigan Commission. 
Washiugtou, D! C, Potomac River, . 



Coeymans, N. Y., Hudson River, 

Conducted by California Commission. 

Coeymans, N. Y., Hudson River, 



Concord River, . 
"Weweantit River, 
Eel River, . 


1 


. 


Newmasket River, . 
Mystic River, 
«« 

t( 

Blackstone River, 
Pawtuxet River, 
Pawcatuck River, 

Poquonnock River, . 
Saugatuck River, 

Genesee River, . 

u 

T.ake Champlain, 
Mohawk River, . 
Genesee River, . 
Lake Onondaga, 
Canandaigua Lake, . 


"Winchester, Mass. 
, Mass. 

Mystic, Conn. 
Westport, Conn. 
(( (1 

Rochester, N". Y. 

I( iC 

TVhitehall, X. Y. 

, X. Y. 

Rochester, N. Y. 
Syracuse, N. Y. 
Canandaigua, N. Y. 


Genesee River, . 

Potomac River.a 
Grand River, 
Raisin River, 
Grand River, 

Lake Erie, . 

Lake Michigan, . 
Bear River, . 
Sacramento River, 


Rochester, N. Y. 

Cumberland, Md. 
Lansing, Michigan. 
Monroe, Michigan. 
Lansing, Michigan. 

Cleveland, Ohio. 
Toledo, Ohio. 
Chicago, Illinois. 
Ogden, Utah. 
Tehama, California. 



a Destined for Grand River, Michigan. Finding that they were dying rapidly, the remain- 
ing living ones were put into the Potomac River. A trip of forty hours is too long for one 
man to attempt to carry shad successfully. 



1875.] 



SENATE— No. 26. 



51 



in the icaters of the United States — Concluded. 



Date of Plant- 
ing. 


No. of Shad 
^vhcn start- 
ing. 


No. of Shad 
at destina- 
tion. 


Time young Shad 
remained in the 
cans. 


In charge of Transfer. 








180,000 


. . 


_ « 








100,000 


. 


- 








100,000 


. 


- 








100,000 


. 


- 








1,125,000 


. 


- 


1870, 






c 


. 


- 


1872, 






b 


. 


- 


1872, 


• 


• 


750,000 


. 


Robert Holmes. 


1871, 


. 


. 


1,500,000 


. . 


Rev. WilUam CUft. 


1871, 
1872, 


• 


5,000,000 
6 


d 


. 


I E. M. Lees. 


June 30, 


1870, 




e 


Ab't 10 h. 


- 


8, 


1871, 




15,000 


Ab't 10 h. 


- 


~i 


i< 




50.000 


Ab't 4h. 30 m. 


- 


18, 


1872, 




150,000 




- 


21, 


" 




60,000 


Ab't 10 h. 


- 


25, 


" 




30,000 


Ab't 6 h. 


- 


12, 

16, 


1873, 
<< 


' • 


5-1,000 
54,000 


Ab't 10 h. 
Ab't 9 h. 


i Oren Chase. 


19, 


(( 




70,000 


Ab't 10 h. 


Monroe A. Green. 


June 5, 


1873, 


■ 50,000 


10,000 


Ab't 9 h. 


N". W. Clark, 


17, 
28, 
28, 




80,000 


80,000 
I 50,000 


Ab't 45 h. 
Ab't 44 h. } 


N. "W. Clark and George 
Clark. 

George H. Jerome and Oren 
Chase. 


June 20, 


1871, 


r 


200 


25 h. 45 m. 




20, 


« 




/ 


. 




21, 


" 


. 12,000- 


200 


51 h. 


J-Seth Green. 


23, 


" 




200 


104 h. 




26, 


" 




10,000 


184 h. 





b A few thousands. 
c Some spawn. 
d Not on record. 



e A few shad. 
/ Not stated. 



52 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Jan. 



Table of Shad-hatching 





Place of Operation. 


River. 


Superintendent. 


ti 


u 








3 

pa 




Conducted by U. S. Commission. 
f Augusta, Ga., .... 


Savannah, . 


\ Seth Green, . 
James W. Milner, 


Apr. 21, 




New Berne, N. C, 


Neuse, 


May 1, 


1873 


Weldon, N. C, .... 
Washington, D. C 


Roanoke, . 
Potomac, . 


15, 
May 17, 




Lambertsville, N. J 


Delaware, . 


J. H. Slack, . . 


June 10, 




tTopsham, Me 


Androscoggin, . 


James W. Milner, 


July 14, 


1868 
1873 


Conducted by Maine Commission. 
Augusta, Me., .... 

Bowdoinham, Me., 


Kennebec, 


N. W. Foster and 

Chas. G. Atkins. 

Henry 0. Stanley, 

Seth Green, . . ) 


June 28, 
15. 


1867 
1868 


Conducted by Mass. Commission. 
I South Hadley Falls, Mass., 


Connecticut, . 


July 1, 
June 20, 


1868 


( North Andover, Mass., 

( Winchester, Mass 


Merrimac, . 

Mystic, 


A. C. Hardy, 


24, 


1869 


No'rth Andover, Mass., 


Merrimac, 


J. M. Gage, . . 


1, 


1869 








June 10, 


1870 
1871 


'North Andover, Mass., 


Merrimac, . 


A. C. Hardy, 


June 1, 
May 20, 


1872 








June 2, 


1870 


Conducted by Conn. Commission. 
South Hadley Falls, Mass., 


Connecticut, 


James Rankin, . 


June 16, 


1871 


^ 




r 


June 15, 


1872 


■ South Hadley Falls, Mass., 


Connecticut, 


Charles C. Smith, \ 


24, 


1873 


, 




23, 


1868 


Conducted by JST. Y. Commission. 




r 


June 18, 


1869 








1, 


1870 
1871 


J-Coeymans, N. T., 


Hudson, . 


Seth Green, . .\ 


May 25, 
18, 


1872 








17, 


1873 








20, 


1873 


Conducted by Penn. Commission. 
r Newport, Pa., .... 

( Marietta, Pa. 


Juniata, . 


Edward Boehme, 


May 10, 




H. W. Welsher. . 














a Water at noon, 67°.9. 


d Not 


recorded. 


b Over 1,000. 


c Ala 


rge number. 


c 


None. 


/Seve 


ral millions. 





1875.] 



SENATE— No. 26. 



53 



ojyei'ations in the United States. 





A vera pre 

temperature 

of wiiter. 


cS 


i 

"3 


"5 


1 
.1 


1 

1 

a 

3 

"A 


2 


U 


1 


ti 

3 




i55 


Apr. 28, 


. 


. 


13 






c 








May 14, 


64.6 


65.6 


57 


- 


- 


2 


60,000 


43,000 


- 


29, 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


c 


- 


- 


- 


June 10, 


68.2 


71.9 


3,605 


- 


- 


111 


2,170,000 


1,370,000 


140,000 


30. 


73.2 


78 


169 


- 


- 


29 


495,000 


433,000 


15,000 


16," 


- 


_ 


16 


- 


- 


c 


- 


- 


- 


July 4, 


70 


75 


- 


- 


- 


- 


100,000 


50,000 


- 


• • 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


100,000 


- 


July 21, 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


40,000,000 


C 5,000 


16, 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


60,000,000 


- 


15, 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


d 


h 


. 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


e 


- 


July 11, 


65.8 


68.2 


1,442 


- 


- 


- 


2,570,000 


e 


- 


27, 


a 


- 


1,590 


1,105 


567 


- 


2,160,000 


- 


2,105.000 


19, 


69.8 


74.4 


934 


401 


533 


- 


1,861,000 


- 


i 


22, 


- 


68 


4,289 


3,053 


1,236 


- 


4,530,000 


- 


- 


24. 


- 


70 


2,447 


1,479 


968 


- 


5,825,000 


- 


J 


July 7. 


66.7 


75.3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


54,620,000 


- 


- 


14, 


70.5 


73 


4,783 


2,421 


2,362 


- 


63,177,000 


- 


6,500.000 


22, 


77.6 


79.2 


3,598 


946 


2,652 


- 


92,065,000 


- 


k 2,750,000 


28, 


- 


- 


3,013 


1.051 


1,962 


- 


44,556.000 


- 


- 


. 


- 


77 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


/ 


- 


July 13, 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


15.000.000 


- 


7, 


- 


76.5 


1,354 


- 


- 


110 


2,604,000 


- 


I 


5, 


72.9 


75.3 


3,758 


- 


- 


480 


8,620,000 


8,059,600 


127,000 


2, 


66.4 


69.5 


4.527 


- 


- 


439 


8.750.000 


6,177,000 


290.000 


30. 


67.3 


70.6 


1,643 


- 


- 


293 


6.740,000 


4,503,000 


658.000 


June 15. 


- 


- 


b 


- 


- 


43 


1.500.000 


- 


20,000 


• • 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


500.000 


- 



g And several millions. 

h A certain amount of spawn. 

i Some spawn. 



j Several thousand eggs. 
k And a few thousand. 
I A few shad. 



54 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 



[F.] 

[Chapter 137.] 
An Act to extend the time within Avhich Actions and Prosecutions under the laws 

relating to Inland Fisheries may be commenced. 
Be it ejiacted, S^c, as follows: 

Sect. 1. Section tliirtj^-two of chapter three hundred eightj-four 
of the Acts of eighteen hundred sixty-nine is amended by striking 
out the words " four months," and inserting the words " one year" 
instead thereof. 

Sect. 2. " This Act shall take effect on its passage. \_Approved 
March 29, 1873. 

[Chapter 195.] 
An Act to regulate the leasing of great ponds for the purpose of Cultivating useful 

Fishes. 
Be it enacted, S^c., as follows : 

Sect. 1. It shall be the diit}- of the Commissioners on Inland 
Fisheries in all cases where application is made for the lease of any 
great pond for the purpose named in section nine of chapter three 
hundred and eighty-four of the Acts of eighteen hundred and sixty- 
nine, to give notice of said application to the town or city within 
whose limits said pond lies, and of the time and place appointed for 
a hearing thereon. 

Sect. 2. The several towns and cities in the Commonwealth are 
authorized to take leases of anj- great ponds within their respective 
limits, for the purpose of cu'tivating useful fishes, under such con- 
ditions and restrictions as the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries 
may prescribe, and may make appropriations to cany out the pro- 
visions of this Act. 

Sect. 3. This Act shall take effect on its passage. \_Ax)proved 
April 15, 1873. 

[Chapter 110.] 
Ax Act providing for the Preservation of Lobsters. 
Be it enactedy 8^c., as follows : 

Sect. 1. Whoever takes, sells, or offers for sale, or has in his 
possession with intent to sell, either directly or indirectly, any lob- 
ster less than ten and one-half inches in length, measuring from one 
extreme of the body to the other, exclusive of claws or feelers, shall 
forfeit for every such lobster five dollars. 



1875.] SENATE— No. 26. 55 

Sect. 2. All forfeitures accruing under this Act shall be paid, 
one-half to the person making the complaint, and one-half to the 
cit}' or town where the offence is committed. 

Sect. 3. This Act shall take effect on the first day of May, 
eighteen hundred and sevent3'-four. [Approved March 28, 1874. 

[Chapter 135.] 
An Act in addition to an Act to rcsjulate the leasing of great ponds for the purpose 

of Cultivating useful Fish. 
Be it enacted, ^-c, as follows : 

Sect. 1. Any town in this Commonwealth ma}', either alone or 
joint!}' with an}' other town, take a lease of any great pond for the 
purposes named in section two of chapter one hundred and ninety- 
five of the Acts of the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy- 
three, and may make appropriations therefor. 

Sect. 2. This Act shall take effect upon its passage. [^Ajyj^roved 
April 1, 1874. 

[Chapter 144.] 
An Act to regulate Fishing in the Connecticut and Merriraac rivers. 
Be it enacted, §-c., as follows : 

Sect. 1. From and after the passage of this Act, whoever takes 
or catches any shad or ale wives in any part of the IMerrimac river, 
or its tributaries lying within this Commonwealth, except between 
sunrise on Monday morning and sunrise of Thursday morning of 
each week from the first day of March to the tenth day of June in 
each year, shall forfcnt for each alewife so taken, a sum not less 
than one nor more than five dollars ; and for each shad so taken, a 
sum not less than five nor more than twenty dollars. 

Sect. 2. Whoever takes or catches any salmon in any part of 
the Connecticut or Merrimac rivers, or their tributaries lying within 
this Commonwealth, for a period of six years from and after the 
passage of this Act, shall be punished for each offence by a fine of 
not less than fifty nor more than two hundred dollars, or by im- 
prisonment in the House of Correction not less than two nor more 
than six months ; provided^ that any person catching salmon, when 
seining for other fish, and not retaining the same, shall not be sub- 
ject to the penalty providiid in this section. 

Sect 3. Whoever takes or catches any fishes within four hundred 
yards of any fishway now built, or hereafter to be built, on the Con- 
necticut river or its tributuries lying within this Commonwealth, or 
trespasses within the limits of such fishway, shall forfeit for each 
offence the sum of fifty dollars. 

Sect. 4. Whoever uses any gill-net, of any size or description, 
in the waters of the Connecticut or Merrimac Rivers or their tributa- 



56 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

ries h'ing within this Commonwealth, shall forfeit for each offence 
the sum of twenty-five dollars. 

Sect. 5. Whoever takes or catches an}^ fish in violation of the 
provisions of this Act shall, in addition to the penalties herein pre- 
scribed, forfeit an}^ boat, net, line, rod or other apparatus used in 
such taking or catching. 

Sect. G. If the ma3-or and aldermen of any cit}-, or the select- 
men of any town, bordering on either the Connecticut or Merriinac 
Rivers, shall neglect to appoint and fix the compensation of fish- 
wardens within their respective cities and towns as now required by 
law, the city or town in which such neglect occurs shall forfeit a 
sum not less than one hundred nor more than five hundred dollars. 
\_Approved April 7, 1874. 

[Chapter 153.] 
An Act in addition to Acts in relation to Smelt-Fislieries. 
Be it enacted, ^c., as folloics : 

Sect. 1. "Whoever within this Commonwealth offers for sale or 
has in his possession anj^ smelt or smelts, between the fifteenth day 
of March and the first da}' of June in each year, shall forfeit for 
each and ever}' smelt so sold, offered for sale, or had in his posses- 
sion, the sum of one dollar. 

Sect. 2. Whoever takes or catches any smelt or smelts with a 
net of an}' kind, or in any other manner than by naturally and arti- 
ficially-baited hooks and hand-lines, shall forfeit for each smelt so 
caught or tak ni the sum of one dollar. Provided, that nothing 
contained in this Act shall apply to any person catching smelts in 
any seine or net within the limits of Bristol, Barnstable or Dukes 
Counties, during the time and in the manner a person may lawfully 
fish for perch, herring or alewives ; or to any person offering for 
sale or having in his possession smelts so caught within those 
limits ; and, in all prosecutions under this Act, the burden of proof 
shall be upon the defendant to show that the smelt or smelts, the 
offering for sale, possession or catching of which is the subject of 
the prosecution, where legally caught. 

Sect. 3. The mayor and aldermen of any city, the selectmen of 
any town, and all police-officers and constables within this Common- 
wealth shall cause the provisions of this Act to be enforced within 
their respective cities and towns ; and all forfeitures and penalties 
for violations of the provisions of this Act shall be paid one-half to 
the person making the complaint and one-half to the city or town in 
which the offence is committed. 

Sect. 4. All acts conflicting with this Act are hereby repealed. 
lApjjroved April 9, 1874. 



1875.] SENATE— No. 26, 57 



[Chapter 186.] 
An Act for the protection of Trout, Land-locked Salmon and Lake-Trout. 
Be it enacted, S^c, as follows : 

Sect. 1. Whoever takes or catches any trout, land-locked 
salmon or lake-trout within the limits of this Commonwealth ; or 
buys, sells, or has in possession the same, taken within said limits 
between the twentieth day of August and the twentieth day of 
March in each 3'ear ; or takes or catches any trout, land-locked 
salmon or lake-trout with an}' net or salmon-pot, at an}'- season of 
the year, shall forfeit for each fish so caught a sum not less than five 
nor more than twent}' dollars. 

Sect. 2. The twenty-eighth section of the three hundred and 
eighty-fourth chapter of the Acts of eighteen hundred and sixty- 
nine is repealed. \_Ap;proved April 24, 1874. 

8 



senate: No. 24. 



TENTH ANNUAL REPOKT 



COMMISSIONEKS 



ON 



INLAND FISHERIES, 



Year eistdestg Jais^uary 1, 1876. 



BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER, STATE PRINTERS, 

79 Milk Street (cokner of Federal). 

1876. 



V 



CONTEIS^TS. 



Report, 
Appendix, 



A. List of Commissioners, 31 

B. Leased Ponds, and returns of same, . . 33 

C. Sketch of the Progress of Fish Culture in New 

England, 49 

D. Proposed Law regulating Stationary Apparatus 

for Taking Fish, 70 



(|»mmoiitoeiiIt|) of ^lassarljusdls. 



To His Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Council. 

The Commissioners on Inland Fisheries beg leave to 
present their Tenth Annual Report. 

FiSHWAYS. 

The fishways throughout the State have generally proved 
so successful that there seems to be little or no doubt that we 
have selected the best form for the passage of all kinds of 
fish ; especially is this true where ways are to be built over 
high dams. The difficulty has been to know what kind of 
way is best suited to shad, and this question has been ren- 
dered more perplexing from the fact that wherever we have 
been called upon to open a passage-way for these fish, all 
belonging above the dam have been destroyed, and there was 
no disposition on the part of those below to go above their 
spawning-ground. To obviate this, both spawn and young 
fish have been deposited as far up the rivers as our limited 
means would permit. The female shad and salmon do not 
return to the place where they were hatched until they are 
ready to produce spawn, which takes from three to four years. 
The males, however, are capable of doing duty when they are 
only one year old, and not unfrequently accompany the mature 
females to their spawning-grounds. This necessarily causes 
a delay in testing the fishways, and it is no evidence that the 
way is not suitable, even though there are tliousands below, 
provided none have been bred above. It is not an easy 
matter to make some people understand this, and conse- 
quently a good deal of fault has been found because the 
Commissioners have not been able to change the habits of 
these fish. It is very commonly supposed that all that is 



6 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

necessary to restore our rivers to their former productiveness 
is to build good fishways over the dams. If, when these 
structures were thrown across our rivers, the people had been 
as sensitive to their rights as they now are, and not waited 
until the fish were killed out, much time, labor and expense 
would have been saved. 

Efforts were made last year to improve the surroundings at 
the foot of the Holyoke fishway, which were only partially 
successful, owing to the freshet, last spring, cutting a channel 
outside of the work. No change was made in the fishway, as 
none appeared to be needed. In this opinion we were fully 
sustained by all who had carefully studied its workings, and 
whose experience in this direction entitled their judgment to 
consideration. 

The fishway was, last spring, put under the care of Charles 
D. Griswold, of South Hadley, who closed it twice a day for 
the purpose of noting what was in it. A great number of 
silver eels, lamper eels and suckers went through into the 
river above ; also, quite a number of black bass, striped bass, 
chubs, perch, bream and a variety of smaller fry made their 
way through. On the 5th of July, Mr. Griswold found two 
yearling shad near the upper end of the way, and subsequently 
quite a number of these fish passed over. On July 6, 
among the yearlings was found one mature shad, measuring 
nineteen inches, and weighing about four pounds. These 
facts are important ; first, as showing that it was the yearling 
male shad, bred above, that led the way and probably 
attracted the others ; secondly, these fish, having passed freely 
over, the question whether the Holyoke fishway is a suitable 
one for the passage of shad is settled. All efforts hereafter 
will be directed to putting fish above the dam, and such 
improvements as can be made around the foot of the way. 

The plan of the Holyoke fishway was adopted by a unani- 
mous vote of the Commissioners of the four States interested, 
and it is a matter of congratulation that it has proved capable 
of doins: the work for which it was desisrned. It is the onlv 
fishway built over any considerable height of dam, where 
shad are positively known to have passed. 

With plenty of young shad deposited well up the river, and 
such improvements as we hope to make at the foot of the 



1876.] SENATE— No. 24. 7 

way, there seems to be no good reason why the inhabitants 
above may not receive their full share of fish. 

Already some of the people about Turner's Falls have sent 
their compliments for the supply of lamper eels, forwarded to 
them through the fish way. 

Lawrence Fishway, 

At the time the Lawrence fishway was built, it was thought 
best to locate it on the south side of the river, running aloug 
the bank and ending below the pool at the foot of the dam. 
The upper end was connected with the dam by means of a 
platform which could be raised in time of freshets as a pro- 
tection to the works. This location was determined on, 
partly from the opinion of the engineer that it would not be 
safe to turn it back, and partly from the fact that the fish 
made their way up on this side. 

All the smaller fish, such as alewives, suckers, chubs, pouts 
and perch, still pass up this way and go through the fishway ; 
but, from a change in the current, or some other cause, the 
shad now run up the middle of the river, directly into the 
pool below the dam, and, in order to reach the foot of the 
way, would be obliged to drop back into quick water, which 
they are not likely to do. The question of turning the fish- 
way back, so that the foot would rest, or end, in or near the 
pool, has long been under consideration. That some arrange- 
ment of this kind would eventually be required, was evident. 
The State having, by unwise legislation, parted with more 
or less of its rights in the charter granted to the Essex Com- 
pany, it followed that whatever expense was incurred by this 
alteration must be borne by the Commonwealth. As a matter 
of economy, it was thought best not to make this change 
until further experience had been gained with the Holyoke 
fishway ; but the people along the river became restless, and, 
near the close of the last session, called for and obtained an 
appropriation, to be used at the discretion of the Commission- 
ers, in improving the fishway. The sum granted was not 
based upon any estimate of what would be required, for, with 
the works at that season partially under water, it was hardly 
possible to form any definite idea of what it would cost. 

At the close of the season, it having been demonstrated 



8 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

beyond a doubt that shad would pass with perfect ease through 
the whole length of the Holyoke fishway — four hundred and 
forty feet — into the river above, it was decided to use the 
appropriation made for improving the Lawrence. Plans were 
drawn of the whole top-hamper, similar to that of the Hol- 
yoke, the drop between the fishway and the dam removed, 
and the connection made by means of a timbered spout. 
This will save, annually, the expense of removing that part 
of the fishway in the fiiU and putting it down again in the 
spring. Starting about one hundred feet from the foot, new 
works have been constructed leading to the pool below the 
dam. About two hundred feet of the old way remain, and 
the plans made contemplate the completion of the whole in 
keeping with the new work ; but to do this a further appro- 
priation will be required. 

JSTeponset River, 
In 1871, a very large petition, numbering several hundred 
names, was received by the Commissioners, asking for the 
opening of Neponset Eiver for the passage of migratory 
fish. The ways were promptly built ; but, with the exception 
of the individual exertions of Mr. Estey, no efi'orts have been 
made to restock the river. Nor have the towns borderinor on 
the river ever appointed fish wardens to look after the fish- 
ways. We think that, upon reflection, the petitioners will 
see that this negligence is not creditable to themselves nor 
just to the mill-owners. 

Taunton River. 
A petition from the fish committee of Halifax, selectmen 
of Bridgewater, fish committee of East Bridgewater, and 
selectmen of Middleborough has been received asking for a 
change in the old fishway on the Taunton River, at the place 
known as Squawbetty Dam. The present way appears to 
answer very well for the passage of ale wives, and as there 
are no other migratory fish bred above the dam, it seems 
unnecessary to put the owner to the expense of building a 
new fishway, unless there is assurance given that the parties 
interested will stock the waters above with shad or salmon. 
The California salmon would possibly do well in this 



1876.] SENATE— No. 24. 9 

river. The spawn and fry of both these species of fish can be 
had on application to the Commissioners. The excessive fish- 
ing at Middleborough, where for ^ve days and ^ve nights in 
each week not a solitary fish is allowed to pass, if continued 
for any great length of time, will probably so deplete the 
river that the fishway at Squawbetty will no longer be wanted 
even for ale wives. 

Palmer Miver. 

An application from the selectmen of Swansey for a fish- 
way on Palmer River has been considered, and it has been 
decided that further legislation is desirable. 

The difficulties arising from a conflict of ownership at the 
dam controlling the entrance of the fish to the Weweantit 
River has been settled, and Mr. Robinson has given assurance 
that the fishway shall be in good running order before the 
fish arrive next spring. 

Persistent efforts have been made during the last three 
years to induce the New Hampshire Commissioners to cause a 
fishway to be built at Nashua on the Nashua River, but up to 
the present time we are not aware that anything has been 
done, or that the owners of the dam have been officially noti- 
fied that such a demand has been made by this State. 

A considerable progress has been made in blasting and 
grading for the fishway at Turner's Falls. Mr. Wendell T. 
Davis, treasurer of the company, in answer to inquiries, replies 
as follows : — 

Treasurer's Office, Turner's Falls Company, } 
Greenfield, Mass., Dec. 14, 1875. ^ 
Mr. E. a. Brackett. 

Sir : — In reply to your favor of December 13, I have to say that 
our fishway at Turner's Falls is practically completed for the pas- 
sage of salmon. Only a narrow ridge of rock is left unblasted, 
near the crest of the dam, which can be readily removed whenever 
required. 

I am, yours, 

Wendell T. Davis. 

Alewtfe (Alosa tyr annus) . 
There has been a scarcity of these fish in some localities, 
and quite an increase in others. The reason of the deficiency, 
2 



10 INLAOT) FISHERIES. [Jan. 

if not attributable to seining and netting, may readily be traced 
in part to last year's fishing, but mainly to causes extending 
back four or five years. In almost all instances the excite- 
ment attendant upon a large run of fish leads to extra exertion 
on the part of the fishermen, and consequent overfishing, leav- 
ing too few parent fish to reach their spawning-ground. The 
practice in some towns of annually selling at auction the right 
to take these fish to parties whose interest terminates with the 
season, is one of doubtful policy. 

Shad (Alosa prcestabiUs). 
Shad-hatching on the Merriraac was carried on by Mr. A. C. 
Hardy, who gives the following report : — 



1876.] 



SENATE— No. 24. 



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14 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

Total number of shad taken, .... 1,433 

Total amount of spawn, .... 6,670,000 

Hatched and turned in above Lowell, . . . 825,000 

Delivered to Mr. Estey for Neponset River (number not 
stated) ; the balance turned in at North Andover. 

The establishment at this place during the past season 
appears not to have been carried on with the usual care. 
Orders were given Mr. Hardy to have all the spawn and 
young fish not required elsewhere carried above the Lawrence 
dam, while the report shows that less than one-sixth of the 
whole number taken were thus deposited. 

We have stated heretofore that the spawning-ground below 
the dam was so limited that very little could be hoped for 
from natural breeding, and had not the river been closed and 
artificial hatching resorted to, the fishing for shad would in a 
short time have come to an end. At the time the river was 
closed more than two-thirds of the seinino^-o^rounds had been 
abandoned, and those remaining were of little value. The 
Act closing the river did not prevent fishing, for many of the 
fishermen were not disposed to comply with any regulations, 
and, in their testimony before the legislative committee, stated 
that they considered the fishway at Lawrence a failure — it 
could never be made eflfective ; that hatching of shad did not 
amount to anything ; and that they ought to have the right to 
catch what fish they could while they lasted. Most of these 
men have seined on the Merrimac more or less for the last 
forty years, are generally very good citizens, honest and intel- 
ligent upon most subjects, having no liking for what they 
consider "new-fangled notions" about fish, and strongly im- 
bued with the idea that all fish allowed to pass their seines 
will be caught by their neighbors above. In some respects 
they differ widely from the fishermen on the Connecticut, who 
have wisely come to the conclusion that their interest consists 
in maintaining the laws and encouraging the State in its efforts 
to restock the river. 

The increase in the Hudson and Connecticut appears to 
correspond with the number of shad artificially hatched. 

In 1871 and 1872 nearly eight million young shad were 
turned into the Merrimac, the result of which should have 



1876.] SENATE— No. 24. 15 

been realized this year, and from the best information obtained 
the catch this season appears to have been the largest within 
twenty-five years. The shad were reported to have been so 
plenty at Newburyport that they were salted and barrelled as 
in olden times. 

Whether this increase has in any way changed the views of 
the fishermen, we are unable to say. Perhaps it would be 
well, in order to demonstrate more fully the advantages to be 
gained from artificial hatching, to discontinue for a while the 
establishment at North Andover. 

An abundance of young shad for restocking other rivers can 
be obtained from the hatching-grounds at South Hadley. 
Shad-hatching at this place was carried on during a part of 
last season by Prof. Baird, under the superintendence of 
James AY. Milner, Assistant United States Commissioner. 
Mr. Milner's report in full has not yet been received, but the 
followino: letter will show the number of vounsf fish hatched, 
and the distribution of the same : — 

UxiTED States Commissiox, Fish and Fisheries, ) 
Waikegax, III., Nov. 30, 1875. \ 

Dear Mr. Brackett : — Your letter asking for the statement of 
shad-hatching operations on the Connecticut River has been sent to 
me b}' Prof. Baird to answer. 

My records afford the following figures of the disposition of the 
young fishes : — 
Connecticut River above dam, from Smith's Ferry to 

South Yernon,Yt., . . . 1,205,000 
" " at Fishery, 580,000 



Total, 1,785,000 

Streams in New England other than Connecticut River, 320,000 

Started for Germany 400,000 

Rivers in United States other than New England. . 530.000 



Total from Connecticut River, . . . 3,035,000 

In accordance with our standards of estimation I think these 
figures are nearly correct. 

Yours truly, 

James W. Milner. 



16 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

The reports from the shad-fisheries along the Connecticut 
have been very encouraging. In answer to inquiries made 
of Dr. Wm. M. Hudson, Commissioner on Fisheries for the 
State of Connecticut, the following interesting letter was 
received : — 

STATE OF CONNECTICUT. 

Department of Fisheries, ) 

Hartford, Conn., Dec. 2, 1875. \ 

My Dear Brackett : — Your letter of the 29th ult., asking for 
information as to the catch of shad in the Connecticut River during 
the last season, and also of the passage of fish over the fishway at 
the Greenville dam of the Norwich Water Power Co. is received. 
I cannot give you details of the fisheries on the river, but may say 
in general that the shad were numerous, of large size, and excellent 
quality. Col. Joseph Selden, the owner of one of the most extensive 
seine fisheries, located at Middle Haddam, testified that at his place 
more shad were taken last season than in any one year during the 
last forty, and this statement was made from actual records. The 
river fishing was so good that none of the fishermen made any oppo- 
sition to the reestablishment of the pounds near the mouth of the 
river. 

With regard to the Brackett fishway over the Greenville dam, 
President Smith wrote me that nearly all the varieties of fish fre- 
quenting the river had been seen passing through it, except shad, 
and there were rumors of shad having been seen above the dam. 
The superintendent of the fishway informed me that he had seen 
large numbers of alewives passing up, and upon shutting oflf the 
water, had found in the bays trout, black bass and eels. He did 
not at any time find any shad in the fishway. Sect. 5 of a law passed 
at the last session of our legislature, provides as follows : — 

" It shall be the duty of the fish commissioners, to furnish each owner 
or proprietor of any pound, weir, or similar fixed contrivance, pier, seine, 
drag or gill-net, on or before the fifteenth day of March in each year 
with suitable blank forms for the reports of catch, required by section 
three, so arranged that the catch of each day of fishing may be sepa- 
rately recorded thereon ; and in filling out such reports, such owner or 
owners shall give the results of each day's fishing, as far as practicable, 
and it shall be the duty of such owner or proprietor to apply to the fish 
commissioners for such blank forms." 

How nearly this will accomplish the purpose for which it is 
designed, the future will determine. 

Yours very truly, 

Wm. M. Hudson. 



1876.] SENATE— No. 24. 17 

The Act quoted by Dr. Hudson, which passed the Connec- 
ticut legishiture last summer, is similar to the suggestion 
made in our report last year, and to which we again call 
attention . 

^' We reecommend the passage of a law requiring all persons 
using seines, nets, or traps of any kind, for the taking of fish in the 
waters under the jurisdiction of the Commonwealth, to report to the 
Commissioners on Inland Fisheries, on or before the first day of 
•September of each year, the number and variety so taken, and the 
market value of the same. To such a law, we think, there would be 
no serious objection, as many of the fishermen have expressed them- 
selves in favor of some regulation of this kind. The statistics thus 
obtained would be of great value to the State, as showing the mag- 
nitude of the fishing interests and the rapid increase that is every- 
where following a more intelligent system of culture." 

That the legislature has an undoubted right to regulate 
the fisheries has long been settled by the courts ; and while the 
State is extending its fostering care over them, there ought not 
to be any objection on the part of the fishermen to comply 
with so simple a requirement. As the case now stands, it is 
exceedingly diflicult to obtain information, or any reliable data, 
by which the products of one year can be compared with 
another. People may difier widely in regard to the opinions 
expressed in these reports, but upon the accumulation of well- 
attested facts, no such difference is likely to arise. 

The following statement from the Scientific Department of 
" Harper's Weekly " is important as showing the amount of 
fish, especiall}^ shad and herring, that yearly find their way 
to the Washington markets : — 

" The annual table of the inspection of fish in the Washington Cit}^ 
Market has just been presented to the Board of Health by Mr. C. 
Ludington, Inspector of Marine Products. From this we learn that 
the number of shad inspected amounted to 464,215 ; of tailors (a 
species of shad), to 56,430; and of herrino-, to 1.674.465. The 
number of 'bunches of fish' sold was 557,203 ; of sturgeon, 1,240 ; 
the whole of which, reduced to pounds, is equivalent to 7,002,049. 
Of oysters there were 305,737 bushels; of clams, 1,110,725; of 
crabs, 446,525. 

3 



18 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

" This table, as compared with that of 1874, exhibits some notable 
differences. Of shad scarcely more than two-thirds as many were 
marketed as in 1874, and about one-half .of the number in 1873. 
Herring showed a still greater diminution, the jield in 1874 having 
been 6,567,240. The 'bunches offish' were about the same. On 
the other hand, the jield of sturgeon was much greater, being 
nearly three times that of 1873, and thirt}' per cent, more than that 
of 1874. 

" The total yield of fish, in pounds, in 1873 was 8,548,851 ; in 1874 
it was 10,827,967, that of 1875 being a very noticeable diminution 
from the yield of the previous jear. Of oysters and clams a consid- 
erable less number was marketed in 1875, but a large number of 
crabs. 

" Some idea of the importance of a careful inspection of the fish in 
the market ma}' be learned from the fact that the value of the fish 
condemned as unfit for food in 1875 amounted to over $7,000 ; in 
1874, to over $10,000. 

" It ma}' be remarked that by far the greater portion of the fish 
sold in the Washington Market is derived from the Potomac River 
and Chesapeake Ba}', as may also be said of the 03'sters, clams and 
crabs. The inferiority in the number of shad and herring taken in 
1875 is supposed to have been due to the continued cold weather 
during the spring, which prevented the rivers from attaining a 
temperature such as would invite the expectant fish to enter their 
mouths from the sea. The 3'ield in the Delaware, the Hudson and 
the Connecticut was larger than usual, thus explaining what became 
of the difi'erence." 

The reasons o^iven for the decrease of shad and herring 
(alevv^ives) during the past season, and the corresponding 
increase of these fish in eastern waters, would have been more 
complete had the same cause been assigned for the scarcity of 
clams and oysters, for these mollusks would be perhaps as 
likel}^ to leave the Chesapeake Bay in consequence of the late 
spring and go up the Hudson and Connecticut as would the 
shad and herring belonging to the Potomac. 

Trout ( Salmo fontinalis) . 
In the artificial cultivation of trout, the tendency in many 
establishments is to depart too much from the natural 
requirements ; forgetting that true culture consists in assist- 



1876.] SENATE— No. 24. 19 

ing and developing nature, and that all ejQforts made in 
any other direction must sooner or later end^m disappoint- 
ment. 

It is very doubtful whether a stream of water flowing 
through a given space can by being dammed and flowed 
into a large pond, be made to produce more trout than it 
would if left to its natural course. The flowing of the pond 
would undoubtedly largely increase the supply of food, but 
it would also raise the temperature of the water and decrease 
the amount of oxygen necessary to sustain life. Exposed to 
the direct rays of the sun in our hot summer weather, there 
is danger of these ponds becoming so warm as to render them 
unfit for the object for which they were intended. If the 
trout are not killed outright, they become diseased, unfit for 
the table, and useless for the purpose of propagation. Water 
absorbs oxygen in proportion to the lowness of temperature. 
If it is above 70° the fish sicken and die. A few of the weak 
ones give out first, and where there are large numbers hud- 
dled together, the death-rate increases rapidly. It is useless 
to look for some twenty or thirty diseases with which trout 
are said to be aflected ; the great loss of young fish in the 
hatching-houses or troughs is due almost entirely to the lack 
of oxygen and a superabundance of carbon in the water. 
Those who are familiar with these things will remember that 
in the beginning of the mortality, a few fish will be found 
swimming on the surface, gasping as if choked, and in a short 
time will be found dead. An examination of them, whether 
ten or ten thousand, shows that they have all died of the same 
disease. The mouth is stretched as wide open as possible, 
the tails and lower part of the fish bent backward, and more 
or less of white mould will be found in the gills ; — even 
before death ensues this mould is visible to the naked eye. 
If they are taken out as soon as the first symptoms appear, 
and put into a rapid stream, they will generally recover. In 
water suital)le for raising young trout the growth of fungi on 
any living organism is hardly possible except where injuries 
have been sustained. The fact that any one, at will, can pro- 
duce these efiects, either by lessening the amount of water 
required or by allowing it to become too warm, points clearly 



20 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

to the remedy. The flowing of a pond at the foot of the 
stream would be valuable for winter quarters and for the trout 
to retreat into during the cool days of spring and autumn. 
All efforts at raising trout have, thus far, been confined to 
artificial ponds, and most of the failures can be traced directly 
to the evil of spreading a small stream over too large a sur- 
face. There is an easier, more natural, and perhaps more 
profitable way of raising trout, w^hich has not yet been tried by 
many of the growers ; — its simplicity and cheapness bring it 
within easy control of any one owning in whole or part, a 
trout stream in which is any considerable fall. At the foot 
of the stream, or where the owners right terminates, should 
be constructed a dam sufiicient to insure a depth of not less 
than six feet of water, and the overflow carefully screened ; — 
above this a number of small dams should be made, the dis- 
tance between them being determined by the fall of the 
stream ; not being so near as to flow back upon each other, 
but far enough apart to allow a portion of the stream to 
remain unchanged. Nor should they be so high as to mate- 
rially changa the temperature of the water. Small fishways 
or shutes should be built over these dams to enable the fish 
to pass and repass. 

Around the dams, right and left, trenches should be made for 
the purpose of raising j^oung fish and conducting the ovei-flow 
in times of freshets. The trenches for the young fish should 
be gated so as to give, at all times, an even flow of water. It 
is desirable that the water falling over the dams should be 
broken and aerated as much as possible. At the head of one 
of the trenches may be built a small hatching-house, — or 
wooden troughs with covers could be used instead of the 
house. The south sides of the ponds and the stream, if it is 
open to the rays of the sun, should be planted with willows, 
and portions of the stream covered with plank or slabs for the 
fish to hide under. During spawnuig season the fishways 
may be screened, the fish caught and stripped, and the eggs 
impregnated by the dry method. 

If the eggs are not ripe when the trout are caught, the fish 
may be deposited in one of the trenches and handled at 
pleasure. The cost of such an arrangement on many of our 



1876.] SMATE— No. 24. n 

brooks would not exceed that of fencing an acre of land, while 
the products would depend upon its length, the quantity of 
water at the lowest point and the amount oi artificial food 
given. Those who are fiimiliar with the great number of 
trout still to be found in some of the brooks of Maine and 
New Brunswick, can form some idea of what might be done 
with many of our own streams. Overfishing, and the cutting 
off the woods opening the water to the direct rays of the sun, 
has depopulated almost every trout stream in the State. 

Salmon ( Salmo solar). 

About two hundred and fifty thousand young salmon were 
hatched from the spawn received by the State from the Bucks- 
port establishment last spring. By an agreement made by 
Mr. Noyes, chairman of the New Hampshire commission, 
these were to be taken by that Board and distributed in the 
headwaters of the Merrimac. Accordingly, Commissioner 
John S. Wadleigh, of Laconia, commenced work about the 
first of June, and as he was entirely inexperienced in moving 
young fish, a man long connected with fish-culture was 
employed to assist him. The work of moving occupied nearly 
two weeks, — Mr. Wadleigh making the entire trip to Plym- 
outh, N. H., and back the same day. From his statement 
it appears that in the first, second, and third lots of fish, there 
was needless loss ; that either his assistant did not know or did 
not attend to his work. Findinof that matters were ofrowinsr 
worse rather than better, we gave Mr. Wadleigh careful 
directions, and requested him to assume the responsibility. 
Hitherto, as a matter of precaution, the cans had been loaded 
lightly, that the parties might feel their way ; on the fourth 
trip a much larger number were put into the cans, and Mr. 
W. started with them for Plymouth. On his return he stated 
that, on turning them into the river, there were not over a 
dozen dead fish out of the twenty-five thousand, and this he 
thinks was a fair sample of the remainder of the fish taken 
up. 

The following is his report : — 



22 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 



Laconia, Belknap County, N. H., Dec. 27th, 1875. 
E. A. Brackett, Esq., Fish Commissioner of Massachusetts. 

Dear Sir : — In answer to the several interrogatories addressed 
to the commissioners of New Hampshire, I repl}^, — 

1. The waters of the Merrimac River were stocked with the 
salmon hatched from the Penobscot eggs. 

2. The 3^oung fish were set free in the Pemigewasset river, the 
main branch of the Merrimac River, from two to six miles above 
Livermore's Falls, or, in other words, from four to ten miles above 
Plymouth, at various points within those limits. 

3. Their number was, by estimation, about 230,000. The re- 
mainder of the fish were received by Mr. Noyes, who has made a 
statement to 3^ou in regard to them. 

I will add for your information that, being without experience in 
handling fish, I secured the services of a gentleman accustomed 
thereto, and acted under his direction and with his assistance ; but, 
with all possible care, a large per cent, was lost in the transmission 
of the first three lots, which were made in the ordinary and usual 
manner. At the time when this took place, the weather was verj' 
warm, it being about the middle of June, and I was dissatisfied 
with the results ; and, although all the common expedients had 
been used to insure safety, I became convinced something more 
was needed to warrant success. I became convinced that the loss 
was occasioned by the varying temperature of the water in which 
they were conveyed. In the subsequent trips, the precaution was 
taken to ascertain the temperature of the watei' in the hatching- 
house at the time the fish were removed from it, and, by the aid of 
a thermometer during transmission, kept the water in the cars at 
the same temperature ; and the result was absolute success. 

It was estimated that I took about 30,000 at each trip, and I 
thought I lost nearly or quite 15 per cent, of the first three lots. 

Respectfully yours, 

J. S. Wadleigh. 

Young salmon are reported very plenty in the upper waters 
of the Merrimac, and more or less continue to be caught in 
the mackerel seines in Massachusetts Bay and forwarded to 
Boston and New York markets. A large number of salmon 
spawn will be received in January from Bucksport, and still 
more may be expected in October from California. 



1876.] SENATE— No. 24. 23 

Land-locked or Fresh- Water Salmon. 

The endeavors of this State, in conjunction vVith the United 
States Commission and the Commission of Connecticut, have 
hitherto been unfortunate in obtaining spawn of this valuable 
fish. Relying upon information which they had every reason 
to believe correct, a hatching-house was established at the 
head of Sebec lake, and a man, supposed to be fully com- 
petent, employed to take charge of it. Three years' experi- 
ence demonstrated that the requisite number of spawning fish 
could not be obtained at that place, and, last spring, a change 
was made to Grand Lake Stream, and the whole matter put 
under the charge of the able superintendent of the Bucksport 
Salmon Works, Mr. Charles G. Atkins, who, in his report 
of December 1, states that he has succeeded in obtaining 
nine hundred thousand fresh-water salmon spawn. Should 
no accident happen to these eggs, the portion coming to this 
State will be sufiicient to supply the demand. 

We have asked for the control of one or more ponds in 
which a portion of these fish can be placed, so that in time 
we may not be obliged to go out of the State for their spawn. 

Those who control ponds by lease or otherwise (it would 
be almost useless to put them into any others, as they would 
be caught out before they are large enough to breed) should 
in their application state the quality of the water, size of 
pond, whether the bottom is rocky, sandy or muddy, the 
character of the inlet and outlet, and the kind of fish now in 
it. The young salmon will be delivered free at the hatching- 
house at Winchester, and those who receive them must pro- 
vide a competent person to take charge of them during trans- 
portation, for these fish are too valuable to be lost, either 
through carelessness or ignorance. The ten thousand hatched 
last spring were distributed to the towns of Sandwich, Pitts- 
field, Ashburnham and Winchester. No loss occurred in 
transit. 

California jSahnon ( Salmo quinnat). 
Eighty thousand spawn of these fish were presented to this 
State by Prof. Baird, United States Commissioner, and were 
received at the hatching-house in Winchester, last October, 



24 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

in excellent condition. Something over seventy-five thousand 
of them hatched, producing very healthy young fish, which 
will be ready to distribute to other waters about the first of 
January. The activity, rapid growth and capability of these 
salmon to endure the extremes of heat and cold make them 
available for rivers and streams where Atlantic salmon would 
not thrive. It is desirable to stock some of our waters with 
them, and it may be necessary, in consequence of the change 
of temperature produced by cutting away the forests, to 
introduce them into all the rivers where salmon formerly 
existed. 

The followino: information concerninor these fish is taken 
from the report of the California commissioners : — 

" Much attention is given to the Sacramento salmon {Salmo 
quinnat) by scientists and by fish culturists in other countries, for 
the reason that it comes into rivers to spawn in latitudes much 
lower and in waters much warmer than any other variety yet known. 
Large numbers pass up the San Joaquin River for the purpose of 
spawning in July and August, swimming for one hundred and fift}" 
miles through the hottest valley in the State, where the temperature 
of the air at noon is rarely less than 80° Fahrenheit, and where the 
average temperature of the river, at the bottom, is 79°, and at the 
surface, 80°. The salmon of the San Joaquin River appear to be of 
the same variety as those in the Sacramento, but average smaller in 
size. Their passage to their spawning-grounds at this season of 
the 3^ear, at so high a temperature of both air and water, would 
indicate that they will thrive in all the rivers of the Southern 
States, whose waters take their rise in the mountainous regions ; 
and in a few years, without doubt, the San Joaquin salmon will be 
transplanted to all of those States. 

'' The weight of salmon caught during the past season in the 
waters of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers is estimated at 
5,098,780 pounds, in addition to 92,000 pounds of fresh salmon 
shipped in ice to the New York market." 

" Bistrihution of California Ova. 
" The following table shows the condition in which the California 
salmon eggs are reported to have arrived at their destinations : — 



1876.] 



SENATE— No. 24. 



25 





Number of 




Name of State. 


Eggs. 


Condition. 


Massachusetts, . 


80,000 


Good. 


Connecticut, 


480,000 


Splendid ; very few dead eggs. 


Rhode Island, 


240,000 


Not good 


New Tork, .... 


80,000 


Not heard from. 


New Jersey, 


320,000 


Apparently very nice. 


Pennsylvania, 


480,000 


Remarkable success ; one per 
cent. lost. 


Maryland, .... 


560,000 


Beautiful condition ; couldn't be 

better. 


Virginia, .... 


320,000 


Fine order. 


Michigan, .... 


800,000 


Very little loss ; eggs superior. 


Illinois, .... 


80,000 


Excellent; not over two per 
cent loss. 


Wisconsin, .... 


80,000 


Splendid order. 


Minnesota, .... 


400,000 


Excellent ; fine condition. 


Iowa, 


300,000 


Fine condition. 


Colorado, .... 


240,000 


Good order. 


Utah, 


160,000 


Two per cent. loss. 


Canada, .... 


80,000 


Very good. 


New Zealand, 


50,000 


Not heard from. 


Northville, Mich., for U. S., 


1,000,000 


Good ; four per cent. loss. 


Kern River, Cal., 


250,000 


First-rate. 


Truckee River, Cal., . 


250,000 


First-rate. 



" The thermometer averaged 95° in the shade on the days these • 
eggs were packed. They were loaded into wagons at noon, and 
were eleven hours on the road before reaching a railway station, 
after which they were conveyed by rail over three thousand miles. 
The only lot that arrived in poor condition was the Rhode Island 
consignment, and this is accounted for by their being three days on 
their way from New York to Providence. The same thing hap- 
pened last year through the unaccountable and unpardonable negli- 
gence of the express agents between Nevv York City and Providence. 
After deducting losses for transportation, it will be seen that about 
five million (5,000,000) living young salmon reached the Atlantic 
States, besides two million (2,000,000) which were successfully 
hatched and placed in California waters, making a complete total of 
seven million (7,000,000) salmon added to the stock of salmon in 
American waters from the McCloud fishery this year." 



JVorth River, 
By Resolve of the legislature, passed April 15, 1875, the 
Commissioners were required "to make a full investigation 
into the condition of the fisheries on North River, in Plym- 
outh County, and its tributaries, and to recommend what 

4 



26 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jati. 

legislation, if auy, is necessary, concerning the same, to the 
next general court." 

Formerly, shad and alewives abounded in this river. Of 
these the shad have become almost extinct ; and although ale- 
wives still annually ascend the stream in considerable numbers, 
they have ceased to be of any special pecuniary benefit to the 
bordering towns. 

The upper towns particularly complain that their supply of 
fish is almost wholly cut off by reason of the indiscriminate 
and unlawful fishing carried on below. 

Certain it is that this subject is a prolific source of conten- 
tion, which, in the present posture of aflfairs, seems likely to 
be renewed at every session of the legislature. 

A proposition by the Commissioners to stock the river with 
salmon, and to close it for a term of 3 ears against all fishing, 
was favorably received, and, if carried out, would, we are 
confident, give entire satisfaction. 

No river in the Commonwealth is better adapted to become 
a good shad and salmon stream ; and the value of such a 
fishery would greatly exceed that of any supply of alewives, 
however abundant. 

With this view, we recommend the passage of an Act pro- 
hibiting fishing in North River for the term of five years ; and 
in the hope that the legislature will adopt this recommen- 
dation, we have already placed in the river 25,000 California 
salmon, to which we propose to add an equal or larger 
number annually until it is thoroughly stocked. The supply 
of shad already in the river will be sufficient to stock it with 
that species of fish, if allowed to propagate undisturbed for 
the period named. 

In the Appendix (C) will be found a "Sketch of the Prog- 
ress of Fish-Culture in New England," by Theodore Lyman. 

The interest in fish-culture, not only in this State, but 
throughout almost the entire civilized world, is increasing, 
perhaps, quite as fast as is consistent with a healthy growth. 
No important industry is built up in a day. It is ever the 
result of time, of a wide-spread intelligence, a clear sense of 
its requirements, and an earnest disposition to comply with 
the laws necessary to its success. In this country, the vitality 



1876.] SENATE— No. 24. 27 

of any public euterprise is more closel}^ interwoven with pop- 
ular sentiment than elsewhere. So long as many of the mill- 
owners felt that they were backed by indifference on the part 
of the people, and lawless fishermen violated law without 
creating a general sense of wrong, but little could be hoped 
from individual efforts, however well directed. A v,ery 
marked change has taken place within a few years. Mill- 
owners, with rare exceptions, now show a commendable 
spirit, and in several instances, have voluntarily applied to the 
Commissioners for plans of fishways to be built over their 
dams, and fishermen are more generally disposed to regard 
violation of laws protecting fish as detrimental to their best 
interest, while the apathy and skepticism, so marked in the 
beginning, — broken only by occasional opposition, from selfish 
motives, — is fast giving way to a more positive and healthy 
state of feeling. By the Act of 1869, fish were made prop- 
erty, since which a large number of our ponds have been 
leased and stocked. 

Considering the disorderly element that exists in all com- 
munities, and the right claimed by many to fish when and 
where they please, it is remarkable that so few depredations 
have been committed, and the rights of lessees so generally 
regarded. Quite a number of these ponds have been leased 
to the towns where they are located. In the Appendix will 
be found the annual report from some of these leases which 
are, in themselves, evidence of the growing interest in fish- 
culture. 

For the necessary expenses of the Commission, and the 
continuance of the hatching and distribution of fish, we rec- 
ommend an appropriation of five thousand dollars ; for the 
completion of the Lawrence fishway, and improvements at 
the foot of the Holyoke fishway, the sum of three thousand 
dollars. 

THEODORE LYMAN, 
E. A. BRACKKTT, 
ASA FRENCH, 
Commissioners on Inland FisJieries. 



28 



INLAND FISHERIES, 



[Jan.76, 



EXPENDITURES OF COMMISSION. 



Salary, . 
Travelling expenses, 



$1,650 00 
338 14 



General Expenses. 
Subscription to land-locked salmon enterprise, 

Grand Lake Stream, Me., . 
Subscription to Penobscot salmon-breeding, 
Labor and material on account of Hohoke fish 

wa}', 

Care of sundr}' fishwaj's, . 

Transportation of fish, spawn, etc., 

Cans, piping, etc., . 

Rent of land for hatching-house, Winchester, 

Printing blanks, circulars, etc., 

Hatching shad at North Andover, 

Screens, etc., .... 

Reporter's services. 

Coal and cement, . 



S500 00 
500 00 



80 
30 
25 

88 



264 

114 

31 

36 

50 00 

4^ 45 
520 91 
143 49 

11 60 
5 00 



2.224 68 



Improving Lawrence Fishwat. 
Labor and material, .... SI, 831 56 
Kondi-uck, fuses, etc., . . . . 16 72 



1,848 28 



Total to December 15. . 



$6,061 10 



APPENDIX 



APPEjS^DIX 



[A.] 



COMMISSIONERS ON FISHERIES. 



UNITED STATES. 

r) ^f c^x^^-^^T. T? 13. x-,,^ S Smithsonian Institution, 

Prof. Spe>cer F. Baird, ) Washington, D. C. 

MAINE. 

E. M. Stilwell, Bangor 

Henry 0. Stanley, Dixfield, 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

Oliver H. Noyes, Henniker. 

John S. Wadleigh, Laconia. 

A. C. Fifield, Enfield. 

VERMONT. 

M. C. Edmunds, Weston. 

M. Goldsmith, Rutland. 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

Theodore Lyman Brookline. 

E. A. Brackett, Winchester. 

Asa French, South Braintree. 

CONNECTICUT. 

William M. Hudson, Hartford. 

Robert G. Pike, Middletown. 

James A. Bill, ......... Lyme. 

RHODE island. 

Newton Dexter, Providence. 

Alfred A. Reed, Jr., Providence. 

John H. Barden, Scituate. 

NEW YORK. 

Horatio Seymour, Utica. 

Robert R. Roosevelt, New York City. 

Edward M. Smith, Rochester. 



1871.- 


-Nov. 


1. 


1872.- 


— Jan. 


1. 




Apr. 


1. 




July 


20. 


1873.- 


— May 


1. 



34 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

Punkapoag Pond, in Randolph and Canton, to 

Henry L. Pierce, 20 years. 
Sandy Pond, Forest Lake, or Flint's Pond, in 
Lincoln, to James L. Chapin and others, 20 
j^ears. 
Onota Lake, in Pittsfield, to William H. Murray 

and others, 5 years. 
Little Pond, in Braintree, to Eben Denton and 

others, 20 years. 
Meeting-house Pond, in Westminster, to Inhab- 
itants of Westminster, 15 years. 
1. Great Pond, in Weymouth, to James L. Bates 
and others, 15 years. 
July 1. Little Sand}^ Pond, in Pembroke, to A. C. Brig- 
ham and others, 16 years. 
Sept. 1 . Pontoosuc Lake, in Pittsfield and Lanesborough, 

to E. H. Kellogg and others, 15 years. 
Oct. 1. Farm Pond, in Sherborn, to Inhabitants of 
Sherborn, 15 years. 

1. Spot Pond, in Stoneham, to Inhabitants of 

Stoneham, 15 years. 

Nov. 1. Lake Chaubunagungamong, or Big Pond, in 
Webster, to Inhabitants of Webster, 5 years. 

Dec. 1. Lake Wauban, in Needham, to Hollis Hunne- 
well, 20 years. 
1874. — Mar. 1. Walden and White Ponds, in Concord, to Inhab- 
itants of Concord, 15 years. 

2. Upper Nankeag, in Ashburnham, to Inhabitants 

of Ashburnham, 20 years. 
Apr. 1. Elder's Pond, in Lakeville, to Inhabitants of 
Lakeville, 15 3^ears. 
20. North and South. Podunk ponds, in Brookfield, 
to Inhabitants of Brookfield, 15 3^ears. 
May 2. Brown's Pond, in Peabody, to John L. Shorey, 
15 years. 
1. Maquan Pond, in Hanson, to the Inhabitants of 
Hanson, 15 years. 
16. Wickaboag Pond, in West Brookfield, to Lemuel 

Fullam, 15 years. 
20. Unchechewalom and Massapog ponds, to the In- 
habitants of Lunenburg, 20 years. 
July 1. Hardy's Pond, in Waltham, to H. E. Priest an4 
others, 15 years, 



1876.] SENATE— No. 24. 35 

1874. — July 1. Hockomocko Pond, in Westborongh, to L. N. 
Fairbanks and others, 15 years. 
11. Mitchell's Pond, in Boxford, to R. M. Cross and 

others, 15 years. 
11. Hazzard's Pond, in Russell, to N. D. Parks and 
others, 20 years. 
Oct. 1. East Waushacum Pond, in Sterling, to Inhabitants 
of Sterling, 20 years. 
20. Middleton Pond, in Middleton, to Inhabitants of 
Middleton, 15 years. 
1875. — Jan. 1. White and Goose ponds, in Chatham, to George 
W. Davis, 15 years. 
Mar. 1. Lake Pleasant, in Montague, to Inhabitants of 
Montague, 10 years. 
1. Hood's Pond, in Ipswich and Topsfield, to Inhab- 
itants of Topsfield, 15 years. 
Apr. 1. Chauncey Pond, in Westborough, to Inhabitants 
of Westborough, 15 years. 
3. West's Pond, in Bolton, to J. D. Hurlburt and 
others, 15 years. 
15. Gates Pond, in Berlin, to E. H. Hartshorn and 
others, 15 years. 
May 1. Morse's Pond, in Needham, to Edmund M. Wood, 
15 3'ears. 
1. Great Pond, in North Andover, to Eben Sutton 

and others, 20 years. 
1. Chilmark Pond, in Chilmark, to J. Nickerson and 
others, agents, 20 j'ears. 
July 1. Winter Pond and Wedge Pond, in Winchester, 
to Inhabitants of Winchester, 15 years. 
1. Haggett's Pond, in Andover, to Inhabitants of 
Andover, 20 years. 
Aug. 1. Oyster Pond, in Edgartown, to J. H. Smith and 
others, 20 years. 
7. West Waushacum Pond, in Sterling, to Inhab- 
itants of Sterling, 20 years. 
9. Mystic (Upper) Pond, in Winchester, Medford 
and Arlington, to Inhabitants of Winchester 
and Medford, 15 years. 
Oct. 1. Little Chauncey and Solomon ponds, in North- 
borough, to Inhabitants of Northborough, 15 
years. 



36 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

West Tisburt, Oct. 18, 1875. 
To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 

Gentlemen : — The lessees of the Tisbury Great Pond submit their 
fifth annual report : — 

Net proceeds of the fisheries, . . , $1,015 31 
Town's part, 50 77 

This amount was mostly for herring, which were very plenty. 

There were no perch removed from the pond during the year ; the 
lessees thought it better to let them spawn one year, although they 
are quite numerous. 

Last spring, while seining for herring, we caught some five or six 
thousand pounds of large perch at one time ; we picked out a few 
of the herring, and tripped the seine and let the perch go. 

The pond seems to be well stocked with perch of all sizes. 
Smelts were verj' numerous last spring, but owing to the hardness 
of the winter it was impossible to fish for them until the season for 
catching was about up. We caught some fifteen barrels. There 
was a swarm of smelts in the fresh streams during the spawning 
season, — more than has been seen for four years. The pebbles in 
the streams were covered with spawn. 

Very truly yours, 

ALLEN LOOK, 

For the Lessees. 



To the Fish Commissioners of Massachusetts. 

Gentlemen : — In answer to your circular, I would state that I 
obtained one hundred and fifty black bass from Sunapee Lake, in 
Newbury, N. H., and delivered one hundred of them in good condition 
in Unchechewalom Pond in Lunenburg, on the eighteenth day of 
August, 1874, and fifty of them in Massapog Pond on the same day. 
The first-named pond contains one hundred and twenty acres, and is 
very deop ; the last named, sixty-two acres. I posted printed cards, 
stating the facts respecting the fish and the conditions of the lease, 
around the ponds, cautioning all persons not to violate the prohibi- 
tions of the lease under the penalty of the law in such case made 
and provided, and on diligent inquiry I find the law is observed. 

The only enemy the bass have to contend with is the pickerel. 
When we placed the fish in the large pond, I saw a pickerel jump out 
of the water to escape from the bass, two feet, although he was longer 
than the bass. I was informed at Sunapee Lake that pickerel are 
now scarce there, though they were plenty five years ago when the 



1876.] SENATE— No. 24. 37 

bass were introduced. It is said the bass will erect their dorsal fin 
and run under the pickerel to wound him in his tender parts, and 
will cope with any fish. 

I remain, yours, with esteem, 

CYRUS KILBURN, 

Agent for Lunenburg. 



Stoxzham, Dec. 6, 1875. 
E. A. Brackett, Esq. 

Dear Sm : — No fish have been placed in the waters of Spot Pond 
since the one hundred black bass were put in as reported last year, 
and no fish have been removed from the pond to our knowledge. 
We have caused good watch to be kept of the premises, and have no 
reason to believe any one has trespassed upon them. From the 
number of young bass seen near the shores of the pond, it would 
seem that propagation is going on as rapidly as could be expected. 

The opposition by a few persons to the lease and the stocking of 
the pond, seems to have entirely died out, and all sensible people 
seem to think that the best interest of the town was secured by 
taking the lease. 

Yom's respectfully, 

AMOS HILL, 

Chairman of Selectmen of Stoneham. 



Ly>-x, Mass., Dec. 15, 1875. 
To the Commissioners on hiland Fisheries. 

During the first year of my lease (1874) I was unable to obtain 
such fish as were desired, but in May of the present year placed in 
said pond black bass to the number of one for each acre, and the 
number of acres in said pond being in said lease ■ numbered at 
seventy-five. 

The fish were all sizable, weighing from two to four pounds each, 
and costing upon an average about two dollars and a half per head. 

No fish of any description have been removed from said pond by 
me, or to my knowledge, with the exception of a few pickerel, perch 
and catfish. 

Placing in the fish was attended with some difficulty in the follow- 
ing wise : — 

From the ice-cold water in which the fish are kept during trans- 
portation, to the tepid surface-water of a pond, late in the spring, 
the change is very great, and must not be made too rapidly. 



38 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

This fact was not realized by me until I had caused several fish to 
be removed directly from the transportation barrels to the pond, with 
the following singular result : — 

The fish bewildered, and, as it were, crazed by the shock occasioned 
by their too sudden change of temperature, almost without exception 
made for shallow water, and even endeavored to throw themselves 
out upon the shore. And for an hour the few fish thus treated 
before the effect was discovered persisted in the above inexplicable 
course, though tossed back into deeper water time and again. 

I then adopted and subsequently followed a method which com- 
pletel}' obviates the difficulty just described, and is as follows : 
First take the ice from the barrels, then little by little the water, 
constantly refilling the barrels, and finally replacing the water from 
the pond ; by which means all danger from change of temperature 
during removal is obviously avoided. 

Possibility of the escape of the fish is another phase of fish-culture. 

A few days after my fish were all put in, the pond suddenly rose, 
and a temporary outlet was formed into which the}' ran in alarming 
numbers. Luckily for my venture at pisciculture the brook led 
through tanneries, which are to most kind of fish impassable, so 
that, though obliged to assist a few which were unable to get back 
through the shoaling brook unassisted, I lost nothing, but gained 
information perhaps worth imparting ; viz., that black bass will run 
into small brooks. 

For their principal spawning-grounds, my bass selected what I 
had regarded as the least likely spot in the pond, being a rocky 
bottom in the track of a bridle-path along which cattle hourly pass 
during the grazing season, often pausing to drink and wade about. 
The place is moreover easily accessible, and much used for boating 
and bathing purposes. 

The spawning-beds, of which I made out about a score, were gen- 
erally in about three feet of water, being merely a cleared or lev- 
elled space, circular in form, and about three feet in diameter. 

Of the number of fish hatched this season, I can give no definite 
estimate ; but during the latter part of the summer, I saw what I 
believed to be young bass in schools of considerable size. 

Before closing this report, I would say that during the spawning 
time of the bass, numbers of catfish were to be seen in and about 
the region of the spawn-beds, and out of their usual feeding grounds ; 
but whether or not this voracious species of fish were drawn thither 
to feed upon the spawn, did not appear. 

Respectfully submitted. 

JOHN L. SHOREY, 

Lessee of Brown's Pond, Peabody. 



1876.] SENATE— No. 24. 39 

WESTBORoroH, Sept. 30, 1875. 
To the Commissioners of Inland Fisheries. 

Gentlemen : — On the 29th of March last, this town voted to 
apply for a lease of Chaunce}' Pond, and on the 1st of April a lease 
for fifteen 3'ears was received from your Board. Chauncey Pond is 
one of the most beautiful in the State, containing nearly two hun- 
dred acres, and is well known to all visitors to the Reform School, 
which is located on its northern shore. 

Nearly the whole shore is fine sand or pebbles, with a very gradual 
slope towards the centre, where the depth is from twenty to thirty 
feet. Two small streams (from springs near by) empty into the 
pond, and it has an outlet running to Little Chauncey Pond in 
Northborough, except during the driest part of the year. This 
outlet (by your advice) we have screened, first with rods three- 
quarters of an inch apart, to catch drift, and back of that with 
wire netting of one-quarter inch mesh, which we can confidently 
assert to be impenetrable either to fish or water, after a few days 
accumulation of floating leaves and rushes. 

During the summer of 1870 fifteen black bass were put into the 
pond b\' the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries, since which time it 
has been under the control of the trustees of the Reform School, 
until Ajjril 1, 1875. On that day several persons, thinking the 
pond not covered by lease, fished through the ice in the forenoon 
and caught a large number of pickerel and perch ; the pickerel were 
lean, the perch in good condition and of large size, many of them 
weighing one to two pounds each. One bass was caught, estimated 
by several who saw it to weigh eight pounds. It was immediatelv 
returned to the pond. 

The fishermen readily took up their lines and left on being noti- 
fied that the pond was leased. The lease requiring the pond to be 
stocked with fifty black bass, after correspondence with several 
parties, an agreement was made with Stone Sc Hooper, of Charles- 
town, N. H., to furnish that number. " of an average weight of not 
less than a pound and a half each." On the 19th of May last, Mr. 
Hooper delivered fifty-five Champlain bass, in excellent condition, 
and assisted in putting them into the pond. The average weight 
was about two and a half pounds, some of the largest weighing four 
and five pounds each. 

Our opportunities for observation have been limited, but large 
bass have been frequently seen near the shore, and occasionally at 
the surface of deep water. August 27, on the south side of the 
pond, where large bass were often seen earlier in the season, the 
water was swarming with small fish, about two inches long, supposed 
to be bass, as it was somethinoj never before noticed. If so, it leads 



40 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

to the conclnsion, either that the old stock had greatly multiplied, or 
that the bass received this spring spawned, and that these were their 
progeny, although there were doubtless many in the pond before, 
eight or ten of good size having been caught b}' one of the trustees 
of the Reform School in the fall of 1874. 

Several persons were detected fishing on the evening of June 5, 
and complaints were made against four. Three plead guilty and 
paid the lowest fine of one dollar with costs, and one escaped convic- 
tion. There has probably been considerable illegal fishing during 
the past season, but it is believed that the certainty of prosecution 
following detection, and the probability of heavier fines being im- 
posed for conviction, will have a tendency to prevent future viola- 
tions of the law, except bj' the most reckless. 

As a matter of interest to the public generally, showing the 
increase and spread of fish when protected, we would like to men- 
tion a fact which has come to our knowledge, but which may not be 
considered as properh' belonging to this report. About the 2oth of 
May last, black bass were discovered to be quite numerous in Mr. 
Wood's factory pond on the Assabet River, in Nc)rthborough, about 
four miles from Westboruugh. A few days later, farther up the 
stream, having passed two more dams on their way up, several were 
caught in or above Mr. Eam's pond, and brought to Hockomocko 
Pond in this town. 

These fish probably came up the Assabet after passing from Lake 
Cochituate or Waushakum Pond, through Sudbmy River, thus 
showing that the stocking of ponds will stock other waters not 
originally intended. 

Hoping next year 3'ou may receive a more valuable and satis- 
factory report, I remain. 

Yours truly, 

C. O. LAXGLEY, 

For Committee. 



MiLFORD, Dec. 6, 1875. 
To the Massachusetts Comniissioyiers of Inland Fisheries. 

Dear Sirs: — We put into our pond, in 1870, forty-eight black 
bass, and six rock bass ; and have taken one imudred from the pond 
to stock Farm Pond in Sherborn. I have not a positive knowledge 
of the whole number of fish caught since the stocking of the pond ; 
I should think perhaps there had bt^en taken two thousand in all 
during the six years we have held tlie lease. Those caught weigh 
from one to four pounds. In high water some have escaped and 
g^one into Blackstone River, and stocked that stream. As yet there 



ISU,] SENATE^— No. 24. 41 

are plenty of perch for food, and the bass taken are in fine condition. 
We have not fished in the winter, and to a limited extent in the 
summer, so as to get mature fish in the future, and the pond is at 
present well stocked with bass weighing four and five pounds. 
There has been some poaching, which we could not wholly prevent. 

Yours respectfully, 

DWIGHT RUSSELL, 

jPor the Lessees of Mendon Pond. 



Lincoln, Mass., Oct. 14, 1875. 
To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 

The lessees of Sandy Pond take pleasure in reporting that the 
results of the past year have been encouraging. We stocked the 
pond in May, 1872, with 52 black bass, weighing not less than two 
pounds each. None were taken until the past season, and none 
have been killed so far as we know, except as named below. 

One was killed early in the month of June by blasting in excavat- 
ing for laying water-pipes. This fish was found floating in the 
water the next day after the blasting, and weighed 3^ pounds. 

June 18 one was caught, while fishing for perch, judged to weigh 
a pound. 

September 11 three were caught, one of which measured 13^ 
inches in length ; and at various other times they were taken weigh- 
ing from one-quarter pound to four pounds. 

The fry have been quite plentj'' about the rocky shores, of the 
length of two inches to six inches, leading us to believe that after 
one or two years more the fishing will furnish abundant sport and at 
the same time plenty of food for the fisherman. We have not been 
troubled by poachers, and hope not to be. 

The laws seem sufficient to protect the fishing under the leases, 
but it has occurred to me to ask what is to become of the fish when 
the leases expire ? If there is no restraint upon fishing, what reason 
have we to hope that the ponds and streams will not share the same 
fate of the trout brooks of the State ? 

I hope the Fish Commissioners will urge upon the legislature the 
necessity of passing some law whereby the towns may regulate and 
control the fisheries in the great ponds within their limits, when 
they are not leased from the State. 

Very respectfully yours, 

JAMES L. CHAPIN, 

For the Lessees of Sandy Pond, 



42 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 



Westborough, Oct. 1, 1875. 
To the Board of Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 

Gentlemen : — The lease of Hockomocko Pond, granted by your 
honorable bod}^, under date of July 1, 1874, to L. N. Fairbanks 
and others, was immediately assigned to an association of gentle- 
men, twenty -four in number, and styled •' The Hockomocko Fishing 
Club." 

Hockomocko Pond contains about twenty-eight acres, with depth 
of water of from six to ten feet ; is fed almost entirely by springs, 
and varies very little in depth (not more than six inches), whether 
the season is wet or dry. Water is constantly running at the outlet 
throughout the year. Last spring, a suitable screen was placed at 
the outlet to prevent fish from passing. 

There were taken from the pond through the ice last winter 
seventy-five pickerel and about twenty-five perch. 

On the 13th of May last, fifty-four black bass were placed in the 
pond, all in good condition, the average weight of which was judged 
to be two and one-half pounds each. Several of these weighed five 
pounds each. Afterwards, in June, five additional bass were placed 
in the pond, making in all fift3'-nine. 

In the same month, fourteen brook trout were placed in the pond. 
At various times during the summer, numbers of the bass have been 
seen in the waters of the pond. At one time, fifteen of them were 
counted near the screen, and it is probable that all the fish lived and 
will stock the waters with their progeny. 

During the months of August and September, schools of young 
bass have been seen. 

Respectfully, 

GEO. O. BRIGHAM, 

Secretary Hockomocko Fishing Club. 



PiTTSFIZLD, Oct. 1, 1875. 

To Mr. E. A, Brackett, of the Co7nmissioners on Inland Fisheries for the State of 

Massachusetts. 

The lessees of the •' Pontoosuc Lake" submit, as their annual 
report, that, during the last year, they procured four or five hundred 
*' land-locked salmon," from your Board of Commissioners, and put 
them in said lake, or in a stream emptying into said lake. Said fish 
were small fry, two, three or four months old. This is all that has 
been done in the way of " stocking." We are encouraged to think 



1876.] SENATE— No. 24. 43 

that our previous " stocking " is doing well, and that the leasing of 
" Pontoosuc Lake " will result greatl}^ to the advantage of the 
public. 

Respectfully submitted. 

E. H. KELLOGG, 

For the Lessees, 



ASHBURNHAM, DcC. 1, 1875. 

To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 

Sirs : — In presenting the annual report upon the stocking of our 
Nankeag Lake with black bass and land-locked salmon, I have little 
to add to the quite full returns of last year. Upon the 17th of 
May last, I put into the lake about one thousand salmon-trout fr}^, 
hatched from spawn received of Mr. Seth Green ; and, in the follow- 
ing July, five hundred land-locked salmon fry, which were obtained 
of Mr. Commissioner Brackett, in fine order, and without the loss of 
a single fish in transportation. Also, in June, were put into the 
lake, about one hundred yearling land-locked salmon, varying from 
two to four inches in length. 

During the season, repeated visits and observations have been 
made, and 3'oung salmon-trout and land-locked salmon have been 
seen by myself and others. The large black bass are constantly 
noticed swimming about in pairs, while their young fry are, at the 
same time, found in shallow waters. I have no hesitation in sa3dng 
that the restrictions placed upon fishing have been carefully observed 
by our people, and the best of feeling is entertained towards the 
project. The evidence of inhabitants dwelling upon the shores of 
the lake, and m}' own experience in watching the enterprise, lead 
me to assure your Board that there is no doubt of its ultimate 
success. 

Very truly, your obedient servant, 

OHIO WHITNEY, AgenL 



North Andover, Nov. 26. 
To the Commissioners of Inland Fisheries. 

Gentlemen : — The lessees of the Cochickewick Lake, or Great 
Pond, so called, in North Andover, have organized, under the name 
of the Cochickewick Fishing Club, with the following officers ; — 
President., Hon. George L. Davis. Treasurer., Col. Eben Sutton. 



44 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

Secretary^ J. D. W. French. Executive Committee^ Hon. Moses T. 
Stevens, Chairman; James H. Davis, John A. Wiley. A copy of 
constitution, etc., is inclosed. In May last, one hundred black bass 
were placed in the lake ; during this month, November, one 
hundred and seven ; and previousl}^ in the fall, three — making in all 
two hundred and ten black bass, of an average weight of two 
pounds ; thus having complied with our contract in full as to the 
number and weight of fish. 

Yours, respectfully, 

J. D. W. FRENCH, Secretary. 



Newton Centre, Dec. 23, 1875. 
To the Commissioners of Inlaiid Fisheries. 

Gentlemen : — In reply to your request to give some particulars 
as to the progress of our fish-culture in this place, I would state 
that this is the fifth 3'ear of our lease from 3'ou of Crj'stal Lake 
(more generally known as Baptist Pond). This year we voted that 
each member of the club be allowed to catch twenty-five fish. Dur- 
ing the spawning season many bass were seen upon their beds in 
various parts of the pond, in four to six feet of water, and in several 
instances they attacked the bo3's while bathing, and once or twice 
brought the blood by their bite. The}' are very ferocious when 
upon their spawning-beds. 

We think, upon the whole, our expectations have not been fully 
realized in regard to the sport that we anticipated in taking fish this 
season. They seemed very loth to rise, and after several unsuccess- 
ful attempts at trolling with a spoon-hook and fly-fishing, deep fish- 
ing was tried, with shrimps for bait, with good success, but far less 
sport. I think more than half those caught this year were taken b}' 
sinking near the bottom, in about eighteen feet of water. It has 
been suggested that the bass find the food so plenty in these waters 
that they are not inclined to bite freel}', and some express doubts as 
to the abundance of bass, which would naturally be expected from 
the original one hundred and two fish put in this pond five years 
ago. There are many suckers that make their appearance everv 
spring, and 'tis possible they maj' destro}' much of the spawn of the 
bass. Yet it is hardly probable. If the bass will attack the bathers 
who encroach upon their beds, the}' would certainly defend them 
from any fish. 

We have caught this season thirty-seven bass, weighing in the 
aggregate seventy-three and a half pounds : the largest three pounds 



1876.] SENATE— No. 24. 45 

and a fourth, the smallest one-half of a pound. All weighing less 
than one pound we immediately returned to the water. 

E. M. FOWLE, 

Secretary Newton Black Bass Club. 



WAusHAKrx Farm, So. Framixgham, Mass., Dec. 23, 1875. 
To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 

Gentlemen : — In response to your inquiry concerning the fishing 
in Waushakun Pond I have little to report. Although the lake 
seems abundanth' stocked with fish, yet angling has been a profitless 
pursuit. Why we should see so many fish about the spawning- 
ground in spring and early summer, and be able to catch so few dur- 
ing the season, is a problem difficult to solve. The only probable 
hypothesis that I can ofler is that the abundance of feed surfeits the 
fish, and therefore we cannot count upon hunger as an ally to lure 
them to our snares. However this may be, the pond, in localities, 
swarms with minnows and shiners. The perch, however, I fanc}', 
rather than know, have diminished in number, and I can say with 
considerable certainty that the pickerel have diminished. 

During the past summer I have angled with success twice on Men- 
don Pond. There the fish are abundant, and take bait sharply. The 
pond, once said to abound with the ordinar\' pond fish, now contains 
apparently nothing but bass in any number. At Plymouth I have 
sought bass in several ponds with but little success, and have-made 
many inquiries concerning them of those who ought to be familiar 
with their traits. At the best they seem a capricious fish, and appa- 
rently (perhaps through limited information) have ditferent habits 
in different ponds, and frequent different shores throughout the sea- 
son. They do take a fly sometimes, but I am not disposed to call 
them a satisfactory fish for the fly-fisherman. Indeed. I am disposed 
to believe that as a food-fish they have been overpraised. I con- 
jecture that the}' are about as voracious as the pickerel, and require 
full as much food for their size, while I know that in spawning habits 
they are his inferior. Thus : 

Jan. 14, 1875, I examined a pickerel weighing 2^ lbs. weight of 
spawn, 1,339 grains; 247 spawn weighed just 10 grains. Total 
number of spawn, therefore, about 33,173. 

Per contra ; Jan. 9, 1875, a bass, weighing about 2^ lbs., contained 
949 grains of spawn. The boiled spawn, freed from membranes, etc., 
weighed 820 grains ; 206 eggs weighed just 10 grains. The total 
number of spawn therefore about 16,892. 



46 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

Again, the young pickerel soon hide in the weeds along shore, 
while the young bass, when first hatched, form dense, compact, 
swarms, from which the mother fish and other predatory inhabitants 
can readil}^ poach large numbers. I am aware it is said that the 
mother fish guards her young, but I feel assured that while this may 
perhaps be true in some cases, yet in other instances the opposite is 
true. Perhaps the habits of the young fish relieve the parent largely 
from temptation, for small as the fty are, and compactly as the}" are 
grouped, yet they occupy the surface of the water, and are, probably, 
if not invisible, 3'et inconspicuous to the fishy eye. I have seen, 
however, the two-or-three-pound mother taking large gulps from the 
midst of her innocent, for as yet infantile fry. Soon, however, these 
groups of fish become scattered, and the individuals, governed b}^ a wise 
instinct, seek the cover and the protection of the shore. Here they 
grow with considerable rapidity, feeding upon all the weaker fty that 
come within their reach. Often have I seen a three-inch pirate sally 
from port and chase an inch-and-a-quarter minnow ; and the same 
fish, when tempted with a dead minnow an inch and a half long, will 
do his little best to get outside of him. 

The young fish do not necessarily remain in shallow water. From 
an inch, to the growth of the season, they may be seen, active and 
vigilant, about heaps of stones, anchored boats, in fact any cover in 
water from four to six feet deep ; and I have myself known, as well 
as learned from others, of the young fish, two and three inches long, 
being brought into our sail-boat through the centre-board well, when 
the centre-board has been rapidl}' raised. 

I am no friend to the pickerel. I despise him, both as an edible 
or as a sportman's fish. But all are not educated as sportsmen, and 
I believe the pickerel to be our best fish for waters liable to be 
fished by the public in season and out. To keep our waters stocked 
with bass, will necessitate a close season from the formation of ice 
to the end of June. This may seem a strange assertion, but I am 
satisfied that in some lakes the bass ma}^ be considered a winter's 
fish. Indeed, it has taken the greatest care on our part to prevent 
taking bass through the ice. Unless, then, this close season be 
enforced, let the public rather encourage the pickerel than the bass. 
The bass is the sportman's and the epicure's fish, and if the fishing 
for him is well regulated, his introduction is a boon to the public. 
The most serviceable fish, however, is that one which ma}" be caught 
any day in the j^ear. 

There is one little fish which seems strangely to have escaped 
attention. This is the red-fin, or stream pickerel. The mature 
growth brings them to perhaps nine inches or less in length. March 
15, 1875, I weighed one, and counted the spawn. Weight of fish, 



1876.] SENATE— No. 24. 47 

521 grains: of spawn, 127 gi'ains ; 117 spawn weighed 5 grains. 
Total number, therefore, 2,972. This fish, in his plumpness, reminds 
us of the smelt, and it is possible might be a profitable fish to grow 
in certain waters. 

I will now proceed to give my record of Waushakun Pond, in the 
manner I have in previous years ; premising, however, that it is 
probable that some few of the catches have not been reported. The 
record continues where I left off last year, and it will be noticed takes 
note of some winter fish. 

1874. 

Oct. 27. One fish ; 3 pounds. 
Dec. '26. One fish ; 2^ pounds. 

1873. 

Mar. 17. One fish ; 24 pounds. 

Mar. 24. One fish ; If pounds. 

Mar. 26. One fish ; 3 pounds. 

Mar. 27. Two fish; 3 pounds, 3 pounds. 

May 15. Sawfirst black bass (swimming) of the season. Hooked 
him over the spawning-beds, but did not take from the water. Ap- 
parently swollen with spawn. 

June 11. Black bass fry in myriads about boat-house. Some 
lots apparently a day or so older than others. 

June 19. One fish ; 1^ pounds. 

June 21. Two fish ; 1^ pounds, 1^ pounds. 

June 22. One fish ; 3 pounds. 

June 25. Small fry along shore from 2 to 2]- inches long : some 
swollen. Last year's hatch from 6 to 7 inches long. 

July 8. Three fish ; 1 pound, 1^ pounds, 3 pounds. 

July 12. One fish ; 2^ pounds. 

July 16. Small fish from 1^ to 1| inches long, in considerable 
numbers.. Smaller than those recorded in June. 

July 17. One fish ; Impounds. 

July 22. One fish ; 2^ pounds. 

July 25. One fish ; 1^ pounds. 

July 27. Caught one black bass, 2^- inches long. Washed into 
sail-boat, through raising the centre-board. 

July 28. Five fish ; f pound, 1 pound, 1 pound, IJ- pounds, 1 j 



mnds. 
July 29. 


One fish ; 


1^ pounds. 


July 31. 


One fish ; 


^ pound. 


Aug. 16. 


Two fish ; 


i 1| pounds, 3 pounds 


Aug. 18. 


Two fish ; 


f pound ; 1^ pounds 


Aug. 19. 


One fish ; 


IJ- pounds. 


Aug. 24. 


One fish ; 


2f pounds. 



48 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jati. 

Aug. 25. One fish ; Impounds. 

Aug. 26. Two fish ; 2 pounds, 3^ pounds. 

Sept. 9. One fish ; ^ pound. 

Sept. 10. Young bass about boat-house, from 3 to 6 inches long. 
Active and hungiy. Freel}' take minnow-bait. 

Sept. 23. One bass ? 4 pounds. 

Oct. 9. Three fish ; ^ pound, ^ pound, | pound. 

Nov. 19. One fish ; 4 pounds. 

In October seven fish were taken, but were lost through upsetting 
of a boat. Hence they were neither weighed or included. 

Total catch for the season recorded : 40 fish, weighing 73 J pounds. 

June 12, 1875, we placed 45 white perch in the pond, and June 
26, 80 additional ; none weighing over a pound. 

Respectfully submitted. 

E. LEWIS STURTEVANT. 



1876.] SENATE— No. 24. 49 



[C] 



SKETCH OF THE PROGRESS OF FISH-CULTURE IN 
NEW ENGLAND. 



By Theodore Lyman. 



Massachusetts was the first State that took action in fish-culture. 
By a legislative Resolve of 1856, commissioners were appointed to 
report '' respecting the artificial propagation of fish." 

News of the French experiments had been spread by Silliman's 
Journal in 1853 ; and Kellogg in Hartford, and Garlick in Cleveland, 
had hatched and raised trout. The report written b}^ the late Chief 
Justice Chapman was full of useful matter, and gave the outline of 
all that we now know of this subject. He suggested different fishes 
for different waters : the introduction of exotic species, and the 
artificial propagation of native ones. With a singular spirit of 
prophec}^ he said : " It is believed that, by means of artificial propa 
gation, the river below Hadley Falls might be vastly better stocked 
with shad than it has ever yet been." His remarks on legislation 
contain instruction that goes beyond mere pisciculture. Deprecat- 
ing our tendency to imitate the French in excessive and overminute 
law-making, he said : " No legislation will avail till private enter- 
prise shall ascertain its own wants." Special enactments, by their 
vast accumulation and their confusion, have become the bane of our 
people, who are now so accustomed to them that they look with 
suspicion on general laws, and prefer to draw, each one, his little 
measure of authority direct from the General Court. There have 
been passed up to this time (1875) over four hundred statutes 
concerning fisheries : the bulk of them either clums}^ or quite useless. 
The economy and clearness of a well-drawn general statute are 
shown by the fact, that only about half as many fishery Acts were 
passed during the six years that have succeeded the Act for encour- 
aging the cultivation of useful fishes, in 1869, as during the preced- 
ing six years : albeit the interest in pisciculture was many times 
greater during the period of fewest laws. 
7 



50 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

The report of the commissioners of 1856 finished with an account 
of Capt. N. E. Atwood's attempt to hatch trout, and a translation 
of Jules Hairae's article on fish-culture, printed two years before in 
the Revue des Deux Mondes, the best resume of the subject that has 
ever been written. In 1850, about seven years after the readoption 
of artificial impregnation by Rem}', the French took up pisciculture 
with ardor, and carried its theory almost as far as it since has gone. 
The artificial spawning-bed, hatching-troughs, methods of feeding, 
and modes of transporting eggs and young, were all discovered or 
used by them. They investigated also the comparative vitality of 
spermatozoa, the swelling of eggs in water, and the temperature best 
suited for hatching. On the practical side their failure was as 
conspicuous as was their success on the theoretical. Prof. Coste, a 
learned but overenthusiastic person, had chief charge of the great 
establishment at Huningue, which was laid out under dii'ection of 
the best engineers. Begun on a scale untried and too costly, the 
enterprise turned out not much better than an expensive to}'. It 
was ill-placed, on the flat alluvium of the Rhine, so that the spring 
water had little or no fall, and it was impossible to make ponds or 
raceways by damming. Pools for the young fry had to be exca- 
vated at much expense, and when, done they got peopled with pick- 
erel from the back water of the river. Buildings and appliances of 
a size and elaborateness wholly uncalled for were put up ; and then 
a turbine wheel was mounted to pump water over the eggs. This 
turbine was set so high that, at low stages of the Rhine, it had 
no power, and hand-pumps were required. The fry, set free in vari- 
ous waters, were sometimes not numerous enough, and sometimes 
were placed in unfavorable localities, so that the increase (excepting 
the brook trout) was insignificant in comparison with the expec- 
tation. At present the German government carries on the estab- 
lishment, but its success, considering the disadvantages, may be 
considered doubtful. The ill-fortune of Huningue should not rest on 
the memory of Coste, but be laid rather to the extravagant and 
meretricious spirit of the second empire. Nor should it be forgotten 
that the experiments there conducted have been of great service, by 
showing what can and what cannot be accomplished. 

Although thus valuable, the commissioners' report roused no 
public interest, and it was not till the end of the war, in 1865, that 
the subject was again taken up ; not indeed for itself, but in connec- 
tion with another question. In July, 1864, New Hampshire and 
Vermont had passed legislative Resolves, calling on Massachusetts 
to open free passage to migratory sea-fish through the dams on 
the Connecticut and Merrimack rivers. A joint committee of our 
General Court held a hearing in March, 1865, at which all parties 



1876.] SENATE— No. 24. 51 

interested appeared. Judge Henry A. Bellows, on behalf of New 
Hampshire, stated, that in former days, when the rivers were open, 
great numbers of salmon and shad ascended the Connecticut and 
Merrimack, to the waters of Vermont and New Hampshire ; but that 
these fishes had, for some years, been cut off by impassable dams, 
erected for manufactories. He admitted that several of these dams 
had been authorized by New Hampshire ; nevertheless he thought 
that state comity demanded the restoration of the fisheries. All 
parties were agreed that fishways could easily be made over the 
dams ; and Prof. Agassiz explained their structure, and showed the 
method of artificial breeding. 

The three points raised against an}' action bj^ the Commonwealth 
were : 1. The possible vested right of owners to maintain their dams 
intact. 2. The pollution of waters by factory refuse, making fish- 
eries impossible. 3. The lack of sufficient water to furnish both 
mill power and fishways. In regard to the first point, it appeared 
that about 1792 a company for river navigation by locks and canals 
was chartered both on the Connecticut and the Merrimack. These 
were afterwards bought out by other companies, which built closed 
dams at Turner's and at Hadle}^ Falls on the former stream, and at 
Patucket (Lowell) on the latter, where also the Essex Company 
built an impassable dam, in 1847, at Lawrence. For this dam the 
count}' commissioners, with supreme ignorance, prescribed as a fish- 
way, a trough fifty feet long and thirty wide, having a rise of one 
foot in four (!) In 1851 the legislature ordered the Essex Com- 
pany to substitute a sufficient fishway for the ridiculous structure 
then existing. But the supreme court properly decided that this 
ridiculous character was no fault of the company, which had followed 
the prescription of the county commissioners, and was therefore not 
held to substitute anything else. The Lowell dam was low, and 
passable at good water. For neither of the dams at Holyoke or at 
Turner's Falls was any fishway prescribed by law, but the Holyoke 
owners were ordered to pay for the fisheries destroyed above the 
barrier. 

The joint committee arrived at the following conclusions : 1. That 
the Lowell dam was held to build a fishway. 2. That the Essex 
dam was held to build only the useless way. 3. That the Holyoke 
dam was exempted from building a way. 4. That two commission- 
ers should be appointed fully to report on the subject, and to confer 
with commissioners of the other States. 

Early in the summer of 1865 Theodore Lyman and Alfred A. 
Reed were appointed commissioners under the above recommenda- 
tion, and made their report the December following. 

Premising that salmon, shad and alewives were the most important 



52 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

fishes to be considered, the}' described their habits, as far as then 
known, and the conditions of their multiplication. Mr. W. S. Treat 
had determined that alewives needed four 3'ears to attain their full 
size, and a similar growth was by analogy attributed to the shad. 
This guess was confirmed in 1867, when Mr. Fred. Russell, Com- 
missioner of Connecticut, showed that " chicken 'shad " were simpl}' 
yearlings, or two-year-olds. In 1866 Mr. Lyman figured the young 
in autumn, before its descent to the sea, and, in 1867, the embryo, in 
the egg, and newh' hatched. 

The habits and growth of the salmon were likewise explained, and 
there was. a description of the "land-locked" salmon, which then 
was thought to be a descendant of the migrator}^ species, when acci- 
dentalh^ shut off from the sea. Some naturalists now maintain that 
it is a distinct species of lake trout ; but the question, in the face of 
inextricable varieties of Salmo, is not one of much importance. That 
the embryos and the fry are not distinguishable from those of the 
true salmon, was proved at the state hatching-house in 1869. 

In regard to water-power companies, the following facts were noted : 
In order to establish what used to be called " slack water," — that is, 
smooth water in places of rapids and shoals, which was the aim of 
the old locks and canals companies. — it was necessary either to build 
a wing-dam to back the river up, or to construct a canal round the 
obstacle. Such structures injured but did not destroy the fisheries. 

The manufacturing associations which came after had an aim quite 
different ; nameh', to make a high and abundant head of water, and 
to direct it through a canal, whence mill-wheels might be fed. There- 
fore they built closed dams, and raised them as much as possible ; 
and when more power was needed they got further elevation by 
placing " flash-boards " edgewise along the dam-crest. 

As the increasing mills demanded more and more water, the}' 
established reservoirs, by damming lakes at the river-head, and thus 
holding them back till the dry season. The result of all these mea- 
sures was, that manufacturing rivers got full of dams impassable to 
fish, that the ancient levels were altered, and the spawning-beds 
covered or swept away. 

A second ar3' result was the fouling of rivers with refuse from the 
mills, such as chlorine and salts of lime from paper-mills, and soaps 
and sulphuric acid from print-works. The effect of such pollutions 
is more local than is commonly thought. Analj'ses of Merrimack 
water, a few hundred feet below the great print-works at Lawrence, 
when the river was low, and the foreign substances at their maxi- 
mum, showed little more than a few grains of neutral salts to the 
gallon, the impurity being less than in common spring water. The 
reason of this "working clear" is, that ordinar}' rivers hold suspend- 



1876.] SENATE-No. 24. 53 

ed a great quantit}' of minutely divided matter, either mineral or 
organized, of which the latter ma}' be living or in process of disin- 
tegration. This matter, lime, albumen, fat, etc., speedily makes 
harmless and often insoluble compounds with the raw chemicals 
coming from the vats. When to this chemical reduction we add the 
dilution afforded by a river, it is no longer wonderful that the pollu- 
tion occupies a limited field. 

As a remed}^, it was suggested that plank screens be erected oppo- 
site raceways, so as to deflect the foul current, and preserve the 
centre of the stream pure. As to fishways, it was shown that their 
construction would be difficult ; because, first, the violence of such 
rivers as the Merrimack and Connecticut was hard to resist when 
they rose in freshets, and brought down logs and masses of ice ; and 
secondh', that the height of twenty or thirty feet, which was to be 
surmounted, would necessitate a very long and difficult pass. The 
kind recommended consisted of a trough, with partial cross-bulkheads 
to check the flow, alternating with horizontal tanks, wherein the fish 
might rest. Later experience has shown that the system of resting- 
tanks is a prime error, and should always be avoided. In view of 
the extravagant anticipations of some persons, respecting the happy 
working of fishways, it msij be well to quote the language of the 
Commissioners, to show that they did not furnish the grounds for 
such anticipations. " Supposing all these passes built on approved 
plans, the next question is, WJiat ivoulcl come of them 9 In the first 
place, then, no salmon would come of them, for the good reason that 
there are none in either of the rivers. Shad there still are, in con- 
siderable numbers, and it seems the belief of many intelligent per- 
sons in New Hampshire that these fish would run up, in great plenty, 
to Lake Winnipiseogee, the ver}- next spring after the erection of 
the passes. Such a result might follow, and it might not ; the strong 
probability is that it would not. . . . Their instinct drives them to 
go to their own breeding-beds, but, so far as we know, not to go be- 
yond. At an}' rate there is a simple remedy for the trouble. Live 
shad could be carried up and put in the mill-ponds at Lawrence and 
Holyoke, and salmon could be bred in the headwaters of the Con- 
necticut and Merrimack. . . . The progeny of these pioneers would 
certainly go up the year after. . . . Shad are not inclined, like ale- 
wives, to run up every shallow brook that presents itself, . . . and 
it is to be feared, will be shy of any fishway that is not approached 
by a channel a dozen feet wide and a couple of feet deep." 

These views, however moderate, were yet too sanguine. The 
aversion of shad to narrow flows of water has proved even more 
marked than was looked for. Despite many improvements in the 
great fishways at Lawrence and at Holyoke — improvements that 



54 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

have rendered them proloably the best in the world — the number of 
shad that pass over is still verj' limited. It is confidently hoped 
that other devices, now under construction, and the planting of 
man}' eggs in the upper waters, will increase the number to a satis- 
factory' figure ; but that is one of the unproved things. Alewives, 
lampreys, eels, pickerel and other fresh-water fish, pass in numbers 
with the greatest ease. The Commissioners were of the opinion that 
" an abundant supply of fish might be looked for in five years,'* 
provided fishways were built, pollution of water prevented, salmon 
bred, weirs and gill-nets prohibited, and stringent laws passed regu- 
lating fishing. 

These conditions have, in the sequel, been partially complied with, 
and the success has been consequenth* partial. The shad have been 
considerably increased in the lower Merrimack, and in the lower 
Connecticut almost restored to the abundance of early times. Noth- 
ing effective was accomplished in salmon fishing till 1872. In 1870 
about 1,000 fty were let loose in the upper branches of the Merri- 
mack ; in 1872, 16,000; in 1873, 185,000. In 1874 800,000 were 
set free in the upper Connecticut. According to their average rate 
of growth, the j^arr becomes a smolt the first year, a grisle the sec- 
ond, and a salmoji the third. Therefore this coming summer (1876) 
ought to show some salmon in the Merrimack, provided young sal- 
mon will return to their river without any predecessor to guide them. 
Already the small plants of 1870 and 1872 have shown themselves 
by the appearance of salmon in Massachusetts and Buzzard's baj's 
— a spectacle nearly unknown for man}' years, for the Lawrence dam 
stopped the Merrimack salmon in 1847 — though the survivors con- 
tinued to come up in small numbers till 1859, thus confirming previ- 
ous observations, that the life of the salmon is about twelve years. 
As for the Connecticut, a closed dam, near the mouth of Miller's 
River, stopped the salmon in 1798. 

1866. 

The legislature was moved b}' the report for 1865 to appropriate 
$7,000, and again to appoint two commissioners for the space of five 
years — Theodore Lyman and Alfred R. Field — whose duty it was 
to cause fishways to be erected in the impassable dams of the Merri- 
mack and Connecticut rivers. (Acts of 1866, chap. 238.) They 
were authorized to make a compromise with the Essex Company for 
the useless way in their dam ; and a trough fishway, on Foster's plan, 
was put up, at a cost of about $8,500, whereof $3,500 was paid by 
the company, with the further agreement to pay one-half the cost 
of maintenance for five years. 

At Lowell, the Locks and Canals Company, as by law bound, put 



1876.] SENATE— No. 24. 55 

up a fishway at their own cost. It was on the plan of the double 
stair, consisting of two parallel rows of tanks, each lower than the 
next one, and emptying left, forward, right, forward, and so on. 
This plan, then considered excellent, has since been shown to be an 
inferior one, having, in an extreme degree, the fault of resting-places. 

The Act required that the plans for the fishways should be first 
approved by the New Hampshire commissioners, and that then a 
copy should be filed at the State House, and another given to the 
company in whose dam the structure was to be erected. 

The Act also gave discretion to the commissioners to postpone the 
erection of a fishway at Holyoke, if the State of Connecticut had not 
made provision for the abatement of weirs and other destructive 
engines ; and this was done, partly because the Holyoke Company 
declined to build a way, on the plea that they were exempt. 
Notice to be prepared to build a fishway was served on the Turner's 
Falls Company, which had begun to replace the old broken dam by 
a new one. In the autumn of this year (1866) Dr. Fletcher, by 
direction of the New Hampshire commissioners, placed 15,000 to 
20,000 New Brunswick salmon eggs in the Pemigewasset, and the 
parrs were afterwards seen near by. Of the shad it was definitely 
ascertained that the young, of the summer's hatch, leave the river 
for the sea before the end of November, and are then about four 
inches long. 

1867. 

In furtherance of previous action, the legislature passed, in 1867, 
two important Acts. Chapter 289 interdicted catching of shad, 
salmon and alewives in the Merrimack for four years, till April, 
1871 ; forbade any fishing within four hundred yards of any fishway 
thereon ; empowered the commissioners to open its tributaries by 
fishways ; and directed cities and towns on its banks to appoint fish 
wardens. Chapter 344 enlarged the Commissioners' powers by 
allowing them to open all possible streams to the passage of fish ; 
and appropriated $10,000, to be by them used in restocking rivers 
and ponds with valuable fish. 

It will be observed that, from being charged simply with bridging 
certain obstructions in two rivers, the Commissioners had authority 
to open all streams and to undertake pisciculture ; and, as will be 
seen in the sequel, their second powers were much more profitable 
than the first. 

The Merrimack fishways at Lowell and Lawrence were opened ; 
and two or three salmon were afterwards reported as taken in the 
upper waters. They have since been supposed to have been lake 
trout, which the New Hampshire people mistook for salmon ; a point 
which cannot now be settled. Doubtless salmon could have gone 



56 IXLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

up, although the rush of water at the Lawrence fishway was too 
violent for the weaker kinds of fish ; and not even the inventor. Mr. 
Nathan W. Foster, had then enough experience with wide fishways 
and high dams, to moderate the flow. Subsequent study showed 
that the slope (one in ten) was too rapid ; and that the cross-bulk- 
heads, slanting up-stream, were not so arranged as to check the 
current in a uniform manner. As the shad no longer came in num- 
bers to the Essex Companj-'s dam at Lawrence, 500 were carried in 
a water-tank and placed in the river above, so that their young might 
pass down the fishways, and on their return, as large fish, might 
seek to mount them. 

The following 3'ear (1868) shad eggs were carried in pails of water 
and put in Lake Winnipiseogee, in Concord River, and in Mystic 
River, and alewives were transported alive above the Lawrence dam. 
In the autumn of the same year shoals of young fry (shad or ale- 
wives, or both) were seen above Lowell, passing seaward. It is 
pretty certain that these young, and perhaps those of 1867. found 
their way to the sea, because, in 1871, large shad came in numbers 
to the foot of the Lawrence dam, but declined to follow their tamer 
cousins, the alewives, into the fishway. In 1869, 1870 and 1871, 
shad were hatched in quantities, at various points above the Law- 
rence dam. 

Dr. W. TT. Fletcher made an expedition to New Brunswick after 
salmon ova, and succeeded in obtaining 70,000. The want of proper 
apparatus, and the difficulties b}' which he was surrounded, rendered 
it impossible to impregnate many of the eggs, so that only about 
10,000 were finally hatched : whereof 5,000 were placed at the estab- 
lishment of Livingstone Stone, at Charlestown, N. H., and 5,000 
with T. S. Robinson, at Meredith. Like many pioneer experiments, 
this one resulted in more experience than profit. The Charlestown 
parrs were killed b}^ a sudden hot spell, and of those at Meredith 
many were lost by a freshet, so that only about 1,000 were at last 
put in the upper waters of the Merrimack. 

This 3'ear began the case of the great Holyoke fishway, the most 
important one of its kind that ever came into the courts of this coun- 
try, or perhaps of any other. Being invited b}' the Commissioners 
to make a compromise, in which most of the cost would be borne by 
the State, the company refused, and moreover hinted at damages in 
the event of any infringement on their water-power. The directors, 
in thus opposing the Commonwealth on a doubtful law point, pursued 
a short-sighted course, which they had reason to regret. Insufficient 
funds and high water prevented any work on the fishwaj- for that 
year, but the following season (1868) lumber and workmen were got 
together to begin the structure, under an agreement by which the 



1876.] SENATE— No. 24. 57 

company waived the prescribed notice, and promised to abstain 
from an injunction. The legislature had voted $12,000 (Resolves, 
chap. 53, 1868) to construct the fishwa}' in case the courts should 
decide that the State was liable. At that moment it was discovered 
that the dam itself was undermined in such a way as to place it at 
the mercy of the next great freshet. Therefore the Commissioners 
transferred their material arid mechanics to the compan}', under a 
verbal pledge that the fishway should have certain advantages of 
position, which advantages the directors did not see fit to concede, 
after the dam had been secured. 

At its next session the general conrt passed an Act (chap. 422, 
1869) by which the Commissioners were empowered to bring a bill 
in equity in the supreme court against any compan}- neglecting or 
refusing to build a fishway. Meantime the company's engineer built 
the chief part of the way in connection with the great apron reared 
to strengthen the dam, and it was left to the court to decide who 
should pay for it. The case was conducted by Mr. Charles Allen, 
the attorney-general, and on the 31st of August, 1870, the supreme 
judicial court ordered a decree from the complainants. The defend- 
ants appealed to the supreme court of the United States, which, at 
the December term of 1872, affirmed the decree, and the Holyoke 
Water Power Compan3' thereupon paid for the fishway. 

The grounds of these decisions are such as may easily be under- 
stood, and are as follows: 1. A river is a public ^Si\. 2. The 
passage of migratory fish in a river is a public right. 3. Whoso 
builds a dam must furnish a passage to migrator}' fish, unless ex- 
empted by the legislature. 4. In a legislative charter any privilege 
which is not expressl}' granted is withheld. 

The Holyoke Company claimed exemption because a clause of 
their charter compelled them to pay awarded damages to owners of 
fish rights above their dam ; and, as they had paid such damages, 
the}' were by implication no longer held to furnish a passage for the 
fish. But the court decided : 1. That such damages did not neces- 
sarily imply that the fish rights above the dam were to be destroyed, 
but only injured, as likely they would be, even with the best fishway. 
2. That fish rights beloic the dam had been injured, and no compen- 
sation therefor had been given. 3. That exemption from building a 
fishway was not expressly granted in the charter, and was therefore 
withheld. 

The history of this case — so important in many respects other 
than fisheries — is a curious one, and shows how a common man, 
devoted to a specialty, and excited by opposition, will sometimes 
see points that are passed over by experts. A lawyer of high stand- 
ing, and an attorney-general, had given opinions that the Holyoke 
8 



58 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

Company was not held to build a fishway ; and another attorney- 
general had strongly advised compromise because the case was so 
doubtful. One of the commissioners, who had been deeph' interested 
in the matter, suggested that the fisheries below the dam had cer- 
tainly been injured by cutting otf the fisn from their upper spawning- 
grounds, and that the company was thereby liable to build a fishway, 
since it was not specially exempted. 

This case, when it came to trial, instead of proving desperate or 
dubious, was found absolutely to have but one side ; namely, the side 
of public rights. 

In the report for 1867, the next subject in order was the restocking 
of exhausted waters. It was shown that a ver}- small fraction of 
eggs laid became marketable fish. Thus the English calculations 
brought only one salmon from 1,500 eggs ; and, at this rate, 20,000 
eggs, at the end of three 3'ears, would give only seven salmon and 70 
grilse. Taking the observations of Green and of others on the eggs 
of shad, it appeared probable that not more than one in 20,000 grew 
to be a two-year-old ; and not more than one in 40,000 attained to 
the full growth. 

For the alewife there were two kinds of observations which could 
be used, and the determination was perhaps more reliable than for 
the salmon or shad. It gave a range from one full-grown for every 
2,363 eggs to one for every 47,500 eggs, according to the concomitant 
circumstances, the mean being one in 18,865. *'Such calculations 
must, in the nature of things, be very crude, and yet they show that, 
whatever points are taken as premises, the conclusion is always simi- 
lar in character, and is in brief this : The reproductive function 
among animals has two ends : 1, the perpetuation of the species ; 2, 
the supplying of organized material as food. This law is especially 
illustrated among the fishes, of which the greater part are carnivor- 
ous, and indiscriminateh' devour their own young or that of other 
species. The ocean is a vast, teeming workshop, crowded with 
fabrics, torn in pieces ere they are half finished, to be converted into 
other fabrics, which in turn are as rapidly destroyed." 

Artificial culture, by protecting eggs and young, seemed able to 
greatly increase the proportion of the adult to the ova from which 
they sprung. Its more enthusiastic advocates hoped to protect the 
fish in each stage of growth, but practice has shown that the real 
gain is in the first stage — in the greater number of eggs impregnated 
and hatched. As soon as the embryo has arrived at the figure of a 
minnow, its best and safest place is in its native waters. Consid- 
ering that, by the natural process, only one shad Qgg in 80 is hatched, 
it was calculated that four shad at the end of three years would be rep- 
resented by onh' seven large and one two-year-old fish ; while by the 



1876.] SENATE— No. 24. 59 

artificial method, where nine-tenths of the eggs hatch, two pairs in 
three years would become 252 large shad and 504 of second size, 
the difference lying wholly in the greater proportion hatched by the 
latter method. It was these considerations that led the Commission- 
ers to encourage the undertaking of Seth Green, who came this sum- 
mer to Holyoke, and began experiments in shad-hatching. He first 
tried the eggs in a trough, in which ran brook water, just as in trout- 
hatching. All the ova died of cold. He then replaced the bottom 
and ends of a wooden box by wire gauze, and floated it in the river, 
after putting in a la3'er of eggs. After sixty hours the water inside 
was found to be alive with little transparent embryos, about one- 
third of an inch long, and looking more like larvae of mosquitoes than 
young shad ! The discovery was made, and it remained only to 
perfect the hatching-box, which was done by attaching to its sides 
wooden bars, lying at an angle with the bottom, so that the box 
floated with one end higher, and the passing river current caused a 
boiling motion of the water within, which kept the eggs from getting 
together in heaps. A large number of boxes were furnished by the 
State, and, with one exception, hatching has been carried on every 
season, and on a great scale, at Holyoke. 

Usually, it has been under the charge of the Connecticut commis- 
sioners, and of late the United States commissioner has also taken 
part in it. In 1868, Mr. A. C. Hardy, as agent for the Massachu- 
setts commissioners, began hatching at North Andover, on the Mer- 
rimack, and has continued regularly since that date, with the foUow- 
ins: result as to the number taken from June 10 to Julv 19 : — 



1869, 
1870, 

1871, 
1872, 
1873, 

1874, 
1875, 



1,554 shad. "^ No other fishing allowed on the river. 



754 

2,242 
2,031 
1,555 

1,692 
1,433 



} 



Average tor two years, 1,154. 

No other fishing allowed on the river. 
Average for three years, 1,942. 

Other fishing again allowed on the river. 
Averao;e for' two vears, 1,562. 



The first two years represent the natural catch as it then was. In 
1871 Hardy's hatch of 1868 should have come as marketable fish, 
and, in fact, the next three years show an average nearly double the 
two preceding ones. In 1874 the river was again thrown open to 
fishermen, and the average for 1874 and 1875 came between the first 
two and the second three years. These results would seem to indi- 
cate a decided increase in fish by reason of artificial hatching ; but 
the point is not proved, for it must be remembered that, for six 
years, all fishing in the Merrimack, except at Andover, was pro- 
hibited. 



60 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

This prohibition misht well increase the fish, although such in- 
crease does not alwa3's follow. For example, the shad-fisheries of 
the Savannah were intermitted during the war, and a decrease, rather 
than an increase, took place. Reasons were given, such as the fre- 
quent and heavy cannonading, the torpedoes, obstructions, etc., but 
these reasons were, after all, guesses. 

In the Connecticut River a marked, and, so to speak, special result 
has been obtained. The average of the fisheries for the years 1864 
to 1869 was only two-fifths of that for the years 1827 to 1836, and 
each year showed a rapid decline. Suddenly, in 1870, the river was 
tilled with shad! There had been no such take for a generation 
before. And so, in the main, it has since continued ; the season of 
1875 having been the best one in twenty years. The price of the 
fish has fallen greatly, and the New York market is sometimes 
glutted with them. The result in 1870 has usually and reasonably 
been attributed to the artificial hatching by Green in 1867, and the 
succeeding supply has been credited to the same cause. This 
reasoning is probable, but not certain. In 1868, the Connecticut 
Assembly passed a law limiting the mesh of pounds to five inches 
when drawn lengthwise. 

The pounds are set in Long Island Sound, west of the river mouth. 
Some of them are nearly a mile long, and are furnished with two 
bowls. Twenty-six were counted in the distance of less than ten 
miles. When set with a fine mesh they took great quantities of fish, 
down to the size of a small herring, and, among them, yearling and 
two-year-old shad, sometimes by the cartload. The five-inch mesh 
of 1869 allowed the smaller shad to escape, which would return in 
1870 and 1871 as large fish. 

What proportion of the increase was represented by these fish that 
escaped the pounds it is not possible to state. That they did not 
represent the iolioU increase seems very probable, because the plenty 
has continued pretty constantly now for six years, in face of the fact 
that the pound men have evaded the law to a great extent, except in 
the 3'ear 1.^72. Nevertheless, the Connecticut, which has been cited 
everywhere as furnishing a demonstration of the efficacy of artificial 
hatching, does not present a clear case, but only a probable one. 
Seth Green from the outset maintained, what doubtless is the correct 
principle, that the artificial hatching offish would vindicate its theo- 
retical proportion only i die n pursued on a very large scale ; that, for 
equal surfaces, the same sort of care should be bestowed as in the 
culture of corn. Doubtless he is right ; for it is certain that the 
artificial process for shad will give many times the number of em- 
brvos that the natural spawning will atford. Be the cause what it 
mav, this is certain, that the measures of the Commissioners have 



1876.] SENATE— No. 24. 61 

increased shad in the Merrimack and Connecticut ; largel}^ in the 
former, enormousl_y in the latter. 

The report described and recommended several fishes as worthy of 
cultivation, such as the land-locked salmon, the Utile white fish or 
shad waiter (Coregonus^ Novce AngHce)^ the two species of ale wife 
{Alosa tyranyius and cyanonoton)^ and the black bass (Grystes fasci- 
atus). This last species was brought in 1850 to the ponds of Ware- 
ham, from Saratoga Lake, by Mr. Samuel T. Tisdale, whose account 
of the fish will be found in the report for 1870. From their intro- 
duction to his death in 1868, he stocked nearly sixty ponds, of which 
some were in 2s ew Hampshire and Connecticut, but the greater part 
in Eastern Massachusetts, and especially in Plymouth County. 
Since that time the Commissioners have superintended the stocking 
of some fort}^ ponds, in various parts of the State. When to these 
are added the waters that have been stocked by private persons in 
their own way, it will be seen that this valuable fish is now pretty 
well distributed in the Commonwealth. As Grystes belongs among 
the percoids, which discharge their eggs through an oviduct, instead 
of dropping them free in the visceral cavity, as do the salmons 
and most clupeoids, all attempts to express the spawn have failed. 
But the fish is so tough, and so easil}' transported, that it is only 
necessary to carry the parent fish and deposit them in the destined 
water. The report for 1867 ended with directions for breeding of 
trouts and shad, illustrated with plates. 



The culture of alewives was specially recommended on account 
of its ease and certainty, and of its immense yield. Some trivial 
streams in this Commonwealth thus yield, annually, one hundred 
tons of animal food, which is sold at one-fiftieth of the price of beef. 
The female laj^s about 250,000 ova, and, in the breeding season will 
push into the narrowest rivulets, amid machinery and the habita- 
tions of man, to arrive at her bed. One thousand alewives were this 
season put above the Lawrence dam, and the building of fishways 
was encouraged on small streams that were closed. 

Shad were hatched on the Connecticut as early as June 8, which 
confirmed the idea of several successive runs of " ripe " fish. Indeed, 
all testimony goes to show that shad return to a river in bunches or 
communities, which '' strike in " successively, some of them loitering 
near the mouth, others swimming deep and pushing rapidly to its 
head. In this way we may account for the variation of fishing in 
diflf'erent parts of the same river, and during the same season. 

Mr. Livingston Stone established a hatching-house on the Mira- 
michi, and took over 400,000 salmon ova, of which one moiety was 



6-2 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

left in the countr}-, and the other sent to Charlestown, N. H. Of 
the latter about one-half proved to be impregnated, and a portion 
were afterwards hatched for the benefit of the upper Merrimack. 

The Commissioners called attention to the exceptional value of our 
smelt {Osmerus viridescens)^ and to its alarming decrease, owing to 
the method of netting great masses of the breeding fish, when they 
crowded up narrow streams to spawn. Not only had they become 
more scarce, but smaller ; that is to say, almost none escaped long 
enough to attain their full size. The same result followed in the 
Connecticut from overfishing of shad, so that the mesh had to be 
reduced in size to stop the fish. A series of laws have been passed 
for the protection of smelts (1868, chap. 179 ; 1869, chap. 64 and 
75; 1874, chap. 153). The general purport of the protection was 
that none should be caught save b}' hook and line, and that their 
capture should be prohibited from March 15 to June 1. The imme- 
diate consequence of this wise legislation was the increase in number 
and size of the smelts, so that now (1875) they exist in pristine 
plenty, and often swarm in their favorite tide-ways. Their capture 
gives emplo3^ment to man}' poor men at a season when work is 
scarce. 

The Commissioners ended b\**recommending a general law con- 
trolling inland fisheries, which would do awa}' with the custom of 
passing numerous special Acts. When a country is new, game is too 
plenty and men are too scarce, so that every one may properly enjoy 
free fowling and fishing. As civilization proceeds, and population 
grows more dense, game and fish become less and less abundant, 
until the}' no longer furnish an important proportion of the food 
consumed. Then it is that fish and game must, under certain rules, 
be made property, in order to keep up the supph*. This point had 
been reached in New England, where the market in the lack of home 
products was supplied with venison from Northern New York, salm- 
on and trout from New Brunswick, quails and grouse from Illinois, 
and ducks from North Carolina. There was nothing new or excep- 
tional in a law of this kind ; for the general court had been accus- 
tomed to grant property in waters, or in their fish, wherever it seemed 
for the public good. Thus, fishing was free in tidal waters, and in 
ponds of over ten acres, unless otherwise ordered by the legislature ; 
exclusive right to breed alewives had been granted to corporations ; 
control of trout-fishing had been given to individuals, two hundred 
yards into navigable tide-water ; a corporation had been allowed to 
control a zone of forty rods round an island ; the right to build weirs 
in tide-water had been given to individuals or to companies. A bill 
which embodied the spirit of this legislation, regulated and set in 
order, was ofi'ered by the Commissioners, under the name of an Act 



1876.] SENATE— No. 24. 63 

for encouraging the cultivation of useful fishes. It was received in 
the legislature with mingled surprise and opposition, because the 
matter was quite new, and because the manufacturers feared the 
clauses which related to fishwa3's and river pollutions. At first it 
was buried in amendments, and onl}' emerged towards the end of the 
session, when it was passed to be engrossed and sent down for con- 
currence by the Senate, but sent up again with twentj'-six amend- 
ments to its thirty-six sections. At last it was passed, and approved 
June 12, 1869, as an Act of thirty-four sections, whose chief points 
were the following : 

1. Commissioners on Inland Fisheries to be three, serving five 
years. 2. They may enforce fishery laws, enter on private property, 
and cause fish ways to be built. 3. May take fish at any season. 
4. Riparian projnietors control all flowage ponds, and other ponds 
which do not exceed twenty acres. 5. Commissioners may, for the 
public good, lease ponds exceeding twenty acres fur fish-culture. 

6. For the purpose of the Act, no tidal stream shall be considered 
navigable above where the channel is fortj^ feet '^ide and four deep. 

7. The governor may limit or prohibit fishing in certain streams, and 
may define their mouths and tidal bounds. 8. A riparian proprietor 
ma}' inclose a stream (leaving passage for migratory fish) ; fishes 
by him cultivated shall be his property, and be protected by penal- 
ties ; and he may take such fishes when he pleases, but may not sell 
them for food at unlawful seasons. 9. No one shall use a mesh of 
less than five inches, in the chief rivers, from April 15 to December 
15 ; nor use sweep seines so as practically to bar a river ; nor bar a 
waterfall with a salmon-pot ; nor take salmon, shad or alewives 
(certain streams excepted) on any day but Monday, Wednesday, 
Frida}^ or Saturda}" ; nor take any fresh-water fish except eels and 
pickerel, otherwise than by hook and line, dip-net, sweep-seine, or 
salmon-pot (trout only by hook and line) ; nor take salmon between 
August 1 and May 1 ; nor trout between September 20 and March 
20 ; nor shad from June 15 to March 1 ; nor black bass from De- 
cember 1 to June 1, or at an}' time otherwise than with hook and 
line; nor smelts and white perch from March 15 to June 1, except 
b}' hook and line. 10. Officers of markets must report offenders. 
11. Prosecutions must begin within four months, and one-half the 
fine shall go to the complainant. 

The principal points omitted during the passage of the Act were : 
1. The commissioners shall have authority to stop the discharge of 
pollutions by factories into streams or i)onds. 2. No one shall 
injure a fisher}' previously existing by polluting the water. 3. No 
one, at an illegal season, shall have in his possession interdicted fish. 

The first point was wisely struck out, because the power to stop 



64 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

pollution is too extensive and too complex for fisher}^ commissioners 
to hold. The second point, touching injury to previously existing 
fisheries, might well have stood. The omission of the third point, 
which forbade any one to have illegal fish in his possession, was a 
capital error, and one which paralyzed this side of the Act. Nobody 
can go to a market and prove that certain fish were taken loithin the 
Commonwealth. Practically, therefore, fishmongers may sell illegal 
fish, and affirm that they came from another State, albeit that very 
State makes their sale illegal at the same season. 

For smelts, the Act has been properl}- amended, and smelts disap- 
pear from the market at the illegal season. The same amendment 
should obtain for trout and other important fishes. 

1869. 

In the autumn of 1868, the Commissioners established a small 
hatching-house at Maple Spring, in Wareham. Mr. S. T. Tisdale 
gave the ground, and contributed towards the building, and to the 
time of his death, the year after, continued to interest himself in the 
undertaking. During the two seasons of its operation there were 
hatched over 30,000 fishes, the majority of which were salmon, trout, 
St. Croix land-locked salmon, and lake trout {Sahno toma). Daily 
observations of the temperature of water and air were recorded, and 
there appeared thence a fact which seems never to have been ex- 
plained ; namely, that the temperature of spring-water /aZ^s before a 
storm^ without regard to the rise or fall of the surrounding air. Thus, 
on November 20, 1868, the air rose 1°, and the water fell 5°. This 
fall was immediately followed by the greatest gale of the year. 
Similar phenomena were noted both in 1868 and 1867. Besides 
establishing by experiment the best conditions for hatching and 
the care of young, observations were made on the embryos. The 
rate of the heart was ascertained, and the possibility of stopping 
its action by cold and reestablishing it by heat. Prof. Agassiz 
discovered a caudal heart under the terminal bend of the vertebral 
column, which had its maximum activity during the two weeks 
following hatching. Its pulsations do not coincide with those of the 
heart proper. There were given figures of a trout embryo and one 
of a salmon, to show the distinction of form of the yolk-sack ; egg- 
shaped in the former, long and posteriorly pointed in the latter. For 
contrast, there was also presented an embryo of the common perch, 
and its movements and mode of life were compared with those of the 
salmonoids. Since the closing of the Wareham hatching-house, a 
small and simple establishment has been put up at Winchester, and 
all hatching needed by the State, including that of a large number 
of salmon, has been there conducted under the supervision of Mr. 
E. A. Brackett. 



1876.] SENATE— No. 24. 65 

This 3'ear one of the Commissioners, Mr. Lyman, took up the vital 
subject of the possible exhaustion of sea-fisheries. From the earliest 
times, laws had been passed in this colon}^ to prevent the decrease of 
fish. Already, in 1670, a supposed diminution of mackerel led to 
an Act for their protection, and there have since been, from time to 
time, attempts to control by enactment the method and season of 
capturing fish. A good part of these enactments were based, not on 
solid information, but on the beliefs of individuals or of small com- 
munities. Whenever legislative committees undertook to investigate 
the general question, there was little more than the negative result 
of a total want of proper facts. Nor was there more light in other 
countries. In 1805, an English commission, appointed to investigate 
the state of the sea-fisheries, made a voluminous report, whose con- 
clusion was that no kind of fishing essentially diminished the supply 
of sea-fish. This declaration called forth strong criticisms, and 
especially from two French writers, Rimbaud and Berthelot, who 
showed prett}' conclusiveh^ that the S3'stem of investigation pur- 
sued by the English commission was nearly worthless, consisting 
as it did in taking a vast amount of testimony from ignorant 
and exasperated fishermen, and thence drawing conclusions. The 
reliable facts were ver}^ few, and not at all enough to base any 
general reasoning ; and it did not appear that the commissioners 
made any personal examination of the fisheries themselves. Rim- 
baud went on to draw some essential distinctions, which the English 
commission had ignored. He called attention to the following 
groups o^ fishes, as marked by their numbers and habits: 1. The 
wandering or schooling fishes, which come and go in vast armies, 
and journey considerable distances, such as the tunn}', the mackerel, 
the herring and the cod. 2. The ivJdte JisJies, or local surface-swim- 
mers, which arc in groups more or less localized, and which swim 
habitually in the middle or upper water. They are often clad in 
pearly scales, are not usually affected by the tint of the bottom, and 
therefore are called " white." Such are striped bass, mullet and 
scup. 3. Bottom Jishes, which are localized like the preceding, but 
■which especially keep on the bottom, or feed among the weedy rocks. 
Some of them are white on one side and dark on the other, like tur- 
bot and flounders ; others, as the sea-perch and tautog, are variously 
tinted, according to the ledges they frequent. To the first of these 
three groups only does the conclusion of the English commission 
apply. The second and third groups may be diminished by exces- 
sive fishing, and still they were included by that commission under 
the general term " fish." And here it is well to note that an answer 
to the question for each species and for each locality is a matter of 
mere facty and not of theory or inference at all. The case may thus 
9 



66 mLAKD FISHERIES. [Jan. 

be presented. It is known that certain fishes, in certain places, by 
certain means, may be exterminated : salmon, in rivers, by dams ; 
smelts, in brooks, by netting. Again, it is known that certain fish- 
eries, though diligently pursued for centuries, do not exterminate 
the fish : the tunnj'-fisher}* of the Mediterranean ; the cod-fishery of 
the great northern banks'. The question, then, is this : Between a 
destructive and a not destructive fishery, where is the dividing line? 
This question of questions must not be answered in the lump, but 
for each species and for each locality, the facts must be known. To 
get these facts is always difficult, sometimes impossible. Suppose 
the problem was to ascertain whether striped bass {Labnix litieatus) 
had diminished. To satisfy this, five conditions would be needed, 
namely: Can [1] the same number of men [2], in the same time, 
[3] on the same ground, with [4J the same gear, catch [5] the same 
number of fish now that they formerly could ? Plainly, two means 
would be employed to solve the problem : first, all historical data 
would be collated : secondly, the species of fish and the localities 
having been grouped, an experiment would be made to determine 
the conditions of each group. The following experiment, carried 
out for a single locality by the Commissioners in 1871, will illus- 
trate the method. Waquoit Bay is a shallow, irregular, land-locked, 
man3'-lobed fiord, having at its upper end influent brooks, and com- 
municating at its lower end with the sea by a ver}' narrow passage 
through a sand barrier. Five hundred yards to the west of this 
passage, a weir projects 1,400 feet into the sea, and apparently 
stretches across the line of approach of the ale wives, which are said 
to come, in spring, from the westward. Complaint was made that 
this weir caught the alewives that were seeking to run into Waquoit 
Bay, in order to enter the brooks at its head, and thus pass into 
ponds where they spawned. The complaint seemed so reasonable 
and consistent as scarcel}^ to need proof; and. parth^ because the 
case promised to be simple, the Commissioners hired the weir for 
one season, and put a man in charge who kept a daih' record of fish 
taken, and of temperature of air and water. The result was this : 
first, that about four times as many alewives passed into the brooks 
at the bay's head as were captured in the weir outside the mouth 
of the bay ; secondly, that, of the alewives that sought the brooks, 
none were taken by the weir on their passage from the sea into the 
bay. In other words, the proved result was diametrically opposed 
to the untried theory. So far so good ; but if we should therefore 
affirm that another weir, situated outside another ba}^, did not stop 
alewives, we might find ourselves mistaken. In view of this experi- 
ment, it is not strange that any attempt (in advance of investigation) 
to denounce and prohibit certain sorts of fishing must fail for want 



1876.] SENATE— No. 24. 67 

of proof. Such an attempt was the great petition of 1870 to the 
legislature, asking that pounds, purse-seines, etc., be abolished. In 
speaking on the report of leave to withdraw, Capt. N. E. Atwood, 
chairman of the Committee on Fisheries, gave very interesting facts 
from his long experience as a fisherman and an ichthyologist, and, at 
the same time, contributed all that could be said in favor of free 
fishing. He called attention to certain great variations in fishes, 
apparently without the interference of man. The disappearance of 
Scomber Dekayi; the decrease of halibut; the increase of haddock, 
squeteague (OtoUtJms regalis), and Spanish mackerel {Cyhium mac- 
ulatum). He illustrated the vast fecundity of fishes, and set forth 
the extent of their feeding-grounds. In conclusion, he very properly 
opposed a general prohibitory Act, although he declared himself in 
favor of any local legislation that might prove needful. After all, . 
he could speak only in generalities, for the hearing on the petition 
afforded just the same crude mass of contradictory testimony that 
appeared on a larger scale in the English investigation already 
referred to. The investigation b}^ the state committee of Rhode 
Island, in 1870, brought out some reliable facts, because the space 
to be investigated (Narragansett Ba}') was limited, and only one fish, 
the scup {Pagrus argyrops)^ was of chief importance. The diminu- 
tion of this fish was admitted by all parties. The causes alleged 
were four : 1. Impurities in the water. 2. Want of food. 3. Traps 
or weirs. 4. Blue-fish {Temnodon saltator). The first two were 
absurd, and went down on slio-ht investifration. The last two were 
solid and important. It appeared that the blue-fish went away in 
1764 and came back in 1830, to find the scup abundant; and the 
two lived side b}' side for more than thirty years, without an}^ dimi- 
nution of the latter fish. It further appeared that scup greatly 
diminished as soon as traps became numerous, about the j^ear 1864. 
Therefore, there seems no escape from the conclusion that the real 
agents in the destruction of this species have been traps which take 
them by thousands of barrels, when, torpid with cold and heavy 
with spawn, they are crowded by tides and currents against certain 
points of the coast. Such was the conclusion entertained by Mr. 
Lyman, in 1871, as the only probable one, and the investigations of 
Prof. S. F. Baird, the United States commissioner, from 1871 to 
1875 inclusive, have confirmed it. 

This brief sketch may serve to show that powerful engines, like 
weirs, pounds, and traps, require regulation, but not such regulation 
as a general statute gives; for then a harmless pound might be seri- 
ously curtailed, while another, that was destructive, might be insuflS- 
ciently controlled. Each pound should be viewed in two ways : 
first, as an engine to be encouraged, because it furnishes large sup- 



68 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

plies of food ; sccondl}', as an engine to be wisely limited, whenever 
it becomes a monopoly, or is destructive. Most pounds are now out-' 
laws ; mere marine squatters. Tlicy should be placed on a legal 
footing, and have their rights and their obligations. To this end 
they should be placed under control, either of the Commissioners 
or of some other state officer. 



The provision for leasing of great ponds by the State, under section 
9 of the Act for encouraging the cultivation of useful fishes, began 
to attract attention, and seven ponds were thus leased during the 
3'ear. There have been leased to January 1, 1875, thirty-seven 
ponds. Of late much more interest has been exhibited, and the 
number of applications during the past year has been large. 

1871. 

There was given, in an Appendix, a collection of colonial and 
state laws on inland fisheries from 1G23 to 1871 inclusive. 

1872. 

Prizes for piscicultural establishments were awarded by the Mas- 
sachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture : the first, $300, to 
Messrs. Bacon, Dexter and Coolidge, of West Barnstable ; the sec- 
ond, $200, to Mr. D. H. Gilbert, of Plymouth. In the appendix 
of the report was given the water acreage of the State, b}^ towns 
showing a total of nearly 200,000 acres. 

1873. 

In this report was a plate of the improved Foster fishway ; and, 
in the report for 1874, a similar plate of the fishway at Holyoke, 
with the improved top-hamper of Mr. E. A. Brackett. 

In an appendix was given a treatise, by Mr. Livingston Stone, 
on the Sacramento salmon (Salmo quinnet)^ the eggs of which he 
has taken in large quantities, and sent across the continent. Many 
of them have been hatched in the state establishment, making the 
seventh species of the genus. The others were Salmo fontlnalis, S. 
salar, S. toma^ S. umbla, and the St. Croix and the Sebago land- 
locked salmons. 

The doings of 1874 have been related in treating of preceding 
3^ears. Those of 1875 will be found in the present Report. 

To sum up : the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries, during the 
ten years of their existence, have not been a costly board, and, in 
especial, the item of salaries has been a ver}' small one. They found 
the people of this State profoundly ignorant about shore and river 



1876.] SENATE— No. 24. 69 

fisheries, and as apathetic as ignorant. To-day the people are in- 
structed in the matter, and are thoroughly aware of its importance. 
By careful experiments, and b}^ wise legislation, our fisheries are 
already improved. Shad in the Connecticut, and smelts all along 
our coast, have been restored to their former abundance. The crop 
of alewives has been much increased ; black bass have been spread 
in the chief waters of the Commonwealth ; half a dozen species of 
trout and salmon have been bred and placed in proper streams ; a 
great number of ponds have been leased and stocked ; the law of 
dams and of fishwa3's has been established bv the highest courts ; 
and, finally, the diminution of our shore fisheries has been proved, 
and its cause and remedy pointed out. This last investigation is 
alone worth all the expense and labor of the commission. 

Most important of all is the general and healthy growth of 'public 
interest in pisciculture, — not here alone, but in the whole country. 
When, in 18G5, the late Judge Henry A. Bellows began his advocacy 
of fish-culture with so much faith, it seemed most unlikely that, 
within a 3'ear, commissioners would be appointed for each of the 
New England States ; that, within six j'cars, a commissioner would 
be sent b3" the general government, armed with power and means 
thoroughly to investigate the entire subject of fisheries ; and that, 
within ten years, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, 
Virginia, Alabama, Ohio, Michigan, Iowa, Minnesota and California, 
would likewise have their commissions activeh' engaged in restoring 
or in preserving their waters. 

A great deal is yet to be learned ; but we are on the good road to 
find out how many fish may be taken, and leave enough for seed. 



70 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jau. 



[D.] 

In view of the alarming and rapid decrease of our shore fishes, 
as set forth in Appendix C, the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries 
beg leave to call the serious attention of the general court to the 
following proposed Bill : — 

A BILL to regulate the Use of Stationary Apparatus in ttie Capture of Fish. 

Section 1. The commissioners on inland fisheries are hereby 
empowered to license individuals and corporations to erect, estab- 
lish and use, in the waters of this Commonwealth, whether naviga- 
ble or unnavigable, fixed nets, traps, pounds, pots, fykes, weirs, or 
other stationar}^ apparatus, for the purpose of capturing fish, upon 
application for such license duly made as hereinafter conditioned 
and provided. 

Section 2. All persons seeking such licenses shall make written 
application to said commissioners, specifying the locality in which 
they desire to use stationary apparatus as aforesaid, the exact char- 
acter of the said apparatus, together with all details and particulars 
necessary for an exact understanding of said apparatus ; and upon 
examination of such applications, and after public hearing, if they 
deem necessary, the said commissioners shall grant the license 
desired, provided the application be made on or before the first day 
of March in each year, subject to the conditions hereinafter men- 
tioned, it being understood that parties last in lawful possession of 
any fishing-station shall have preference in its assignment, unless 
barred by a violation of this act. 

Section 3. The license shall be in writing, signed by a majority 
of said commissioners, and shall state clearlj' the localit}' within 
which the same shall have eff'ect ; and no license shall have eflfect in 
any locality other than that mentioned and described therein, and 
shall prescribe the nature of such stationary apparatus, and such 
other limitations and directions as said commissioners shall deem 
proper ; and no license shall take efi'ect until the same shall be left 
for record with the clerk of the town or city within which the same 
is to have efi'ect, nor until the recording fee of said clerk, being the 
same as that established by law for recording mortgages of personal 
property of equal length, shall be fully paid. 



1876.] SENATE— No. 24. 71 

Section 4. The said licenses may embrace anj- period not ex- 
ceeding one 3^ear ; but, whenever given, they shall expire on the first 
day of January next following their date ; and the clerk of each city 
or town in which said licenses have been recorded shall, on the first 
day of April in each year, make return to said commissioners of the 
said licenses then in force, and the localities to which the same 
relate. 

Section 5. Every person who shall have received a license in the 
manner herein provided shall, before the first day of January follow- 
ing the date of said license, make accurate return to said commis- 
sioners of the numbers and the kinds of fish captured by him, during 
each dav of the season, by virtue of said license, and shall furnish 
accurate information of all other facts relating to said license which 
said commissioners may require ; and no license shall be renewed 
until said report shall have been made to the satisfaction of said 
commissioners. 

Section 6. No person enjoying such license shall take, or allow 
to be taken, any fish by means of stationary apparatus by him used, 
from the twentieth day of April until the fifteenth day of June in 
each 3'ear, in the interval of time between the hours of six o'clock on 
Friday evening and six o'clock on the following Monday morning : 
and every person enjoying such license shall comply with any and 
all regulations made by the commissioners for the purpose of allow- 
ing and securing an unobstructed passage of the fish through or by 
the apparatus in question during the time specified. 

Section 7. No license granted under the provisions of this act 
shall be construed as authorizing the grantee of the same to enter 
upon the land of individuals without their permission, nor to inter- 
fere, in any wa}^, with private property. 

Section 8. Whoever sets or uses, or causes to be set or used, in 
the waters of this Commonwealth, whether the same are navigable 
or unnavigable, any weir, pot, pound, yard, trap, or other stationary 
apparatus whatsoever, for the purpose of capturing fish, except by " 
virtue of a license duly issued, and for that particular localit}^, under 
the provisions of this act, shall forfeit and pay for each day during 
any part of which said apparatus is so set or used, a sum not less 
than fift}' dollars nor more than one hundred dollars, and shall 
forfeit all apparatus so used, including nets, stakes, boats, and so 
forth, which shall be sold, and the proceeds of such sale placed in the 
treasury of the Commonwealth. 

Section 9. Whoever, having received a license under the provi- 
sions of this act, shall neglect or refuse to comply with the pro- 
visions of the same, or of his license, shall forfeit and pay for each 
offence a sum not less than fifty dollars nor more than one hundred 



72 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jaii.76. 

dollars, except that in case of his violation of section six of this act 
he shall forfeit and pa}' for each day during an}- part of which his 
olfence is committed, a sum not less than fifty dollars nor more than 
one hundred dollars, and shall forfeit all apparatus used in violation 
of said section, which shall be sold, and the proceeds of such sale be 
placed in the treasury of the Commonwealth. 

Section 10. All actions and prosecutions under this act shall 
be commenced within six months after the offence is committed, and 
one-half of the fine or penalty recovered in any action or prosecution 
aforesaid shall be paid to the person who shall first bring an action 
of tort therefor, in his own name, or shall make complaint in any 
criminal case, and the remaining half in either case shall be paid 
into the treasury of the Commonwealth. 

Section 11. No apparatus for capturing fish shall be set in such 
manner or in such place as to obstruct reasonable navigation with 
boats or vessels ; but no one shall be permitted wantonly to destroy 
fishing apparatus lawfully set and managed, and for which the 
required license has been given, under penalty of not less than fifty 
nor more than five hundred dollars, to be recovered as aforesaid. 

Section 12. This act shall take effect from and after its passage. 



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SENATE No. 8. 



ELEVENTH ANNUAL EEPOET 



COMMISSIONEKS 



INLAND FISHERIES, 



Teae ending January 1, 1877. 



BOSTON: 

ALBERT J. WRIGHT, STATE PRINTER, 

79 Milk Street (corner op Federal). 

1877. 



\ 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Report, 5-16 

Appendix A. List of Commissioners, 21-23 

B. List of Ponds Leased, 24-27 

C. Letter of John McNeil, 28-30 

D. Letter of Dr. John P. Ordway, .... 31 

E. Retm-ns from Leased Ponds, .... 32-41 

F. Returns from Fisheries, 42-50 



CommoniDcaltl) of iillas0aff)U0ctt0. 



To His Excellency the Governor and Honorable Council. 

The Commissioners on Inland Fisheries beg leave to pre- 
sent their Eleventh Annual Report. 

FiSHWAYS. 

Hohjoke, 
An appropriation was made by the last Legislature for im- 
provements on the Holyoke and Lawrence fish ways. A small 
wing-dam, over thirty feet long, was built two years ago at 
the foot of the Holyoke pass for the purpose of checking the 
fish in their passage up the river, and enabling them the more 
readily to find the mouth of the way, the eflbct of which was 
so favorable that it was decided to extend it into the river 
about seventy-five feet. The freshet of last spring piled the 
ice on the Holyoke dam fifty feet high, and when it broke 
away, it not only carried ofl:' the small dam, but materially 
injured the lower part of the fishway. A much larger and 
more complete structure has been built this summer in place 
of the one destroyed, so arranged that gratings can be placed 
upon it, and the fish turned directly to the mouth of the way. 
The work has been done by the day, in a most thorough and 
substantial manner, and at much less cost than any estimate 
which could be obtained. The openings have been enlarged 
from twenty-four to thirty inches, and the fishway otherwise 
greatly improved. 

Lawrence, 

The top hamper of this pass has been altered so as to 

resemble that of the Holyoke. The grade of the way was 

one foot in ten, and could not be altered without involving 

great expense ; while that of the Holyoke, which works so 



6 IXLAXD FISHERIES. [Jan. 

well in its slow current and even flow of water, is one foot in 
fifteen. 

Some apprehensions were felt that this sharp grade might 
possibl}^ develop difficulties not easily overcome, and to meet 
this the way was made two feet six inches deep instead of two 
feet, with capacit}^ for greater depth if required, without fur- 
ther outlay. The result showed that the objections had been 
fullj' met, and the current was sufficiently slow to admit of the 
easy passage of all kinds of fish. All the smaller species 
passed freely over the old fishway, and this year ale wives 
have been taken in considerable quantities in several places 
between Lawrence and Manchester. 

No shad have been seen at the dam this season, which is 
undoubtedly owing to the excessive fishing and total disre- 
gard of law on the part of the fishermen below. At Hol- 
yoke, the damage done to the lower part of the fishway was 
such that it was scarcel}' to be expected that the shad could 
find their way to it, and the repairs could not be made until 
low water, at which time the fish would have ceased to run. 
The superintendent reported that he had not seen any shad 
in the way, but subsequent information received from several 
places on the river above the dam showed that it was not the 
fault of the shad that he did not see them. Later in the sea- 
son, while drawing off the water for repairs at the paper mill, 
a full-sized shad was found in the canal just above the fishway. 
Mr. Charles C. Smith, one of the owners of the seining 
ground at South Hadley, has reliable informations of six 
large shad taken just below Greenfield. 

Whatever of interest or advantage ma}' accrue to the peo- 
ple of this State from the successful working of the Holyoke 
and Lawrence fishway s, it should be borne in mind that these 
expensive structures have been built to satisfy the demands 
of New Hampshire and Vermont, we having by insurmount- 
able dams deprived them of migratory fish. Of the justice 
of their claims there appears to be no question, and now that 
the work has been done in such a way that leaves little or no 
doubt of success, no obstacle should be allowed to stand in 
the way of thoroughly testing it. 

At the close of this Report will be found the amount ex- 
pended on these two fishways. The Essex Compan}' contrib- 



1877.] SENATE— No. 8. 7 

uted $500 toward the Lawrence fishway, without which the 
work could not have been completed this year. 

Westfield River, 
The negotiations with the Agawam Canal Company have 
resulted in an agreement on their part to build a fishway over 
their dam. A copy thereof is here submitted : — 

"To E. A. Brackett, Fish Commissioner. 

*' The Agawam Canal Compan}" hereby agree to build a fishway, 
according to plans to be furnished them by your Board, free of ex- 
pense or cost, and agree to have the same completed on or before 
the first day of September, 1877, unless your Board are willing for 
any cause to extend the time beyond said 1st of September. 
"The Agawam Canal Company, 

"By Wm. K. Baker, Treasurer. 
"E. Trask, 
"j. h. southworth, 
"James Kirkham, 
"Jas. D. Brewer, 
" Henry Fuller, Jr., 

'•''Majority of the Board of Directors. 
" Springfield, Mass., July 29, 1876." 

Palmer's River. 
Plans and specifications have been furnished the Orleans 
Company at Rehoboth for a fishway over their dam, and Mr. 
C. R. Cutler, treasurer, has responded in a very friendly note, 
giving the assurance that the work will be completed before 
the time for the fish to run next spring. There is a fine pool 
just below this dam, where the shad congregate in large num- 
bers ; we are informed that as many as seven hundred have 
been taken here in one day. If the people interested in the 
fisheries on this river will attend to their duty and see that a 
law is passed protecting the fishway s, and will for a few sea- 
sons put shad above the dam, a large increase may be ob- 
tained, otherwise the way will be useless. In all applications 
hereafter made for opening streams and rivers to the passage 
of fish, whether by petition or vote of towns, we shall require 
assurance to be given by the applicants that their part of the 



8 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

obligations will be strictly complied with before we subject 
the mill-owners to the expense of building fishways. 

Saugus River, 
The town of Wakefield, by a unanimous vote, requested that 
the Commissioners should cause fishways to be built over the 
dams on this river. Assurance being given that if it was 
opened it would be restocked on the last of July, a careful 
examination was made of the whole length of the river. For- 
merly it was well stocked with shad and ale wives. A few 
alewives still run up as far as the Scott's mills ; the two dams 
below being tide-mills offer little or no impediment to their 
passage. The river, though small, is a fine one, capable of 
sustaining a large number of fish. Notice has been given to 
the owners of dams to put in ways. All fishing should be 
suspended for four or five years to enable the river to be 
restocked. 

Squahetty Dam. 
The towns above this dam have taken steps to stock their 
rivers and streams with the larger migratory fish, many 
thousand shad having been put in at Bridgewater and Middle- 
borough during the past season. Some changes w^ill be 
needed at this dam the comino^ season. 



o 



Monatiquot Itiver, 

In 1872-3, fishways were built over nine dams on this 
river. Of migratory fish, a few smelt and alewives only ran 
up as far as the first dam at Hobart's mills. 

In 1873, several thousand shad spawn were put into hatch- 
ing-boxes in the upper part of the river. The parties having 
charge of them reported that the eggs all died. As they were 
ail in good condition when put in the hatching-boxes, the 
statement was doubted, and subsequent investigation rendered 
it pretty certain that a large per cent, hatched, and the young 
passed through the wire-screens in the bottom of the 
boxes. The following extract, from a letter written by Mr. 
Eben Denton of Weymouth, is interesting as showing not 
only the large increase of smelts and alewives, but also that 
the shad spawn which was reported dead has been the means 



1877.] SENATE— No. 8. 9 

of stocking the river, and that the mature fish returned in 
three years from the time they were hatched : — 

** Weymouth, November 27, 1876. 
" Mr. E. a. Brackett. 

" My Dear Sir : — As far as my knowledge of the matter extends, 
I can sa}' that all the fishwa3-s are in good condition, except that 
the second — N. L. White's — is passable only at high stages of the 
river. With an ordinary quantity of water running, the upper end 
of the passage is dr}^, caused b}' the many breaks and leaks in the 
old and unused dam. Still, many fish must have passed over, for 
they were seen above the sixth dam, but none were seen at or near 
the tenth and last dam, and none consequently entered the pond. 
There is an obstruction somewhere below the tenth dam. 

" The number of fish in the river at the spawning season was very 
great; not only alewives in shoals, but smelts in immense numbers, 
and many shad, were seen ; at least one shad was taken, which shows 
that the eggs hatched in 1873 were not all dead, as stated. As the 
law now stands relating to fisheries on this river, the fish cannot be 
protected from trespass, and unless a new Act is passed this winter 
by the Legislature, fishing will be practically free to all, and the 
usual consequences may be predicted. 

"I remain, very truly 3'ours, etc., 

"Eben Denton." 

Alewives (Alosa tyrannus). 

The reports on alewives have been variable ; in some 
places the run has been large, in others quite small. These 
fish are so productive and so easily bred that it is the merest 
folly not to keep them up to the desired number. Something 
cannot come of nothing, and if persons having charge of 
these fisheries will insist upon keeping tlje number of parent 
fish below what is required to keep up the stock, they have 
nothing to blame but their own mismanagement. In nine 
cases out of ten it is useless to attribute the falling off' to 
anything else. 

The lateness of the spring or temperature of the water 
may retard but does not ^prevent migratory fish returning to 
where they were bred to deposit their spawn. All theories 
about their leaving the waters where they belong and going 
up other rivers and streams, are in direct violation of the 
laws goveiniug all such fioh ; it never occurs except where 
2 



10 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

they are suddenly shut off from their spawning grounds by 
impassable dams, and even here such cases are very rare. 
There is scarcely a stream in the State stocked with ale- 
wives that could not, with care, in a few years, be made to 
produce tenfold its present returns. 

Shad (Alosaprcestabilis), 

The catch on the lower part of the Connecticut has been 
remarkably fine ; probably in no year since the river has 
been fished has it been so large. The fishermen on that part 
of the river, with their pounds, gill-nets and seines, have left 
but a meagre supply for this State. The hatching at South 
Hadley was run in the interest of the United States Commis- 
sion, with the understanding that a certain percentage of the 
fry should be put in above the Holyoke dam, and all unripe 
fish returned to the river alive. In consequence of the high 
temperature of the water and the scarcity of mature fish, the 
result was almost an entire failure. This, of course, could 
not be helped ; but it was rendered still more unfortunate by 
the destruction of all the unripe fish, instead of putting them 
back to be used when matured. 

In accordance with the suggestion made in last year's 
report, the hatching at North Andover was discontinued for 
this year. It is probable that had the effort been made, the 
same difliculties which occurred at South Hadley would have 
more or less affected the operations at this place also. 

But few returns have been made by the fishermen of the 
Merrimac ; enough, however, has been reported by those 
who complied with the law to show that the run has been 
large. It would require no great amount of foresight to 
predict with a good deal of certainty that in the next three 
or four years there will be a decided falling off of the shad 
fisheries in both these rivers. 

Salmon (Salmo solar). 
Four hundred and fifty thousand salmon spawn were 
received last January from the Bucksport salmon hatching 
establishment, in excellent condition, hatching with a loss of 
about one per cent. Some two hundred thousand of these 
eggs were presented by Professor Baird, United States Com- 



1877.] SENATE— No. 8. 11 

missiouer, Tvith the understanding that they were to be put, 
when hatched, into the tributaries of the Merrimac for the 
benefit of both States ; and it was supposed that if this State 
bore all the expenses of hatching and caring for them till 
ready to be turned out, the New Hampshire Commission 
would be more than glad to take them to the headwaters of 
the Merrimac. Notice was sent to Mr. Oliver H. Noyes, 
Chairman of that Commission, that the fish would be ready 
about the middle of May, and were at his disposal. He 
replied in a very friendly note, stating that the position in 
which he was placed compelled him to decline the ofi'er. 
This fact becoming known to Mr. John McNeil, formerly of 
Hillsborough, N. H., he at once volunteered to take charge 
of the fish and relieve the Commission from any expense in 
the distribution. Much credit is due Mr. McNeil for his 
disinterested devotion to the work under trying circum- 
stances, the thermometer often running above ninety degrees 
during the transportation. Through his care and good judg- 
ment, the four hundred thousand young salmon were put into 
the headwaters of the Merrimac in excellent condition. 

Winchester, November 8, 1876. 
To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

Gentlemen : — Some time in the early part of last May, Mr. Brack- 
ett, of your Board, informed me that he had offered to the Fish 
Commissioners of New Hampshire four hundred salmon fry, with 
the view of having them deposited in the Baker and Pemigewasset 
rivers, tributaries to the Merrimac. His proposition was to fur- 
nish fish-cans, ice, and whatever else might be necessary for their 
transportation, and put them aboard the cars at Winchester, free of 
cost or charge to the State of New Hampshire. For some unknown 
reason, they declined to accept the offer. Colonel John H. George 
and myself being natives of that State, and feeling a deep interest 
in the success of this great enterprise, thought best to accept Mr. 
Brackett's generous proposition. John E. Lyon, Esq., President of 
the Boston & Montreal Railroad, becoming acquainted with the 
facts, offered us free transportation for fish and men to anj- point on 
that road. On the 22d of May, we commenced taking them at the 
rate of thirty-five thousand per day, until the whole number were 
deposited. The farthest northern point was in Baker's River, at 
Warren ; the most southern point was in the Pemigewasset, at 
Franklin. A great majority of them were put into the Pemigewas- 



INLAND FISHERIES. [J 



an. 



set, above Livermore's Falls. The loss by transportation was com- 
paratively nothing, hardly ever amounting to more than three or 
four fish in a can. Mr. Charles M. Stark of Dumbarton, N. H., and 
Mr. Robert R. Holmes of East Wareham, Mass., who assisted me, 
are entitled to much commendation for the care and fidelity with 
which they discharged their dut3\ 

At the time we commenced moving the fish. Governor Cheney 
was absent from the State, on a trip to California. On his return, 
he expressed much satisfaction at what had been done, and said he 
would become personall}^ responsible for the incidental expenses of 
the undertaking. Subsequenth^, the State paid the amount. 

I found a good friend to the cause, and a valuable assistant, in 
Mr. E. B. Hodge of Plymouth, N. H., a gentleman who not only 
takes great interest in fish culture, but is well versed in the Cana- 
dian system of artificial propagation. He informed me that, last 
3'ear; he had seen several lots of young salmon which have been 
caught from the Pemigewasset bj^ tourists. Herewith I send a copy 
of a communication recently received from him : — 

Plymouth, October 26, 1876. 
Friend McNeil:— In answer to yours of the 22d, asking after the 
salmon placed here this season by you, as far as I have been able to 
ascertain by personal observation, and I have devoted some little time to 
it, and hava made inquiries of others, I am fully satisfied that, so far, the 
experiment has been a success, not only for this year, but for last. I 
have seen large numbers of the fingerliugs of last year. They were, in 
August, about five inches in length ; some were larger. They were very 
plenty in the Pemigewasset, and I observed a few in Baker's River. I saw, 
in Baker's River, in August, near the mouth of Cold Brook, several hun- 
dred of this season's fry. They were about two and one-half inches long, 
and seemed healthy, although they must have suff'ered from the liigh 
temperature of the water, — for it was warmer than it has been known for 
many years ; but I have seen no dead fish of any kind. In September, I 
saw some of this year's fry in the Pemigewasset, one of which I secured 
with a landing-net. It was three and a quarter inches in length. Many 
young salmon have been taken this season by — I will not call them 
anglers — but "gentleman pot-hunters." Now, don't blame the natives; 
for the depredators come from your State. I have done what I could to 
prevent it, and, in a measure, have been successful. Should nothing 
befall the fish this winter, the rivers will be alive with them next summer, 
when some measures should be taken to protect them. 

Yours truly, E. B. Hodge. 

From the careful observations of Mr. Hodge, as well as the 
favorable reports from the inhabitants along the Pemigewasset and 
Baker's rivers, I feel justified in saying that the enterprise thus far 
is a complete success. Joun McNeil. 



1877.] 



SENATE— No. 8. 



13 



Ten thousand young salmon were sent to George G. 
Lowell of Cotuit Port, for Cotuit River, and thirty thousand 
to J. L. S. Thompson of Lancaster, for the Nashua River. 

Land-locked, or Fresh-water Salmon. 
The proportion of spawn due this State from the Grand 
Lake hatching establishment last year was two hundred and 
ten thousand, from which about one hundred and ninety-five 
thousand young fish were obtained, and were distributed as 
follows : — 



George L. Fessenden, for pond in Sandwich, 
E. S. Merrill, for pond in Winchendon, 
Cyrus Kilburn, for pond in Lunenburg, 
James L. Chapin, for pond in Lincoln, 
H, C. Bacon, for pond in Boxford, 
N. D. Parks, for pond in Westfield, . 
J. N. Vinson, for pond in South Weymouth, 
William H. Murray, for pond in Pittsfield, 
E. C. Howard, for pond in North Sandwich, 
Julius A. George, for pond in Mendon, 
A. C. Brigham, for pond in South Abington, 
Hollis Ilunnewell, for pond in Wellesley, . 
J. D. W. French, for pond in North Andover, 
J. L. S. Thompson, for pond in Lancaster, 
J. Dwight Francis, for pond in Pittsfield, . 

D. E. Damon, for pond in Plymouth, . 
Ohio Whitney, for pond in Ashburnham, . 
A. M. Shaw, for pond in South Carver, 
George G. Lowell, for pond in Cotuit Port, 

E. H. Hartshorn, for pond in Berlin, . 
Henry W. Smith, for pond in Athol, . 
W. P. Bigelow, for pond in Natick, . 
Fred. W. Clapp, for pond in Framingham, 
Fred. Winsor, for pond in Winchester, 



3,500 
3,000 
4,000 
3,000 
4,000 
5,000 
3,000 
4,000 
5,000 
3,000 
3,000 
3,000 
5,000 
15,000 
8,000 
3,000 
5,000 
3,000 
4,000 
3,000 
3,000 
3,500 
3,000 
6,000 



The Commissioners having, under the Act of 1876, taken 
possession of Halfway Pond in Plymouth, for the purpose of 
raising and distributing fish in other waters of the State, the 
remainder were put into this pond. There will most likely 
be from one to two hundred thousand of these fish for distri- 
bution next May. 



14 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

The plan has been to furnish them at the state hatching- 
house in Winchester, free of charge, to all applicants having 
under their control any of the great ponds of the State. For 
transportation, parties should bring with them good clean half- 
barrels or milk-cans, holding ten or twelve gallons, a ther- 
mometer and a dipper for aerating the water. The half- 
barrels will carry from four to five thousand, and the milk- 
cans about three thousand. 

The introduction of these fish into ponds having neither 
inlet nor outlet for them to run into, is an experiment the 
result of which time alone can settle. That trout will breed 
in such ponds, and that these salmon spawn on the shoals of 
Sebago Lake, is well known. 

Applications should be made as early as possible, in order 
to determine their distribution. Many persons applied last 
year, after most of the fish had been sent out, and several 
requests came weeks after the house had been entirely 
cleared. 

The reports from a number of ponds where they have been 
introduced are encouraging, indicating that they have been 
so far successful. That there will be failures in some 
instances is to be expected, but if we succeed in establishing 
them in one-quarter of the great ponds of the State, it will 
be ample reward for all the labor and money expended in 
their introduction. 

Califoenia Salmon (Sdlmo quinnat). 
Of the seventy-five thousand of these fish hatched October, 
1875, fifty thousand were intrusted to the care of John S. 
Wadleigh, Commissioner of New Hampshire, with the under- 
standing that they should be put into Baker's River at 
Warren. How many of them reached their destination it is 
impossible to say, as no report could be obtained from him, 
but it is presumed that most of them were deposited accord- 
ing to agreement. Twenty-five thousand were put into the 
headwaters of North River, near Curtis's Mills. 

On the 5th of last October, two hundred thousand spawn 
were received from Professor Baird in good condition. There 
was a loss of twelve thousand four hundred and forty eggs in 
hatching, and a still further loss of young fish may reduce 



1877.] SENATE— No. 8. 15 

the number to be distributed in December to one hundred 
and eighty thousand. 

It is generally understood that these fish are more active, 
more rapid in growth and better able to withstand the 
extremes of heat and cold than our Atlantic salmon. To 
offset these good qualities, it is stated that they never return 
to the sea after spawning, but die soon after depositing their 
eggs, polluting the water with their decaying bodies as they 
drift down by the hundreds of thousands. This may be true, 
and some advocate of evolution may yet be able to trace them 
back to that class of insects which perish in the effort to 
propagate their species. 

The theory that our rivers, in consequence of cutting off 
the forests, have become too warm for the salmo salar, is not 
likely to be sustained by facts. The past summer was 
remarkable not only for its heat, but also for the unpre- 
cedented low stage of water, and, therefore, some anxiety 
was felt in regard to the young salmon in the upper waters of 
the Merrimac. They have been carefully looked after by 
parties familiar with the habits of these fish, and in no 
instance were any dead ones found, though thousands were 
seen all through the summer and fall apparently perfectly 
healthy and full of life. 

From most of the sixty-eight great ponds of the State 
leased and stocked, reports have been received and put on 
file for future use. With scarcely an exception, the indica- 
tions are favorable. Many of the returns are interesting, and 
we should have been glad to have printed them in full, but 
that would have added about seventy pages to the Report, 
which, as a matter of economy, it was thought best to avoid. 
Abstracts of several, from those ponds first leased, will be 
found in the Appendix. 

The fish ways at Lawrence and Holyoke are completed, and, 
with proper care and attention, there appears to be no reason 
why they should not fully answer the purpose for which they 
were built. Many passes Lave been constructed over dams 
in other parts of the State, and, in all cases where the new 
form has been adopted, have given satisfaction. 

The run of ale wives has been large. New streams have 
been opened and restocked, and the old ones, as a general 
rule, been managed with more skill and better judgment. 



16 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

The shad have been largely increased in the Mcrriraac ; 
and on the lower part of the Connecticut, the catch during 
the last season was better than ever before known. 

The headwaters of the Merrimac are swarming with young 
salmon, while the full-grown fish are making their appearance 
in both rivers. 

Some sixty-eight great ponds of the State have been stocked 
with black bass, land-locked salmon and other fish, and, as a 
natural consequence, all the streams connected therewith are 
getting their share. 

Black bass are plenty in the upper part of the Connecticut, 
and are rapidly increasing in the Merrimac. 

The result thus far is all that could reasonably be expected. 
Among the obstacles in the way of success, and which have 
yet to be overcome, are selfishness and lawlessness on the 
part of many of the fishermen. They are the only class of 
men who appear to be blind to the future, and rigidly practise 
the doctrine of taking no thought for the morrow. As the 
fish increase and the catch becomes more profitable, the num- 
ber of seines and fishermen also increases, and the wrangling 
between contending parties has led to almost a total disregard 
of law on the Merrimac. The course here pursued, if allowed 
to continue, will render abortive any efibrts that have been or 
may hereafter be made to repair the injury done to the State 
above. So completely has this work been carried on, that 
not a shad was known to reach the Lawrence dam during the 
past season. No complaint has been made of the fishermen 
in litis State for violation of law on the Connecticut ; but in 
the river below and at the mouth of it, the number of pounds, 
gill-nets and seines, together with the number of days they 
are allowed to be used, is producing a like result, and we 
most earnestly appeal to the Commissioners of Connecticut to 
see to it that our State, as well as the State above, is justly 
dealt with. 

For the necessary expenses of the Commission, we recom- 
mend an appropriation of five thousand dollars ($5,000). 

THEODORE LYMAN, 
E. A. BRACKETT, 
ASA FRENCH, 
Commissioners on Inland Fisheries, 



1877.] 



SENATE— No. 8, 



17 



EXPENDITURES OF COMMISSION. 



Salary 81,650 00 

Travelling expenses, 220 92 

Postage, 29 98 



General Expenses. 
Subscription to Schoodic salmon enterprise, 
Transportation of fish, . 
Labor in state hatching-house, 
Lantern, fish-cans, etc.. 
Plans and specifications. 
Printing, 
Advertising, 
Painting, 

Care of fishways, . 
Lumber, labor on nettiog, etc., 
Rent of ground for hatching-house 
Improvement of Lawrence fishwa\ 
Improvement of Holyoke fishway at South 
Hadley Falls, 







$1,900 90 


8800 


00 




352 


98 




60 


34 




47 


85 




18 


00 




no 


63 




29 


00 




16 


50 




48 


00 




8 


15 




50 


00 




1,906 


33 




1,028 


04 


4,475 82 










86,376 72 



A. P P E N D I X . 



[A.] 
COMMISSIONERS ON FISHERIES. 



UNITED STATES. 

T>- e c^^^.^^^x? o.-r^^ /Smithsonian Institution, 

Prof. Spencer F. Baird, . . . • ^ ,,. . . ^ r. 

\ Washington, D. C. 

MAINE. 

E. M. Sttlwell, Bangor. 

Henry O. Stanley, Dixfield. 

new HAMPSHIRE. 

Luther Hayes, Milton. 

Samuel Webber, Manchester. 

Albina Powers, Grantham. 

VERMONT. 

M. Goldsmith, Rutland. 

Rev. Wm. H. Lord, Montpelier. 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

Theodore Lyman, Brookline. 

E. A. Brackett, Winchester. 

Asa French, South Braiutree. 

CONNECTICUT. 

William M. Hudson, Hartford. 

Robert G. Pike, Middletown. 

James A. Bill, , Lyme. 

RHODE ISLAND. 

Newton Dexter, Providence. 

Alfred A. Reed, Jr., Providence. 

John H. Barden, , Scituate. 

NEW YORK. 

Horatio Seymour, Utica. 

Robert R. Roosevelt, New York City. 

Edward M. Smith, Rochester. 



22 INLAND FISHERIES. 

NEW JERSEY. 

J. R. Shotwell, Rahway. 

G. A. Anderson, Trenton. 

B. P. HowEi,L, Woodbury. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

H. J. Reeder, Easton. 

B. L. Hewitt, Hollidaysburg. 

James Duffy, Marietta. 

MARY LAND. 

T. B. Ferguson, Baltimore. 

'l\ Downes, ....... Denton. 

VIRGINIA. 

A. MOSELY, Richmond. 

Dr. W. B. Roberts, Lynchburg. 

M. C. Ellsley, Blacksburg. 

A LAB AM A. 

CiiAKLES S. G. Dosteh, . .... Montgomery. 

Ro. Tyler, Montgomery. 

D. R. Hundley, Courtland. 

OHIO. 

John Hussey, . . . . . . Lockland. 

John H. Klippart, Columbus. 

Dr. Elisha T. Stirling, .... Cleveland. 

MICHIGAN. 

Andrew J. Kellogg, Allegan. 

Geo. Clark, . Ecorse. 

£. R. Miller, Richland. 

IOWA. 

Samuel B. Evans, Ottumwa. 

B. F. Shaw, . Anamosa. 

Charles A. Haynes, Waterloo. 

MINNESOTA . 

A. W. Latham, Excelsior. 

K. O. Sweeny, . . • . . . . St. Paul. 

Horace Austin, St. Paul. 

CALIFORNIA. 

B. B. Redding, Sacramento. • 

S. R. Throckmorton, San Francisco. 

J. D. Farwell San Francisco. 



rjan. 



1877.] 



SEiNATE— A'o. 8. 



23 



DOMINION OF OA.NADA. 



VV . X 


. «v £tiii^i:ii:<it, . 




ARKANSAS. 




WLUAWa. 


N. H 


Fish, . 


. * . 


Pine Bluffs. 


J. R. 


Steelman, . 


. . 


Little Rock. 


N. B. 


Peace, . 


WISCONSIN. 


Fayetteville. 


A. Palmer, . 


• . I • 


Bo.-^cabel. 


William Welch. . 


. 


Madison. 


P. R. 


Hoy, . 


. 


Racine, 






UTAH TERRITORY 


, 


A. P. 


LOCKWOOD, . 


KENTUCKY. 


Salt Lake City. 


P. H. 


Darbey, 


. 


Caldwell County 


Polk Lakfoon, 












Hopkins 


Dr. S 


. W. Coombs, 












Warren 


Hon. 


C. J. Walton, 












Hart 


Pack Thomas, 












Jefferson " 


Hon. 


James B. Casey, 












Kenton " 


Hon. 


John A. Steele, 












Woodford 


J. H. 


Bruce, . 












Garrard '• 


Gen. 


T. T. Garrard, 












Clay 


W. C 


Allen, . 












Bath 



24 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 



[B.] 
LIST OF PONDS LEASED 

By fJie Commissioners on Inland Fisheries^ under authority given by 
Chap. 384, Sect. 9, of the Acts of 1869.* 



1870. 

Feb. 1. Waushakum Poad, in Framinghrim, to Sturtevant and 

others, 20 j'ears. 
Mar. 1. TisbuiT Great Pond, in Tisbury and Chilmark, Alien 

Looli: and others, 10 j'eai-s. 
Apr. 1. Chaiincej Pond, in Westborough, to Trustees Reform 

School, 5 years. 
1. Mendon Pond, in Mendon, to Leonard T. Wilson and 

another, 20 years. 
Jnne 20. Silver Lake, in Wilmington, to Charles 0. Billings and 

others, 20 years. 
Sept. 12. Baptist Lake, in Newton, to J. F. C. Hyde and others, 

20 3^ears. 
Oct. 15. Archer's Pond, in Wrentham, to William E. George, 15 

3'ears. 

1871. 

Jan. 10. Nine Mile Pond, in Wilbraham, to B. F. Bowles, iO 

years. 
30. Little Pond, in Falmouth, to F. H. Dimmick, 10 years. 
Apr. — . Spectacle, Triangle, and Peter's ponds, in Sandwich, to 

G. L. Fessenden and another, 5 years. 

17. Long Pond, in Falmouth, to Joshua S. Bowerman and 

three others, 20 years. 
May 15. Pratt's Pond, in Upton, to D. W. Batcheller, 20 years. 

18. Little Sandy Pond, in Plymouth, to William E. Perkins, 

15 3'ears. 

* We would remind lessees of ponds that they are required, by their leases, to use 
all reasonable efforts to stock their ponds and keep accurate records of the same, and 
make returns of their doings to the Commissioners on the first of October, each year, 
of the number and species of fish which they have put in or removed from their 
ponds. Any failure to comply with these conditions is a breach of contract invali- 
dating their lease. It is important that the State should know just what is being 
done ; and, where there appears to be mismanagement, or apparent failures, the Com- 
missioners will visit the ponds, and ascertain, if possible, the cause. 



1877.] SENATE— No. 8. 25 

1871. 

Nov. 1. Punkapoag Pond, in Randolph and Canton, to Henry L. 
Pierce, 20 years. 

1872. 

Jan. 1. Sandy Pond, Forest Lake, or Flint's Pond, in Lincoln, 
to James L. Chapin and others, 20 years. 

Apr. 1. Onota Lake, in Pittsfield, to William H. Murray and 
others, 5 years. 

July 20. Little Pond, in Braintree, to Eben Denton and others, 
20 years. 

1873. 

May 1. Meeting-house Pond, in Westminster, to inhabitants of 

Westminster, 15 years. 
1. Great Pond, in Weymouth, to James L. Bates and others, 

15 years. 
July 1. Little Sandy Pond, in Pembroke, to A. C. Brigham and 

others, 16 years. 
Sept. 1. Pontoosue Lake, in Pittsfield and Lanesborough, to E. 

H. Kellogg and others, 15 years. 
Oct. 1. Farm Pond, in Sherborn, to inhabitants of Sherborn, 15 

years. 

1. Spot Pond,'in Stoneham, to inhabitants of Stoneham, 15 

years. 
Nov. 1. Lake Chaubunagungamong, or Big Pond, in Webster, to 

inhabitants of Webster, 5 3-ears. 
Dec. 1. Lake Wauban, in Needham, to Hollis Hunnewell, 20 

years. 

1874. 

Mar. 1. Walden and White ponds, in Concord, to inhabitants of 
Concord, 15 years. 

2. Upper Nankeag, in Ashburnham, to inhabitants of Ash- 

burnham, 20 years. 
Apr. 1. Elder's Pond, in Lakeville, to inhabitants of Lakeville, 
15 years. 
20. North and South Podunk ponds, in Brookfield, to inhab- 
itants of Brookfield, 15 years. 
May. 2. Brown's Pond, in Peabody, to John L. Shorey, 15 years. 
1. Maquan Pond, in Hanson, to the inhabitants of Hanson, 
15 years. 
16. Wickaboag Pond, in West Brookfield, to Lemuel FuUam, 

15 3'ears. 
20. Unchechewalom and Massapog ponds, to the inhabitants 
of Lunenburg, 20 years. 
July 1. Hardy's Pond, in Waltham, to H. E. Priest and others, 
15 years. 
i 



26 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

1874. 

July 1. Hockomocko Pond, in Westborough, to L. N. Fairbanks 
and others, 15 years. 

11. Mitchell's Pond, in Boxford, to R. M. Cross and others, 
15 3'ears. 

11. Hazzard's Pond, in Russell, to N. D. Parks and others, 
20 years. 
Oct. 1. East Waushacum Pond, in Sterling, to inhabitants of 
Sterling, 20 years. 

20. Middleton Pond, in Middleton, to inhabitants of Middle- 
ton, 15 years. 

1875. 

Jan. 1. White and Goose ponds, in Chatham, to George W. 

Davis, 15 3'ears. 
Mar. 1. Lake Pleasant, in Montague, to inhabitants of Monta- 
gue, 10 3'ears. 
1. Hood's Pond, in Ipswich and Topsfield, to inhabitants 
of Topsfield, 15 years. 
Apr. 1. Chauncey Pond, in Westborough, to inhabitants of West- 
borough, 15 3'ears. 
3. West's Pond, in Bolton, to J. D. Hurlburt and others, 

15 3'ears. 
15. Gates Pond, in Berlin, to E. H. Hartshorn and others, 

15 years. 
24. Pleasant Pond, in Wenham, to inhabitants of Wenham, 
15 years. 
May 1. Morse's Pond, in Needham, to Edmund M. Wood, 15 
years. 
1. Great Pond, in North Andover, to Eben Sutton and 

. others, 20 years. 
1. Chilmark Pond, in Chilmark, to J. Nickerson and others, 
agents, 20 years. 
July 1. Winter Pond and Wedge Pond, in Winchester, to inhab- 
itants of Winchester, 15 years. 
1. Haggctt's Pond, in Andover, to inhabitants of Andover, 
20 years. 
Aug. 1. Oyster Pond, in Edgartown, to J. H. Smith and others, 
20 years. 
7. West Waushacum Pond, in Sterling, to inhabitants of 

Sterling, 20 years. 
9. Mystic (Upper) Pond, in Winchester, Medford, and 
Arlington, to inhabitants of Winchester and Medford, 
15 years. 
Oct. 1. Little Chaunce}^ and Solomon ponds, in Northborough, 
to inhabitants of Northborough, 15 years. 



1877.] SENATE— No. 8. 27 

1876. 

Feb. 1. Great Sanely Bottom Pond, in Pembroke, to Israel 

Thrasher and others, 15 j-ears. 
Mar. 1. Dennis Pond, in Yarmouth, to inhabitants of Yarmouth, 
15 3'ears. 
1. Crystal Lake, in Wakefield, to Lyman H. Tasker and 
others, 15 years. 
20. Lower Naumkeag, in Ashburnham, to inhabitants of 

Ashburnham, 18 3'ears. 
28. Dennison Lake, in Winchendon, to inhabitants of Win- 
ch en don, 15 years. 
May 8. South- West Pond, in Athol, to Adin H. Smith and 

others, 15 years. 
June 1. Norwich Pond, in Huntington, to inhabitants of Hunting- 
ton, 20 3'ears. 
10. Dug Pond, in Natick, to W. P. Bigelow and others, 15 
years. 
Oct. 1. Little Pond, in Barnstable, to George H. Davis, 15 
years. 



28 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 



[C] 

To the Commissioners on Fisheries for Massachusetts. 

Gentlemen : — It has been my good fortune to witness much that 
has been done by jomy State for the last two years, in the way of 
attempting to restore to the people of New Hampshire their rights 
to ancient fisheries. I know of nothing that has been left undone 
(during my acquaintance with the subject) to satisfy them that you 
were acting in good faith, and it gives me great satisfaction to 
assure you that the people of my State no longer misapprehend your 
exertions or intentions. That there has been some misunderstand- 
ing in the past, is true, as I shall attempt to show. 

Early last spring, "The Game and Fish League" of New Hamp- 
shire held its annual meeting at Manchester. The committee on 
" Fish and Fishways " reported that the Lawrence fishway was not 
only totally worthless, but that two-thirds of it had been carried 
away by the spring freshet. Believing that this report was without 
foundation, and was calculated to excite a prejudice in the minds of 
the people of my State which was already too strong, I replied to 
the report, somewhat at length, through the " Manchester Mirror," 
putting several pertinent and important questions relative to the 
habits of migratory fish, and the proper construction of fishways in 
general. The reply came the following week, which was merely 
personal in its character. No allusion was made to the questions 
propounded. Knowing how incredulous the people of my State 
were upon the subject of restocking their streams with migratory 
fish, and especially their disbelief in the Lawrence fishway, I thought 
it m}' duty to investigate. On the twelfth day of last June, I went 
to Lawrence, and had the water partially shut oflf, so that I could 
see to the bottom of every apartment distinctl3\ There were many 
fish to be seen in the various boxes, but more alewives than any 
other variety. This was enough to satisfy me that my friends at 
Manchester were not in the right. I next went to Lowell, when I 
found that there had been many alewives caught at the mouth of 
Beaver Brook. While at Lowell, I heard of these fish being taken 
at Cohas Brook, three miles from Manchester. I went there and 
talked with several persons who saw the fish and helped catch 
them. Soon after, it was reported that alewives had been seen, or 
had reached Goflfe's Falls. An article appeared in the " Manchester 



1877.] SENATE— No. 8. 29 

Mirror," headed " The Alewive Fraud," which gave the people to 
understand that the fish seen and caught at Cohas Brook had been 
brought there by interested parties from Lawrence overland^ and put 
in at that point under the cover of night. The whole article was 
well calculated to excite the suspicions of a class who have never 
had faith in restocking the river. A member of 5^our commission 
was challenged to reply. . He accepted, and in his answer, not 
only closed the discussion, but gave a goodly amount of inform- 
ation to the people in various parts of the State, for which they 
have expressed proper individual acknowledgments. 

In corroboration of the above statement, I append the following 
statements, cut from the " Manchester Mirror " : — 

Lawkence, July 15, 1876. 
To the Editor of the Mirror. 

I beg leave to say that I built the Lawrence fishway under the direction 
of the commissioners of the two States, that I have made the repairs upon 
it ever since, and that I can testify from personal observation that a great 
many alewives have gone over the fishway, — more, perhaps, this season 
than ever before. 

Yours truly, 

Morris Knowles, Contractor and Builder. 



Lawrence, July 14, 1876. 
To the Editor of the Mirror. 

We beg leave to certify that we have taken special pains during a 
portion of the last four years to examine the Lawrence fishway, shutting 
it down twice a day during the times the fish were running, and we can 
assure your readers that a large number of alewives have gone over the 
fishway. 

Fred. K. Gilman, Comr. of Streets for the City of Lawrence. 
Jesse Moulton. 



Lawrence, July 14, 1876. 
To the Editor of the Mirror. 

Having seen the statement headed " The Alewife Fraud," in your paper 
of July 1st, I beg leave to say that I am an old fisherman, that I live 
within a stone's throw of the Lawrence fishway, that no alewives have 
been put over the dam during the last six years, that I know from per- 
sonal knowledge that a great many have gone over the fishway during 
these years. The idea that the fishermen of Lawrence, or any one else, 
transported alewives alive from here to Manchester, is too absurd for any 
one to believe. 

Yours truly, 

H. No YES, Fish Warden for the City of Lawrence. 



30 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 



Lawrence, July 12, 1876. 
Mr. Brackett. 

Dear Sir : — I was at Lowell yesterday, and went over to the dam. I 
find that the flashboards were put on about the first of June. Since then 
no fish have gone over. The fish could get over the old dam, but the 
new dam is difi'erent, and fish cannot get over when the flashboards are 
on. I saw lots of alewives, suckers, and other small fish, trying hard to 
go up. The boards are two and a half feet high. If there was one 
length, or four or five feet taken off, it would be all right. 

A. M. Farlin. 



Goffe's Falls, July 17, 1876. 

Mr. E. A. Brackett, Fish Commissioner of Massachusetts, 

Dear Sir : — I am glad to have an opportunity to answer yonr question, 
*' Have you seen any alewives at Goffe's Falls or Cohas Brook ? " One 
evening during the last'days of May, I heard that there were fish answering 
the description of alewives seen and caught at the mouth of Cohas Brook. 
The next evening, after the water was shut off, quite a number of people 
went to see the fish, myself with the rest, and can state that I saw them 
in considerable numbers. Many of them were caught by our people, 
estimated to be seventy-five each evening. I am surprised that any one 
should think they were brought here overland, for I understand that they 
cannot be carried even from Lawrence to Lowell alive. 

Ira W. Moore. 

The new fishway at Lawrence has been examined by the present 
board of commissioners from New Hampshire. They have ex- 
pressed their approbation of it in earnest language. Since it has 
been settled that alewives have gone over the old fishway, passed 
the Lowell dam, and reached Goflfe's Falls, a new spirit seems to 
manifest itself along the Merrimack Valle}'. The events and cor- 
respondence of the past season have done much to mitigate a senti- 
ment of impatience, as well as to allay a prejudice which from the 
beginning has been too apparent. I have reason to believe that not 
only the commissioners, but the people generally throughout my 
native State, will in the future be willing to cooperate with you in 
anv course which may seem best calculated to ensure success. 

Tours respectfully, 

JOHN McNEIL. 



1877.] SENATE— No. 8. 31 



[D.] 

168 Tremont' Street, Boston, November 21, 1876. 
To the Commissioners of Inland Fisheries. 

Gentlemen : — In reply to your suggestion, that I should give my 
opinion on the operation of the present smelt and trout laws, I 
would saj- : Smelt have increased largely, both in point of size and 
numbers. Owing to the great quantities of bait in our waters, hook- 
and-line fishing have not been as great a success as last fall, owing 
partl}^ to the increase of bait, and also to the fact that the weather 
has been so warm that the}^ have remained below instead of coming 
up the bay to their favorite haunts. All fishermen are agreed, I 
believe, on one point, and that is : they are seen in immense quan- 
tities, but will not take the hook. I have no doubt, when winter 
sets in and the ice makes, large quantities will be taken ; and as was 
the case last winter, hundreds of men will make a handsome living 
by catching legallj^ through the ice. As to the trout law, it cannot 
but be a success, although it has been but a short time in existence. 
Letters which I have received from Maine all indicate that since the 
first of October poaching is done away with, the thieves having no 
market during the close time for their favorite stealings, either in 
Boston, New York, Vermont, or Connecticut. 

I have one suggestion to make in regard to detectives for close 
time and seining laws, which have been and may be passed. Per- 
sons living in the vicinity of localities where the laws are broken, 
are afraid to enter complaints against offenders. Could not an addi- 
tion to our present law be passed by our next Legislature authorizing 
our association or the Fish Commissioners to appoint special detect- 
ives for this purpose, as is the case in the "Societ}^ for the Preven- 
tion of Cruelty to Animals " ? I believe it would be for the benefit 
of all concerned. 

Yours trul}', 

JOHN P. ORDWAY, M. D., 

President Massachusetts Anglers' Association. ■ 



a^ INLAND FISHERIES. [J 



an. 



[E.] 

To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 

Sixth Annual Report of Tisburt Great Pond, 1876. 

Total catch, white perch, 4,647 pounds ; net proceeds, . S475 52 

smelts, 12,000 pounds ; net proceeds, . 779 16 

alewives, net proceeds, . . . . 910 32 

striped bass, net proceeds, . . . . 15 00 



$2,180 00 
Paid to town, $109 00 

White perch increasing, and alewives plenty. About one thou- 
sand barrels of alewives were allowed to spawn in the pond this 
year. Have stocked ponds in Sterling and Chilmark with white 
perch. 

ALLEN LOOK, 

For Lessees. 



To the Commissioners on I?ila7id Fisheries. 

First Annual Report of Oyster Pond, West Tisburt, 1876. 
Amount received for perch, alewives, smelts, and eels, . $1,682 00 
Percentage to town, . 88 06 

ALLEN LOOK, 

For Lessees. 



South Framingham, Mass., November 13, 1876. 
To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 

Report of Waushakum Pond for 1876. 
We find the lake thoroughly stocked and abounding with bass, but 
such is the amount of food for these fish, that they are seldom hungry 
enough to afford much sport for the angler. The hope of the mem- 
bers of the club is in the disappearance of the fry and coarser fish, 
through the feeding of the bass. Already there is a ver}^ apparent 
diminution in the pickerel and yellow perch ; but thus far, this diminu- 



1877.] SENATE— No. 8. 33 

tion has acted (apparently) to allow of great increase in the minnow 
fry, through the disproportionate destruction of their former enemies. 
Consequent on this superabundant food-supph% the bass are increas- 
ing amazingly, and are growing very rapidl3\ The white perch 
added to the waters last 3'ear have not been seen, but their fry have 
been observed, so that the waters are now unquestionably stocked 
with this beautiful pan-fish. 

A most beautiful illustration of the influence of food-supply on 
growth could have been observed at any time the past season, in 
the small bass fry. The following note illustrates : — 

"July 11, 1876. — The young bass present the greatest variation in size^ 
The majority, and they are numerous, are fat, healthy, active little pirates 
about one and a quarter to one and a half inches long, while some are 
two inches, two and a half inches, and even three inches in length. It is 
noticeable, that when these fish are fed, the largest and most active usually 
secure the food at the expense of the smaller fish. The solitary fish are 
also observed to grow faster than those which are in schools." 

This note has been verified* by careful attention to the fish during 
the whole season. 

As an interesting fact, if such it is, we have reason to believe 
that occasionalh'' a bass may spawn in the fall, instead of in the 
spring. "We have not proved this point, but we have found quite 
ripe spawn in a fish in November, and have seen young fish, not over 
one inch long, on the partial disappearance of the ice in spring. 

One catch this year has been quite large. The largest caught was 
four pounds. The total number absolutely recorded are ninet3'-six 
fish, averaging full two pounds each. This catch is but the score of 
three members of the club, and probably two hundred at least have 
been taken. 

TRUSTEES NOBSCOT FISHING CLUB, 

By Z. Boylston Adams, Secretary, 
C. H. Barker. 



Milton, October 24, 1876. 
E. A. Brackett, Esa. 

Dear Sir : — Mr. Henr}' L. Pierce wishes me to report in regard 
to the stocking of Ponkapoag Pond, in Canton, with black bass. 

There were originally put into the pond, in the fall of 1871, 
thirty -four fish. A screen was put in the outlet of the pond, which 
has been continued to the present time, to prevent the bass from 
leaving the pond. They have been increasing every year, and have 
not as yet made any perceptible difierence in the quantity of the 
6 



34 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

native fish in the pond, as probably there never has been a season 
when more perch have been taken than this. 

In our experience, we should think it best to stock all ponds with 
bass except those where there are trout. They are more game}- , and 
are better eating than pickerel, and give an additional zest to our 
pond fishing. 

It is impossible to say how many perch and pickerel have been 
taken from the pond during the present year, but it is safe to say 
that about one hundred black bass have been taken. The bass 
were taken by persons who were fishing for perch and pickerel, 
special fishing for bass not being permitted. 

Yours truly, 

GEORGE S. ESTEY. 



PiTTSFiELD, Mass., November 27, 1876. 
To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 

Gentlemen : — Since our last report, T^e have put into Pontoosuc 
Lake about five thousand young land-locked salmon. 

We believe, from careful observation, that our community are 
soon to derive great advantage from fish put in the lake heretofore, 
as stated in our previous reports. 

For the Lessees, 

E. H. KELLOGG. 



West Uptox, Mass., October 21, 1876. 
To Mr. E. a. Brackett, Commissioner. 

At our annual meeting, it was voted to examine our pond, and to 
ascertain if the bass were doing well. Accordingly, in June and 
July, several gentlemen- of the club examined the pond and found 
several spawning-beds. And later in the fall there seemed to be a 
great quantity of small fish, but I cannot say of what description. 
No bass have been taken in the past year, although Mr. D. B. Fisk 
of Chicago tried for them several times. Pickerel and perch have 
been taken, but in no large quantities. There seems to be less 
pickerel this 5"ear than formerly. We have not been troubled with 
poachers since the case at law was settled. 

Respectfully, 

D. W. BATCHELOR, Lessee. 
Wm. C. Batchelor, Secretary. 



1877.] SENATE— No. 8. 35 



WoncESTEB, November 1, 1878. 
E. A. Bbackett, Esq. 

Sir: — At the August term of the Superior Court for criminal 
business for the county of Worcester, there were entered, by appeal 
from the Third District Court of Southern Worcester, five cases? 
fishing without right in the Upton Pond (Pratt's Pond). 

One of these cases was tried, and, after a verdict of guilty, was 
carried by exceptions to the Supreme Judicial Court. January 10, 
1876, a rescript was received, overruling the exceptions. 

The other four cases were continued at the term the first was 
tried, to abide the decision in that case. Consequently, at the 
January term last, those four cases were disposed of. The first- 
named — that against Tiflfany — is now upon the docket. 

The judgment and sentence in each of these four cases was a fine 
of $20 and costs. Of these were paid : Leighton fined $20, and . 
costs, $16.75 ; Barber fined $20, and costs, $17.55. Total (fines 
and costs), $74.30. 

Walker fined $20, and costs, $19.45; Aldrich fined $20, and 
costs, $20.50, — were committed for non-payment of fines and costs. 
I have no means of informing whether these were paid. The 
amount of costs in Commonwealth vs. Tifiany was $65.44. From 
this 3'ou will perceive the whole amount of costs was $139.74. 
Deducting w^hat is paid, $74.30, leaves expenses yet unpaid to the 
amount of $65.44. 

I hope you will find this what you desire. 

I am, very truly yours, 

JOHN A. DANA. 



Newtox Centre, November, 1876. 
E. A. Brackett, Esq., Commissioner on Inland Fisheries. 

Dear Sir : — In response to j^our request, I have to inform you 
that we have caught this season from Crystal Lake fifty-six black 
bass, weighing in the aggregate ninety-one pounds, — the smallest 
weighing one pound ; the largest, four pounds. This is our sixth 
year since stocking our lake, and I think there is a general feeling 
of disappointment as to its results. At this period, we supposed 
that all we should have to do in order to capture fish would be to 
show them a hook ; but such has not been the result of our patient 
waiting. Many of our club have made the entire circuit of the lake, 
trolling without success. 



3S INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

Although we have the usual evidence this year, as formerly, of 
their presence upon their spawning-beds, they have failed to answer 
our calls during the fishing season just past, and during the entire 
season, only two fish have been taken in the usual manner of bass- 
fishing, by trolling ; in every other instance they have been taken 
by still fishing, near the bottom, in about fifteen to twent}' feet of 
water. Our worthy ex-mayor, who is a member of our club, 
.declares they have not been properh' educated, and was induced to 
give nearly half a day of his valuable time in his endeavors to im- 
prove their sluggish habits, offering them the latest and most 
improved style of hooks, but without success. Our lake has neither 
inlet nor outlet, and but a slight water-shed, being fed almost 
entirely from springs at the bottom, and it is suggested by some 
that the fish lay in the cool water about these springs ; others think 
they find food too plenty ; of this we have no special evidence. 

Yours respectfully, 

E. M. FOWLE, 

Secretary Newton Black Bass Club. 



MiLFOED, September 30, 1876. 
Messrs. Fish Commissioners of Massachiisetts. 

Within the past year, we have taken from Mendon Pond black 
bass for stocking a pond in TVestfield, Mass. ; also for stocking a 
private pond in Whitinsville, owned b}' the Whitins. We put in 
Westfield fiftj', averaging one and a half pounds each, and fifteen in 
Whitins', averaging the same. We have a contract to furnish the 
selectmen of Northborough one hundred, a part of which we are to 
deliver to-morrow. There has been taken from our pond, within the 
last year, about two hundred and fifty bass, and there seems to be 
an abundance 3'et remaining, with a fair suppl}' of food as 3'et. I 
think^our pond is well adapted to the cultivation of black bass. 

Most respectfully yours, 

DWIGHT RUSSELL, 

Secretary of Nip Mug Pond Club. 



1377.] SENATE— No, 8. 37 



La-weence, October 28, 1876. 
To the Commissioners of Inland Fisheries. 

Gentlemen : — The lessees of Mitchell's Pond, situated in Box- 
ford, Mass., beg leave to make the following report : — 

In June, 1875, we placed in the pond twent3'-one black bass, 
weighing from two to six pounds each, all in good condition ; in 
August of the same year, thirty -nine more, weighing from two to 
five pounds, also in good order. In the spring of 1875, we procured 
of your Board about five hundred land-locked salmon, and placed 
them in the brook, a few rods from the pond. In the spring of 
1876, we obtained some four or five thousand more in prime order, 
and placed them in the pond. We also, in the summer of 1874, by 
way of experiment, put into said pond from twenty to thirty thou- 
sand shad hy. Some of these shad were seen and taken late in 
the following autumn, about four inches in length. Since that time 
we have seen nothing of them. Some of the salmon were seen last 
spring, in the brook where they w^ere placed. We have reason to 
believe that the black bass are doing finely, as we have seen very 
large numbers of the small fish. A large number of them have also 
been found in the mill-pond, a short distance below Mitchell's Pond, 
showing that the whole stream below is fast being stocked from our 
pond. Some of our large bass probably escaped during the high 
water last spring, as one large-sized one was found dead a short 
distance below the dam. No bass have been taken or killed to our 
knowledge, except the one mentioned above. 

E. V. CROSS, 

Chairman of the Executive Committee. 



Li>-coLN, Mass., October 19, 1876. 
Commissioners on Inland Fisheries, E. A. Brackett, Esq., Chairynan. 

Gentlemen : — In compliance with the conditions of the lease 
from the State of Massachusetts, I report for the lessees of Sandy 
Pond, in this town, that the black bass appear to be thriving. The 
lessees have fished for and caught some of them the past season. 
The whole number taken I am not able to give with exact accuracy, 
owing to the neglect to keep a record, but probably not far from fifty 
in all, varying in size from three-fourths of a pound to four pounds* 
weight. 

We received from the Fish Commissioners on the nineteenth day 
of May last, three thousand fry of the land-locked salmon, which we 



38 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

transported safely to the pond and deposited in its waters, but I 
have not heard of their being seen to be recognized by any one 
since. 

We have not had any trouble with poaching, although occasion- 
ally parties have assumed the right to fish there in defiance of the 
authority of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to lease the fish- 
eries to us. Whenever notified, such persons have left without any 
resort to the law. 

In behalf of the lessees of Sandy Pond, 

JAMES L. CHAPIN. 



Lancaster, November 17, 1876. 
To E. A. Brackett, Commissioner on Inland Fisheries. 

Dear Sir : — The two ponds — Great and Little Spec — in which 
one hundred black bass of good size were placed in 1873, are now 
well stocked, and in condition to be opened another season under 
proper restrictions. No fish have been taken for any purpose, and 
they have greatly increased both in numbers and size. During the 
past season thirty thousand young salmon, furnished by our State 
Commissioner, have been placed in the north branch of the Nashua 
River, which stream is well calculated for such purpose, if the 
waters are not contaminated by manufactories established above. 
These manufactories are becoming a eerious obstacle to fish-breed- 
ing in some places, and unless some preventive action is soon taken, 
all efforts for fish-breeding will have to be abandoned. Early in the 
season, twentj'-five thousand young land-locked salmon, obtained of 
the Commissioners, were placed in a private pond for feeding, 
preparatory to transferring them to a large and deep pond (Fort) 
another season. These have been fed twice a week during the sum- 
mer, and the same course will be followed through the winter. 
They have improved in size ver}^ rapidly, and next spring will be 
in fine condition to be transferred to more extensive quarters. 

If New Hampshii'e will furnish a fishway at Nashua, I think this 
place, with the bass and two kinds of salmon already placed, will 
soon be well supplied with the best varieties of fish. But our efibrts 
will not be relaxed, for other varieties are necessary ; and we shall 
not rest until these are obtained and properly placed. 



Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

J, L. S. THOMPSON. 



1877.] SENATE— No. 8. 39 



• AsHBURNHAM, November 9, 1876. 

To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 

Sirs : — I have the honor to present herewith the third annual 
report relative to the propagation of fish in our Upper Naukeag 
Lake. In May of the present j'ear, we were so fortunate as to 
place in the lake five thousand land-locked salmon fry, all of which 
were procured at the hatching-house of the State, in Winchester, 
and transferred in .excellent condition. Our stock, put into the 
lake, may be set down as follows : — 



Black bass, procured in 1873, 
Salmon-trout fry, procured in 1874, 
Salmon-ti'out fry, procured in 1875, 
Land-locked salmon fry, procured in 1875, 
Yearlings, procured in 1875, 
Land-locked salmon fry, procured in 1876, 



100 

1,000 

1,000 

500 

200 

5,000 



■ Total 7,800 

Learning that there was a species of fish called fresh-water smelts, 
which were said to be excellent food for black bass and other valu- 
able varieties of fish, and to propagate in great numbers, and that 
the Fish Commissioners of New Hampshire had so found them by 
experiments, I took from Sunapee Lake, Newbury, N. H., in May 
last, some five hundred of these fish, and placed them in our lake, so 
as to produce food for other fish. As in former seasons, ever}' effort 
has been made by repeated visits and observation, to ascertain how 
near the theory started upon our practice had taken us. Once, and 
this was in August last, a company of five went to the lake and 
fished, trying deep and shallow waters, troll fishing, the fly, and 
deep sinking. Either the water was too warm, or there was such 
an abundance of natural food in the lake as to cloy the appetite of 
the fish, for only seven were caught, and they were bass obtained by 
deep sinking. Of these, four were two 3'ears old and about ten 
inches long, and three were yearlings, about seven inches long. 

There is not the slightest doubt that the bass spawned the same 
season they were put in the lake, and the successive grades are 
easily distinguished in its waters. I regret that I am unable to 
give any accurate data concerning the land-locked salmon and 
salmon trout, having seen but few of either kind. Some of our 
citizens, however, who reside beside the lake, have assured me that 
they have noticed them in considerable numbers ; and one in par- 
ticular, an old fisherman, skilled in all the handicraft of hunting 



40 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

and fishing, who has made special observations, tells me that he 
has many times seen the 3'oung land-locked salmon and trout, and 
that they are from four to six inches long. 

These desultory statements may be of no special importance to 
your Board, unless they continue to show you, as they have already 
taught me, that we can confidently count upon the harvest time in 
this enterprise. 

I am, with great respect, 

Your obedient servant, 

OHIO WHITNEY, Agent, 



Lynn, Mass., October 16, 1876. 
To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 

In this, my second annual report, I have little to add to the 
returns of last year. 

Only two bass have been removed from the pond to my knowl- 
edge, and these by poachers. It is a fact perhaps worthy of note, 
that the pickerel and perch taken from the pond this year have been 
uniformly of large size, indicating that the smaller of either species 
have gone to swell the proportions of the new occupants. 

Thinking it might be a convenience to some lessee, at some time, 
— as awhile ago it would have been to me, — to find in these annual 
reports a form of complaint in case of illegal fishing, I append the 
following, which is intended alike to apph^ both when the entire 
pond is used as a breeding-ground, and when, as in streams or in 
large lakes, an inclosure is made. 

108 Mass. 140, "j complains that of in the county 

lb. 442. > of on the day of A. D. 1876, at 

no Mass. 175. J j^ gaj^j countv, in that portion of a certain pond of 
more than twenty acres in area, situate in said commonly known as 

Pond; said pond being then and there leased to by the 

Commissioners on Inland Fisheries, under section nine of chapter three 
hundred and eighty four of the General Laws of Massachusetts, of the 
year 1869, in which said portion fishes were then and there lawfully 
artificially cultivated and maintained by the said lessee, did unlawfully 
fish without the permission of said lessee, proprietor of said fishes, 
against the peace, etc., etc. 

Respectfully submitted. 

JOHN L. SHOREY, 
Lessee of BrowrCs Pond^ Peabody. 



1877.] SENATE— No. 8. 41 



LuNENBL-RG, Octobcr 17, 1876. 
To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 

Gentlemen : — On making m}' second annual report of the fishes 
in our two ponds leased by 3'ou to the town of Lunenburg ; viz., 
the Unkechewalom and Massapog ponds, I would state that 
by the generosity of E. A. Brackett, one of 3'our board, I received 
between two thousand and three thousand land-locked salmon fry 
or fresh-water salmon, which I placed in Unkechewalom Pond and 
in the stream connecting this pond with Massapog Pond, by the 
advice of Mr. Brackett ; so the}' can descend into Massapog or 
ascend into the other pond, as their inclination may lead them. 

It is now two years (August 18, 1874) since the black bass were 
placed in these ponds, and I cannot learn that any fish have been 
taken from them since, the law has been so well observed and is so 
popular. 

As fish and game have become propert}- by our statutes, it would 
seem that corporations should have some statute provisions to 
enable them to protect their fish and game (if the town so vote) , 
from outsiders having no property interest in them, which sometimes 
is a serious evil, when they carry off two-thirds of our fish and 
game to other towns. 

Very trul}^, your obedient servant, 

CYRUS KILBURN, 

Agent for Lunenburg, 



42 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 



[F.] 



[Chap. 104.] 

An Act requiring Certain Returns to the Commissioners on 
Inland Fisheries. 

Section 1. The owner or owners of every pound, weir, or other 
similar fixed contrivance, or of any fishing pier, seine, drag or gill net, 
used in any of the waters of this State for fishing purposes, shall make 
written report, under oath, to the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries, on 
or before the first day of October in each year, specifying the number of 
each kind of edible fish caught by his or their respective pounds, weirs, 
or other similar fixed contrivances, piers, seines, drag or gill nets, during 
the year next preceding the date of said report. 

Sect. 2. It shall be the duty of the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries 
to furnish each owner or j)roprietor of any pound, weir, or similar fixed 
contrivance, pier, seine, drag or gill net, on or before the fifteenth day of 
March in each year, with suitable blank forms for the reports required by 
the preceding section, so arranged that each day's catch may be sep- 
arately recorded thereon ; and in filling out such reports, such owner or 
proprietor shall give the results of each day's fishing, so far as practi- 
cable ; and it shall be the duty of such owner or proprietor to apply to 
the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries for such blank forms, 

Sect. 3. Whoever knowingly and wilfully violates any of the pro-, 
visions of this act, shall be punished by a fine of not less than ten nor 
more than one hundred dollars. 

Sect, 4. This act shall take effect upon its passage, [Approved 
April 6, 1876, 

The above act was passed too late to be operative during the past 
season ; and the returns are therefore incomplete. They embrace 
sixteen river fisheries on the Taunton, Merrimack, and Connecticut, 
twenty-four seines and gill nets used in sea fishing, and seventeen 
pounds and weirs, as against fifty-seven mentioned in the United 
States Commissioner's report (see Table I). The act cannot fail to 
be very useful, and especially to the fishermen who make the returns, 
and who will thus, at trifling expense, furnish information which 
will protect them against such expensive and tedious legislative 
hearings as they have more than once been subjected to ; and which 
will eff"ectually prevent the passage of sweeping laws against certain 
methods of fishing, in cases where a few men only are to blame. 
Such returns, duly made out for a few years, will give the State a 
mass of information of vital importance in the encouragement of 
our fisheries. 



187.7.] 



SENATE— No 8. 



43 



Table No. 1. 

Showing the Pounds mentioned in the United States Commissioners 
Report as existing in 1871, and the Number from tvhich Returns 
were received in 1876. 

Number of Pounds. 



Clark's Cove, . 


1 


West Chop, M. Vineyard 


Sconticut Neck, 


1 


Falmouth, 


West Island, . 


1 


Waqiioit, . 


Mattapoisett, . 


1 


Coltuit, Vineyard Sound, 


West Falmouth, 


1 


Kettle Cove, Naushon, . 


Quissett Harbor, 


2 


Nashawena, . 


Long Neck, Wood's Holl, 


2 


Provincetown, . 


Hadley Harbor, 


1 


Horse Island, Wellfleet, . 


Ram's Head, . 


2 


Eastham, 


Robinson Hole, Naiishon, 


1 


Orleans, . 


Menemsha Bight, . 


9 


Brev7ster, 


Paintville, M. Vineyard, . 


1 


Dennis, . 


Tisbury, .... 


2 


Yarmouth, 


Lombard's Cove, 


6 




Holmes' Hole, 


2 





1 
1 
1 
1 

2 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
4 
3 
2 

55 



Number from which Returns were received in 1876. 



Falmouth, 


1 


Brewster, 


2 


Chatham, 


4 


Dennis, . 


. . 1 


Harwich, .... 


2 


Yarmouth, 


1 


Eastham,. 

Orleans, 


5 
1 




17 



44 



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SENATE— No. 8, 



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SENATE— No. 8. 



47 







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48 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



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50 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Jan.'77. 



Table No. 5. — Connecticut River Seines. 

Shoiving the Catch of 1876. 



Towy. 


NAME. 


Shad. 


i 


si 

t 

1 


II 


Agawam, . 

South Hadley Falls, 


Alonzo Converse, . 

C. C. Smith and others, . 

1 


2,051 
10,741 


2 


2 


4 




12,792 


2 


2 


4 



Table No. 6. — Merrimack River Seines. 
Shoivwg the Catch of 1876. 



N A :m E . 



striped 
Bass. 



North Andover 
Groveland, 



Amesbury, 



A. C. Hardy, 
T. H. Balch, 
W. B. Hardy, 
S. K. Friend, 
W. B Hardy, 
J. Morrill, . 





3,290 






2,486 


- 




549 


106 




198 


71 




556 


117 




4,206 


- 




11,285 


294 



14 



* Seventy -five pounds. 



Table No. 7. — Taunton River Seines. 

Showing the 'Catch of 1876. 



Town. 


N A M E . Alewivcs. 


Shad. 


striped 
Bass. 


Berkley, 

Berkley and Dighton 
Di2:hton. . 
]\ii(l(lleborough. 
Hay n ham, . ^ . 

Taunton, . 




T. N. Bnbbitt, 
D. B. Shove, 
C. N. Simmons, 
N Chnse, . 
J. T. Wood, 
G. P>. Williams, 
O. B. Williams, 
J. W. Hart, . 




89,967 

15,200 

315,000 

107,156 

78,068 

5 1 ,5(;g 

147,033 
82,299 


877 

74G 

960 

1,265 

251 

187 
280 


28 

T 










886,889 


4,566 


29 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT No. 34. 



TWELFTH ANNUAL EEPOET 



COMMISSIONERS 



INLAND nSHEKIES, 



Year ending January 1, 1878. 



BOSTON: 

l^anti, ^bfts, «^ Co., Printers U i\)t Commontomltfi, 



117 Franklin Street. 

1878. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Report, 5-24 

Appendix A. List of Commissioners, 29-32 

B. List of Ponds Leased, 33-41 

C. Legislation, 42-45 

D. Returns of Weirs, Seines, and Gill-Nets, . 46-65 

E. Petition drawn by Fisher Ames, . . . 66-68 



Commontocaltl) of illa00ac()U0ett0. 



To His Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Council. 

The Commissioners on Inland Fisheries beg leave to pre- 
sent their Twelfth Annual Report. 

Fish WAYS. 

Fishways have been built the past season over all the dams 
on the Saugus River, with the exception of that owned by 
Philip Howe, who preferred to hoist his gate, and give the 
fish the natural channel. 

The agreement of the Agawam Canal C.ompany to build a 
fishway over their dam on the Westfield River, on or before 
the first of September, was somewhat tardily complied with : 
the work has been commenced and the fishway nearly 
completed. The people of Westfield and other towns along 
the river, who have so persistently pushed for this pass, 
should now see to it that their part of the obligation is ful- 
filled ; that all obstructions at this dam and the one below 
be kept out. There is a heavy penalty for any one who 
catches any fish within four hundred yards of this fishway 
or any other that may hereafter be built upon this river. 

In company with the fish committees of the towns inter- 
ested, we visited the East Taunton dam, commonly known 
as the Squawbetty dam, made a careful examination of the 
fishway now in use, and, after hearing all parties, decided 
that it was not suitable for the larger migratory fish. Plans 
of a fishway, the same as that at Lawrence, with specifica- 
tions, have been forwarded to the owners. Mr. Robinson, in 
behalf of the company, expressed his willingness to comply 
with the request ; but as the work to be done is considerable. 



6 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

and the season getting late, he desired that it might be 
postponed until next summer, when the work will be com- 
menced as early, and completed as soon, as the water will 
permit. 

Nashua River. — The repeated efforts we have made to 
induce the former commissioners of New Hampshire, as well 
as the present board, to cause a fishway to be built at 
Nashua, have resulted in an arrangement, which, we trust, 
will be satisfactory to the numerous petitioners who have 
asked to have the river opened. 

The following letter from Mr. Cadwell is expressive of the 
cordial treatment we have received, and their entire willing- 
ness to comply with the request : — 

Nashua, N.H., June 2, 1877. 
E. A. Brackett, Esq., Mass. Fish Commissioner. 

Dear Sir, — Your recent visit here, together with previous visits and 
notifications from our !N'ew Hampshire Fish Commissioners, in relation to 
building a fishway at our dam on the Nashua River, prompts us to re-build 
lur dam as early in the season of 1878 as circumstances will allow (which 
is earlier than actually necessary), at which time we shall be most happy 
to build a proper fishway : provided the commissioners will plan and dkect 
the construction of same. 

Yom's truly, 

W. D. Cadwell, Agent Jackson Company/, 
By Temple. 

The fishways are giving entire satisfaction, and in cases 
where migratory fish have been bred in the headwaters of 
rivers and streams, there is apparently no difficulty in their 
passing over in great numbers. There is, however, much yet 
to be learned as well as unlearned in regard to shad. The 
statement so often made, and so persistently kept before the 
public, that they are very timid fish, and that even the shadow 
of a bridge will frighten them, does not accord with our ex- 
perience, and was, by the experiments of 1869, pretty thor- 
oughly exploded. The edition of the report for 1870, con- 
taining a description of this experiment, has been nearly 
exhausted ; and, as we are frequently called upon for informa- 
tion on this point, we reprint so much as relates to the 
pounding of the shad : — 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 7 

" Hitherto it had been the custom to haul the seine, and examine 
each fish that was caught, trusting to fortune to find ripe breeders. 
The waste and uncertaint}^ of this process are obvious. To obvi- 
ate the trouble a pool was constructed, b}^ damming a rivulet close 
to the river. As the fish were brought in, the unripe ones were 
carefull}' transferred to this pool, where they could be examined 
day by day, till the spawn was mature. Instead of dying imme- 
diately, or running themselves on shore in their fright (as had 
been expected) , the shad thus ' pounded ' seemed almost as tame 
as domestic animals. They sailed leisurely back and forth in the 
pool, and paid little attention to by-standers. Some were taken 
out of the water and examined at least half a dozen times with no 
bad result other than a considerable growth of conferva on those 
parts of the bod}' injured by handling." 

The shad that passed over the Lawrence fishway during 
this season were quite as tame as any other migratory fish. 
There is nothing in the mechanical structure of the way, nor 
in their timidity or fear of entering there, that prevents 
their passing over. When they are bred far enough above 
to acquire a location, it may well be that they will take to 
the fishways quite as freely as the alewife. 

Ale WIVES (^Alosa tyr annus) . 

Quite a number of streams have been re-opened this year 
and restocked with this prolific fish. The run through the 
Lawrence fishway has increased. 

In the Appendix will be found returns from several rivers 
and streams, showing the catch to have been large. A very 
small number of those controlling these fisheries have made 
returns ; and this is to be regretted, as it is important not 
only to the fishermen but to the State that the value of the 
fisheries should be fairly represented. 

Shad (^Alosa prcestahilis) . 

The report of last year stated that it required no great 
amount of foresight to predict that there would be, within 
the next two or three years, a decided falling off in the 
shad-fisheries of the Connecticut and Merrimac; and we 
regret to say that the decrease has been even greater than 
was anticipated. It was in vain that we warned the fisher- 



8 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

men on the ]\Ierrimac that their course was suicidal. Work- 
ing in their interest as well as for the public good, it was 
hoped there would be a fair co-operation on their part : in 
this we have been disappointed. To have attempted any 
further legislation, or to have called in the State officers to 
aid in suppressing an evil, however apparent to those who 
understand the habits of fish, before it had shown any serious 
results, would have been a doubtful policy. Well demon- 
strated facts are stubborn things, and, to the mass of people, 
form the only reasonable ground for action. 

So far as the future interests of the fishermen are con- 
cerned, the cause which has led to the present condition of 
the shad fisheries will, if properly heeded, be of the greatest 
importance. It was not a pleasant matter to be obliged to 
remind them, through the courts, of their duty as citizens, 
and their obligation to respect the laws; especially when 
the law is one, which, through their representatives, they 
pledged themselves to maintain. So persistently have they 
swept the river during the last three years, that very few 
spawning shad have been left to keep up the stock. And 
yet many of them will come before the legislative com- 
mittee and swear, as they have done heretofore, that the 
more they catch the more plenty they will be. Their arith- 
metical education begins and ends with this one rule : Take 
two from four and six remain ; or, in other words. Kill all 
3'our hens, and you will have an abundance of eggs and 
chickens next year. 

A much better state of things may be expected hereafter. 
There are strong influences at work, tending to awaken in 
the minds of the fishermen a proper regard for their own 
interests. The consequences of their illegal fishing told this 
year in the shape of reduced profits. The friendly visits of 
the State officers relieved somewhat the dulness of the sea- 
son. On the 2Tth of April, detectives Hunt and Allen made 
the acquaintance of A. C. Hardy, Robert Elliot, Isaac C. Sar- 
gent, and John F. Lord. These men were induced to visit 
the police court at Lawrence, invited to take front seats, and, 
when the performance was over, were desired to pay $40 and 
costs of court, with confiscation of boat and seine. Two of 
these men were sworn officers of the town of North Andover, 
— one, fish warden ; the other, town constable. Mr. Hardy 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMEXT — No. 34. 9 

claimed that he was fishing for one of the owners of the 
seining ground. This, however, could be no excuse for him. 
As a singular phase of character, often found among fisher- 
men, it is proper to state that Mr. Hardy was for several 
years in the employ of the Commission, and was, in his deal- 
ings, honest to a cent ; and once came to Boston in great 
haste to correct a mistake in his account, where he had 
charged the State seventy-five cents too much. 

It is not only a duty we owe to the State of Xew Hamp- 
shire, but decidedly for the interests of the fishermen, that 
the law should be enforced. Nothing could be worse for 
them than a lawless disregard of regulations made as much 
for their welfare, as to discharge a just obligation to a sister 
State. 

It is an important matter to know how many fish to take 
and yet leave enough to keep up the stock ; and upon this 
question it may be said that fishermen, beyond the knowledge 
which enables them to catch them, are proverbially ignorant 
of the habits of fish, are reckless in the pursuit of their call- 
ing, and too much biased in what they believe to be their 
immediate wants, to form a disinterested judgment. 

The breeding-grounds for shad below the Lawrence dam 
are very limited, and cannot possibly be made to keep up a 
a large stock of fish, except by artificial culture. From sev- 
eral of the oldest fishermen, wdio have now retired, we learn 
that the law has never been enforced upon this river; that 
the fishermen generally managed to get, either one of their 
own number, or some one who sympathizes with them, ap- 
pointed warden, and if, by mistake, any one wa^ selected 
for that office who was disposed to work, they established a 
watch, and by means of signals easily eluded detection. 

Something of this old system was tried at North Andover, 
where Mr. Hardy was warden; and at Point of Rocks, 
where Ordway & Brothers stationed a man on the lookout to 
give information of the approach of the officers. The latter 
escaped arrest, but lost their seine and boat. Messrs. Hunt, 
Allen, and Ayres, of the State Detective force, deserve much 
credit for the faithful discharge of tlieir duties. They were 
generally successful in their prosectitions, checked to a great 
extent the poaching, and obtained a large amount of infor- 
mation which will be valuable for future action. If the fisheir 



10 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

men will co-operate with the State, the depletion may be 
easil}^ remedied, and the breeding-grounds extended the 
whole length of the river. The Commissioners of New 
Hampshire turned into the river, at Franklin, 400,000 young 
shad this season. Last year there were no shad seen at the 
Lawrence dam ; this year all that were known to reach 
there passed over the fishway. 

Connecticut River. 

We closed our report last year with an earnest appeal to 
the Commissioners of Connecticut to see to it that this State 
was fairly dealt with. AVe regret to say that there appears to 
have been no action on the part of their Legislature looking 
to a restoration of our rights. The Commissioners of this 
State, through the assistance of Seth Green, established an 
easy and certain method of increasing shad by artificial cul- 
tivation. By this and other means, we, in connection with 
the Commissioners of Connecticut, made shad more plenty 
than they had been for half a century. This appears to have 
been our ruin. It made fishing profitable. Hundreds of 
people on the lower part of the river rushed into it. The 
Legislature, which had promised by its Acts to restrict the 
pounds at the mouth of the river, repealed the laws regulat- 
ing them. The fishermen clamored for an extension of time ; 
and the State granted the right to fish until the 25th of 
June, at which time all migratory fish have entered the 
river. In addition to a large number of seines, an army of 
gill-nets is permitted to patrol the river, day and night. And 
last, not least, a law has been passed allowing the capture of 
all adult salmon, which gives them no chance to reach their 
spawning-grounds when they return. It looks a good deal 
as if their fishermen owned, not only their seining grounds, 
but the Legislature also. It is, to say the least, a most 
singular specimen of political economy for a State to ap- 
point able commissioners, and appropriate money to encour- 
age a great and important industry, and then, on the first tide 
of success, to virtually surrender it into the hands of a class 
ignorant of the first principles of fish culture, proverbially 
reckless of the future and oblivious to the rights of other States. 
The result of all this is, that, while the fishermen below 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 34. 11 

have reaped a rich harvest, ours have not paid expenses. 
Our seining grounds are valueless. 

In 1873, C. C. Smith at South Hadley Falls reported 
taking 92.065.000 shad spawn, while this year less than 
three million could be obtained; and where he caught, tliree 
and four years ago. from 10.000 to 15,000 shad, this season 
only 2.674 have been taken, and this is better than most of 
the seiners have done. The great spawning-grounds of the 
shad are in this State ; without them the fisheries of the 
Connecticut would be of small value. We have appealed 
to the State of Conneticut to restore our rights, and we have 
appealed in vain. We therefore respectfully refer this mat- 
ter to the Legislature for consideration. With the exception 
of the scarcity of shad in these two rivers, the cause of which 
has been fully explained, there has been a general increase 
of the fisheries throughout the State during the year.^ 

CALiroRXiA Salmon (^Salmo quinnat^. 

Of the two hundred thousand spawn received October, 
1876, there were hatched and delivered 180,000: 10,000 
were sent to the Saugus River, 30.000 to Xorth River, 
50,000 to Lancaster, and the balance taken by A. H. Powers, 
Commissioner for Xew Hampshire, to the head-waters of the 
Merrimac. 

Mr. Powers makes the following report of what he did 
with them, and the remarkable condition in which they were 
transported. 

State of Xetv HA>rp5HrRE. Office of Fish CoonssioxEKS, 
Gr-OTTham, Jan. 11. 1S7T. 
E. A. Brackett. 

Commissioner of Inland Fisheries for the State 0/ yiassachusetts. 

Dear Sir. — Those one hundred thousand California salmon, which 
you so generously presented to the State of Xew Hampshire, were divided 
into four lots, estimated to contain twenty-fire thousand each, and depos- 
ited in the head- waters of the Merrimac. as foUows : — 

Lot Xo. 1 was taken from the hatching-house on the fifth of December, 
1876, and deposited in Baker's River, about one-half mile below the vil- 
lage of Warren. The temperature of the water at the time they were 

1 The above statement of the lawlessness of many of the fishermen near 
the river's mouth, and especially of the weir-men, is founded on positive in- 
formation. Indeetl, the strongest accusations are to be found in the reports 
of the Connecticut Commissioners. See Report for 1S67. pp. 4, 5, and 25 ; for 
1870. p. 6 ; for 1871, p. 30 ; for 1874, pa^im. 



12 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

taken from the hatching-house was 45° ; on arriving at the cars it was 
40°, and continued about that degree all the way to Warren, where the 
water in the river was ascertained to be about the same. 

Lot Xo. 2 was taken from the hatching-house on the seventh of Decem- 
ber, and conveyed to Wentworth, the temperatm-e of the water being the 
same as lot No. 1. The temperature of the water in Baker's River at 
this place was 34°, and it took nearly two hours to lower the water in the 
cans to correspond. The young fry, though placed in such cold water, 
seemed quite as lively as those of lot Xo. 1. 

Both of these lots were deposited in running water, free from ice. 

Lot No. 3 was taken from the hatching-house on December 11 ; water 
at 45°. This was a cold, windy day. On the way to the depot the 
covers to the cans were frozen on. The train was three-quarters of an 
hour late, owing to some mishap ; and, as it was impossible to remove the 
covers, we kept the cans in constant motion by shaking. The covers 
were thawed off as soon as possible after getting on the cars, and the 
water, w^hich was full of anchor-ice, was found to be at 32°; but the 
salmon were all alive, which was quite a surprise to us. The water 
steadily rose in temperature till it reached about 38°, varying from 37° to 
39° in different cans. 

At Plymouth the cans were placed in a open wagon, and carried about 
three miles to the Pemigewasset River, about half a mile above Livermore 
Falls. We were compelled to take a wagon, although there was nearly a 
foot of snow on the ground; for it lay in drifts, leaving part of the road 
entirely bare. It took an hour or more to complete the journey. '\Mien 
we arrived at the river the can covers were frozen on as before, and we 
could not remove them till we obtained hot water from a house near by. 
lYhen they were removed we found that the entire inside of each can and 
cover was coated with ice about one-fourth of an inch thick, so that it 
would seem impossible for any air to enter the cans ; but yet all the sal- 
mon appeared to be in good condition. Being very badly chilled, we 
omitted to test the temperature of the water, concluding that that in the 
river was no colder than that in the cans; so we cut a hole in the ice, 
and poured the salmon in. The change had no apparent effect upon them. 

Lot Xo. 4 was taken from the hatching-house December 13, with the 
water at 45°, which was reduced to about 38° in conveying to the depot, 
and kept at that temperature till we arrived at Plymouth. They were 
then deposited in the river in front of the Pemigewasett House. Every 
straight, well salmon in all the lots was deposited in the streams in as good 
condition as when taken from the hatching-house. 

Our success was entirely owing to the careful attQntion of Robert R. 
w Holmes of East Wareham, Mass., who constantly attended to the welfare 
of the young fish, and did not seem to allow them to be out of his mind 
for a single moment. 

For your generosity, hospitality, and numerous favors, please accept my 
sincere thanks. Hoping that, at some time, there will be an opportunity 
for me to reciprocate yom- kindness, I am 

Yours respectfully, 

A. H. Powers. 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 13 

We do not profess to know the habits of these fish any 
further than what we have seen durino- the few weeks thev 
remain in the hatching-house : here they are very rapid in 
growth, hardy, and remarkably active. The question of 
flavor, which has elicited some discussion, may safely be left 
to the character of the waters they inhabit. Mr. Living- 
stone Stone, in his report to the United States Commissioner 
of Fisheries, asserts that they spawn but once, and then die ; 
but this statement is so at variance w^ith the known habits of 
kindred species, that he can hardly expect it to be received 
without challenge. His reasons are the following : — 

1. After a considerable number of fish had run up the 
McCloud River, lie threw across an impassable harrier, by 
which he stopped all the rest of the salmon, and, so to speak, 
pounded them for spawning. 

2. As the barrier was a close one, the spent fish returning 
doicn stream, would have been stopped by it ; but, although 
great numbers of dead salmon floated down, no living ones 
were noticed on the upper side of the barrier. Hence Mr. 
Stone infers that they all died, after depositing their eggs. 
But he only remained at the barrier till the early part of 
October, and the people of the country maintain that the 
spent fish go down later with the high water of the winter 
rains. The essential link in his argument is therefore want- 
ing. Nor does it avail to say that the exhausted fish were 
not seen anywhere in the river, because they always hide 
and sulk at that period. That immense numbers do die from 
exhaustion, injuries, and wounds, may well be believed. It 
is instructive to remember that the same belief in death after 
spawning was once prevalent respecting our lamprey, and 
also the European shad. 

It is to be regretted that Mr. Stone adopted this device 
for stopping salmon, especialh* if the barrier is to be a per- 
manent one. Not only is it the worst example to the lawless 
people of the country; but it might, if persisted in, reduce 
the fishery to almost nothing, for the eight hundred thou- 
sand young put in the head-waters by Mr. Stone would give 
but a small return of adult salmon. 

There is, however, a mystery about the young of these 
fish which has yet to be solved. Notwithstanding the hun- 
dreds of thousands that have been put into New England 



14 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Jan. 



waters, no one has yet been able to say with certainty that 
he has seen a single smolt. Either they cannot endure the 
winter in our rivers (which is not probable) or the smolts 
so closely resemble the young of Salmo Salar that they can- 
not be distinguished, or, what is most likely, their habits 
lead them into deeper and warmer water, and they drift ear- 
lier to the sea. 

Laxd-Locked Salmon (^Salmo %ehago). 

The spawn received last season from Grand Lake Stream 
was not so good as that received heretofore. About one 
hundred and fifty thousand young fish were hatched and dis- 
tributed as follows : — 



O. Stowell, for ponds in Wakefield, 

H. E. Priest, for ponds in Waltham, 

C. Kilburn, for ponds in Lunenburg, 

Jas. L. Chapin, for ponds in Lincoln, 

8. H. Sylvester, for ponds in Middleborough, 

Jas. H3Tle, for ponds in Newton, 

L. Luck, for ponds in South Weymouth, 

E. S. Merrill, for ponds in Winchendon, 
H. Xewcomb, for ponds in Greenwood, 
Wm. H. Osborne, for ponds in East Bridgewater, 
O. Whitney, for ponds in Ashburnham, 
H. C. Bacon, for ponds in Boxford, 
H. F. White, for ponds in Middleton, 

B. S. Young, for ponds in AYellfleet, 
S. Nelson, for ponds in Georgetown, 

C. E. Peck, for ponds in Wilbraham, 
G. L. Fessenden, for ponds in Sandwich. 

F. W. Clapp, for ponds in Framingham, 
W. P. Bigelow, for ponds in Natick, 
J. D. Francis, for ponds in Pittsfield, 
Moses Joy, for ponds in Nantucket, 
E. H. Hartshorn, for ponds in Berlin 
Asa French, for ponds in Braintree, 
Wm. McNeil, for ponds in Lancaster, 
Captain Cushman, for ponds in Duxbury, 
Commissioners on Inland Fisheries for Halfway 

Pl3'mouth, 
Thomas Talbot, for Shawshine River, 



Pond, 



4,000 
1,200 
4,000 
4,000 

20,000 
3,000 
4,000 
4,000 
4,000 
4,000 
5,000 
3,000 
2,500 
5,000 
4,000 
5,000 
4,000 
5,000 
4,000 
5,000 
2,500 
3,000 
3,000 

15,000 



10,000 
8,000 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 15 

E. N. "Woods, for ponds in Huntington, .... 3,000 
Fish Committee for ponds in Medford and Winchester . 2,000 
Charles Howes, for ponds in Essex, .... 4,000 

The success in several of the ponds where they were first 
distributed is such as to warrant a continued supply. 

It would greatly simplify our labors if parties ordering 
would make application in Avriting, early^ giving a careful 
description of the pond in which they desire to place them. 

The plan is to furnish them at the State hatching-house in 
Winchester, free of charge, to all applicants having under 
their control any of the great ponds of the State. For trans- 
portation, parties should bring with them good clean half- 
barrels or milk-cans, holding ten or twelve gallons, a ther- 
mometer, and a dipper for aerating the water. The half- 
barrels will carry from four to five thousand, and the milk- 
cans about three thousand. 

The introduction of these fish into ponds having neither 
inlet nor outlet for them to run into is an experiment, the 
result of which time alone can settle. That trout will breed 
in such ponds, and that these salmon spawn on the shoals of 
Sebago Lake, is well known. 

Salmon (^Salmo salar'). 
The following article from the Scientific Department of 
'' Harper's Weekly " embodies about all that is generally 
supposed to be known of the habits of young salmon : — 

" According to the drift of observations upon the European 
salmon, about one-half of the young, after being hatched, remain 
in the rivers one year before they go to the sea, the other half 
staying two years. They are then believed to pass down in the 
early spring, weighing from three to five ounces, and to return in 
the fall as grilse of as man}- pounds. After sojourning for a short 
time in the fresh water the}' return again to the sea before winter 
sets in, and come back the next spring as breeding fish of nine 
pounds and upward. Such is the most generally accepted hypo- 
thesis on the subject. 

" Several intelligent observers in this country are inclined to dis- 
believe in a continued stay in the fresh water, and maintain that 
the 3'oung fish actually go to sea in the autumn of the same year 
in which they are born. Whether they come back the next year 



16 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

as grilse, or remain longer, the}' are unprepared to say. Indeed, 
in the waters of Maine it is said that grilse are verj' seldom seen, 
and that it is onl}' the mature fish that make their appearance. 

'' Recent examinations on the Miramichi are thought by Mr. 
Stilvvell, of Bangor, to be strongly in favor of the assumption just 
referred to. He ascertained that the smolt spend the summer in 
the small brooks, where the}' remain until the autumn rains, after 
which the}^ disappear, and are not seen an3-where after the month 
of October. Although trout were abundant, and could easil}' be 
captured, there was no evidence whatever that the young salmon 
remained in the waters." 

Recent experiments and observations on the Merrimac 
appear not only to throw doubt upon some of the above 
statements, but to indicate that none of the young salmon 
go to sea before they are two years old, and to prove that 
they are to be found at all seasons during this period at the 
headwaters of the rivers wherein they were deposited. Salm- 
on hatched in the spring of 1876 were found in great abun- 
dance in the Pemigewasset and Baker's rivers this autumn 
(1877), from four to six inches in length, all with distinct 
parr marks upon them. That they belong to the planting 
of that year there can be no doubt, since none were put in 
in 1877. It is possible that many of them do not go down 
until the third year. The presence of full-grown parrs or 
smolts in the river next autumn would be conclusive upon 
this point. Our observations show, too, that the females do 
not return until they are four jeavs old. 

Another important fact has been ascertained, which may 
save expense in stocking rivers. Many of the fry deposited 
about two miles above Livermore Falls went twenty or 
thirty miles up the river, ascending the mountain streams, 
and pushing into all the tributaries ; their instincts leading 
them into waters too rapid and cool to sustain perch and 
pickerel, and where their only enemies are brook trout and 
the. piratical poachers calling themselves anglers. 

In 1872 and 1873, Dr. William Fletcher, then Commissioner 
of New Hampshire, whose earnest and energetic labors in 
behalf of fish-culture will long be remembered with pleasure, 
anxious to put the young salmon in the best places possible, 
spent much time and money in carrying them from Plymouth 
to Thornton and Woodstock by private conveyance ; all of 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 17 

which might have been saved had their habits been better 
understood. 

The return of inature salmon to the waters of the Merrimac 
this year commences a new era in the history of fish-culture 
in this country. It is, therefore, with feelings of the greatest 
pleasure that we are able to present the following condensed 
report of Thomas S. Holmes, of what he found passing over 
the Lawrence fishway during the past season. 

Report of Thomas S. Holmes, Superintendent of Lawrence 

Fishway. 

May 4. Suckers.^ 

5. Suckers. 

6. Suckers. 

7. Suckers and ale wives. 

8. Suckers and ale wives. Ale wives seen above the dam. 

9. Suckers and ale wives. Run heavj*. 

10. Suckers and alewives. Run heavy. 

11. Suckers. 

12. Alewives and suckers. Run moderate. 

13. Alewives and suckers. Run moderate. 

14. Alewives and suckers. Run moderate. 

15. Alewives, suckers, and lamper-eels.^ Run moderate. 

16. Alewives and suckers. Run moderate. 

17. Alewives, suckers, and lamper-eels. Run heavy. 

18. Alewives, suckers, and lamper-eels. Run heav}-. One 

trout. 

19. Lamper-eels, chubs, ^ and suckers. Run moderate. 

20. Lamper-eels, chubs, and suckers. Run heavy. One 

black bass. 

21. Alewives, chubs, suckers, lamper-eels. Run heavy. 

22. Alewives, lamper-eels, a few chubs. Run heavy. Three 

black bass.'* 

23. Alewives, chubs, suckers, and lamper-eels. Run heavy. 

Two black bass. 

24. Alewives, chubs, and lamper-eels. Run heavy. One 

trout. 

25. Alewives and lamper-eels. Run heavy. Two black 

bass, one large shad, 

26. Alewives, chubs, and lamper-eels. Run heavy. 

27. Alewives, chubs, and lamper-eels. Run heav3\ Two 

black bass. 

28. Alewives, suckers, chubs, and shiners.^ Run heavy. 

1 Catostomus. 2 Petromyzon. * Leucosomus. * Gi-ystet. 

3 



18 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Jan. 



May 29. 

30. 
31. 



June 



July 



4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 

1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 



Alewives, lamper-eels, and suckers. Run heavy. 

Alewives and lamper-eels. 

Two 8 to 12-lb. salmon. Alewives, suckers, and lamp- 
er-eels. Run heavy. 

Suckers and lamper-eels. Run light. 

Tivo large shad. Alewives, suckers, and lamper-eels. 
Run heavy. 

Three large shad, two black bass. Alewives, suckers, 
and lamper-eels. Run heavy. 

One 12 to 15-lb. salmon. 

Two 12 to 15-lb. salmon. 



■Low water, no fish. 

Two 12-lb. salmon. 

One 8-lb. salmon. 

Two 6 to 8-lb. salmon. 

One 10-lb. salmon. 

One 8-lb. salmon. 

One 8-lb. salmon. 

One 10-lb. salmon. 

Alewives, black bass, suckers, and lamper-eels. 

Alewives, black bass, suckers, and lamper-eels. 

One 18-lb. salmon. 

One salmon. 

Alewives and suckers. 

One 8-lb. salmon. 

Three 12-lb. salmon. 

Black bass and silver eels. 

One 10-lb. salmon. Silver eels. 

One 12-lb. salmon. Silver eels. 

Alewives, suckers, and silver eels. 

Two 8 to 10-lb. salmon. Silver eels. 

One 10-lb. salmon. Silver eels. 

Silver eels. Alewives stopjjed running. 

One 12-lb. salmon. Silver eels. 

Two 10 to 12-lb. salmon. Silver eels. 

Two 10 to 12-lb. salmon. Silver eels. 

Four 10 to 15-lb. salmon. Silver eels. 

Silver eels. 

Five salmon. Silver eels. 

One salmon. Silver eels. 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 19 

8. Silver eels. 

9. One 12-lb. salmon. Silver eels. 

10. Silver eels. 

11. Silver eels. 

12. One 8-lb. salmon. Silver eels. From this till the 2M, 

no salmon. 

23. Three 8 to 12-lb. salmon. Silver eels. 

30. Two laro^e salmon. Silver eels. 



In addition to the above record there was a fall run of 
salmon, which commenced Oct. 11, and ended Oct. 30. 
These fish, so far as seen in the way, were from six to ten 
pounds in weight. Much larger ones may have passed over, 
as Mr. R. R. Holmes saw one three feet long, near the hatch- 
ing-house at Plymouth, the first of November. 

The water was shut off from the fishway, for the purpose 
of ascertaining what was in it, tiviee a da}^ up to the 5th of 
July, and after that but once each day ; this change being 
made in consequence of the injury done to the salmon, which, 
as the water shoaled in the way, became alarmed, ran in 
every direction, and often threw themselves against the sides 
with such force as to become helpless. 

The closing of the way occupied about fifteen minutes 
each time, leaving twenty-three and one-half hours out of 
the twenty-four, during which nothing is known of the kind 
or number of fish passing through it. As the salmon did not 
loiter, but passed quickly over, it is fair to conclude that 
hundreds passed up unnoticed ; and this conclusion is con- 
firmed by well authenticated reports of the large numbers 
seen at Manchester, as well as all along the Pemigewasset. 

Mr. Tompkinson of Livermore Falls counted twenty 
ascending the rapids in about two hours. Indeed, so com- 
mon a thing was it to see them scaling the falls, that the 
White Mountain stage frequently stopped on the bridge to 
allow the passengers to see them. Mr. White, of Boston, 
who spent the summer at the Profile House, reports having 
seen, in one pool, thirteen large salmon from two and one-half 
to three feet long. 

The report shows that forty-seven salmon were found in 
the fishway during an examination of thirty minutes a day 
for twenty-eight days. If we assume the running time at 



20 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Jan. 



twelve hours a day, the total number that passed over would 
be in this proportion, 47 X 24 = 1,128 salmon, to which must 
be added a certain number that passed over in October. 
Taking the weights as roughly estimated, we may say that 
about one in seven were rather small fish, of about eight 
pounds ; one in seven were large fish, of fifteen pounds or 
more ; and the great majority, or five in seven, were medium 
salmon, of ten or twelve pounds. 

The following table will show the dates at which the 
batches of parrs were put in the river, and their respective 
ages up to the spring of 1877 : — 



Put in the river. 



1873. 
Spring. 



1874. 
Spring. 



1875. 
Spring. 



1876. 
Spring. 



1877. 
Spring 



Spring 1872, 16.000 parrs, 
1873, 185.000 " 
1875, 230.000 " 
" 1876, iOO.OOO " 



1 yr. old. 



2 vrs. oM. 3 yrs. old 
lyr. old. 2 yrs. old 



4 yrs. old. 5 yrs. old. 

3 yrs. old. 4 yrs. old. 

1 yr. old. 2 yrs. old. 

1 XT. old. 



The few salmon of fifteen to eighteen pounds that ran up 
may have been of the batch of 1872 ; the smallest, of six 
and eight pounds (including those of the October run), may 
have been late or under-fed fish. Evidently the bulk of the 
salmon were of the plant of 1873, because the sixteen thou- 
sand parrs put in the year previous could not by any calcula- 
tion have furnished one-fifth of the adult salmon that returned 
in 1877. 

Several salmon were reported caught below Lawrence : 
some of these were killed, but most of the fishermen claim 
that they let them go again. Three were killed at the 
Lowell dam, — two by boys who professed not to know the 
law, and one later in the season was found in a pool near the 
dam, and in attempting to put him above he was so badly 
injured that he soon after died, and drifted down the canal ; 
one was killed at ^Manchester by Mr. IQdder, superintendent 
of the gates. On the first of August, in company with the 
Commissioners of New Hampshire, we examined the Pemige- 
wasset River as far as Woodstock, the Commissioners of that 
State having previously inspected Baker's River. Both were 
found full of young salmon ; and the casting of a fly in any 
of the pools was sure to raise one or more from four to six 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 34. 21 

inches long. We are also sorry to say that vre found that 
many had been destro3-ed by gentlemen from Boston, Xew 
York, and other cities, spending the summer at the hotels 
and boarding-houses along these rivers and their tributaries. 
Many of these gentlemen claim to be anglers, and boast of 
catching from one to two hundred trout a day, — mere finger- 
lings from two to four inches long ; to such people a young 
salmon six or seven inches in leno-th seems to have been a 
godsend. As most of them are men of means, it would not 
be amiss for them to somewhat increase their bank-account 
before visiting these waters again. Fifty dollars apiece for 
thirty or forty young salmon is no small item. They will 
find that public opinion in this matter has undergone a great 
change in Xew Hampshire during the last few months : and 
they may be sure of finding friends who will be more than 
willing to look after them, and see that no accident befalls 
them, — good stanch friends, to whom one-half the fine would 
be more money than they ever before dreamed of possessing. 

Some of the oldest settlers on the Pemigewasset informed 
us that they had never known the large salmon so plenty as 
they have been this season. The Lawrence dam was closed 
in 1847, which prevented all fish going above. As a natural 
consequence, all salmon belonging to the river were soon ex- 
terminated, and it is now twenty-five years since any were 
seen at the dam. 

The people of Xew Hampshire had become discouraged ; 
and for the last two years their papers had indulged in some 
very severe attacks upon Massachusetts, and it was difficult 
to make them understand that we were doing all that could 
be done to restore the fisheries. 

When it was found that salmon were passing over the fish- 
way, word was sent to ^lanchester and above to look for 
them. The arrival of the first one at Manchester was at- 
tended with great excitement. They showed their interest 
and affection for him by killing him, and parading him 
through the streets. 

A somewhat different state of affairs occurred a few days 
after, when some forty or fifty large salmon were stopped at 
the foot of the dam. The governor and council, with mem- 
bers of the Legislature, came to see them ; but there had been 
quite a rise in the river the night before, enabling the salmon 



22 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

to scale the dam, and while these distinguished gentlemen 
were anxiously looking for them at Manchester, they were 
passing Concord, and a day or two afterward made their 
appearance at Plymouth and Livermore Falls. 

Satisfied that it was not the fault of the fish that they did 
not see them, and that the facts had been correctly reported, 
they went back to Concord, and did what they had not done 
for years, — voted a very handsome sum of money to enable 
their Commissioners to co-operate with those of Massachu- 
setts to propagate and increase these fish. 

In 1872 we put into the Pemigewasset 16,000 salmon fry ; 
in 1873, 185,000 ; in 1874 we united with the other three 
States interested in the Connecticut River, and contributed 
270,000 as our part of the 800,000 turned in at Bellows 
Falls. It soon became evident, that so long as things re- 
mained in the condition they were on the lower part of the 
Connecticut River, it would be time and money thrown 
away for the States above to make any effort to stock it 
with salmon. We therefore returned to the Merrimac, and 
in 1875 put in 230,000, and in 1876, 400,000. In addition to 
the above, there have been turned in during the last two 
years nearly 200,000 young California salmon. 

As a single fact in confirmation of what has been so often 
said in former reports, we would state that no young salmon 
were put in Baker's River until 1875, and that all the return- 
ing salmon have gone directly by the mouth of that river up 
the Pemigewasset, where they were turned in.^ It will be 
seen from the above, that what we have so long fought for — 
what the mass of the people have generally considered mere 
theories, visions of men who had fish on the brain — has 
been fully substantiated. It is true that it has taken longer 
than the Commissioners, in the beginning, had reason to ex- 
pect. It is not easy, however, to see where, under existing 
circumstances, it could have been otherwise ; for there was 

^ The Pemigewasset and Baker's are two streams which unite to form the 
Merrimac. Both used to be salmou rivers, though Baker's was the inferior 
one. Now, if any smolts went to the sea Avhen one year old, and returned 
when two years old, the plant of 1875 in Baker's River would have begun to 
return to it from the sea this year (1877). The same reasoning applies to the 
Pemigewasset; parrs nearly two years old were seen this season in great 
numbers. 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCOIEXT — Xo. 84. 23 

scarcely any precedent to go by. The difficulty of construct- 
ing suitable fishways without injury to manufacturers, the 
prejudice of mill-owners, the depredations of fishermen, the 
impossibility of obtaining salmon spawn at a reasonable 
price, and the general want of co-operation, have all more 
or less tended to retard the work. The result is complete 
and decided, leaving no doubt as to what may be done in the 
future. The improvements made in the steam-engine during 
the last thirty years, especially as regards the consumption 
of fuel, have tended to lessen the value of water-power : while 
the possible decline of some of our most extensive manufac- 
tories suggests, with increasing force, the importance of a more 
energetic and careful attention to the agricultural and fishing 
interests of our State. The salmon fisheries of England and 
Wales produced, in 1870, 8750,000 ; Scotland, $1,500,000 ; 
and Ireland, 82.000,000. The River Tay, not larger than 
some of the tributaries of the 5lerrimac, yielded a rental of 
885,000. 

There is no reason, except our own want of management, — 
our own neglect of that with which Nature has so bountifully 
provided us, — why our rivers should not be as productive 
as those of Europe. Under proper culture, with wise regu- 
lations, strictly enforced, it is not easy to overestimate the 
advantage that may accrue to the State by successfully carry- 
ing out what has already been demonstrated. 

To this end we have* united with the Commissioners of 
New Hampshire in establishing, at Livermore Falls, a hatch- 
ing-house and ponds, supplied with both spring and river 
water. These are situated within a stone's throw of the 
river, where, by means of weirs, the spawning salmon can be 
turned into them. It is reasonable to think that the estab- 
lishment may do as well as the celebrated one at Bucksport 
conducted so skilfully by Mr. Atkins. The cost of these 
works will be small, probably not exceeding four thousand 
dollars. In 1871 the price of salmon spawn in Canada, the 
only place it could be obtained, was forty dollars per thou- 
sand in gold. The sahnon works at Penobscot, Me., after- 
wards reduced the price one-half; and subsequently the 
Bucksport establishment, started by the Commissioners of 
Maine, Connecticut, and Massachusetts, afterward assisted 
by the U. S. Commissioner, was able to furnish spawn at 
about three dollars a thousand. 



24 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan, 

There is reason to hope that the establishment at Liver- 
more Falls will in a short time produce a large amount of 
spawn at a cost of less than one dollar per thousand. 

Massachusetts was the first among the States to take inter- 
est in fish culture ; and she is the first to demonstrate the 
theory of return, and the certainty of stocking our rivers 
and streams with migratory fish where they have never 
existed, or have been for a long time killed out. 

This, with the invention of the form of fishway now in 
use, makes it possible to enormously increase our resources, 
without material injury to the mill-owners. 

THEODORE LYMAN, 
E. A. BRACKETT, 
ASA FRENCH, 
Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 



1878.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 



25 



EXPENDITURES OF COMMISSION. 



Salary, ...... 

Travelling and other expenses, . 

General Expenses 

Subscription to salmon enterprise, Schoo 

die, Me., ..... 
Labor on Plymouth, N.H., hatching-house 
Labor on Lawrence fishway, . . 
Labor on Holj'oke fishway, 
Labor on State hatching-house, . 
R. R. Holmes, services and expenses deliv 

ering blanks, ..... 

Rent of land for fish-house, 
Printing, ...... 

Plumbing and materials. 

Expenses on 100,000 salmon eggs from 

California to Chicago, 
E. H. Clarke, clerical services. 
Privilege of fishing in Merrimac River at 

Lawrence, .... 
Plans and specifications of fishway s, 
Expressage, 
Incidental labor, 
Advertising, 
Dip-nets and charts, . 
Miscellaneous, . 

Total to December 1, 1877, . 



$1,650 00 
240 00 

$1,890 00 



00 

671 92 

70 00 

150 00 

16 50 

271 00 

50 00 

64 37 

191 91 

46 50 
30 00 

30 00 

31 00 
28 80 

17 75 
12 70 

4 75 
7 70 



2,194 90 
$4,084 90 



APPENDIX. 



[A.] 
COMMISSIONERS ON FISHERIES. 



UNITED STATES. 



Prof. Spencer F. Baird, . . . | Smithsonian Institution, 

( Washington, D.C. 

MAINE. 

E. M. Stilwell, Bangor. 

Henry O. Stanley, .... Dixfield. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

Luther Hayes, Milton. 

Samuel Webber, Manchester. 

Albina Powers, Grantham. 

VERMONT. 

M. Goldsmith, Rutland. 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

Theodore Lyman, .... Brookline. 

E. A. Brackett, Winchester. 

Asa French, ...... South Braintree. 



CONNECTICUT. 

William M. Hudson, .... Hartford. 

Robert G. Pike, . . . . -. Middletown. 

James A. Bill, ..... Lyme. 

RHODE ISLAND. 

Xewton Dexter, Providence. 

Alfred A. Reed, Jr., . . . . Providence. 

John H. Barden, .... Scituate. 

NEW YORK. 

Horatio Seymour, .... Utica. 

Robert R. Roosevelt, . . . New York City. 

Edward M. Smith, .... Rochester. 



30 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Jan. 



NEW JERSEY. 

J. R. Shotwell, Rah way. 

G. A. Anderson, Trenton. 

B. P. Howell, Woodbury. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

H. J. Reeder, Easton. 

B. L. Hewitt, Hollidaysbnrg. 

James Duffy, Marietta. 

MARYLAND. 

T. B. Ferguson, Baltimore. 

T. Downes, Denton. 

virglnia. 

A. Mosely, Richmond. 

Dr. W. B. Roberts, .... Lynchburg. 

M. C. Ellsley, Blacksburg. 

ALABAMA. 

Charles S. G. Doster, . . . Montgomery* 

Ro. Tyler, Montgomery. 

D. R. Hundley, Courtland. 

OHIO. 

John C. Fisher, Coshocton. 

RoBT. CuMMiNGS, Toledo. 

John H. Klippart, .... Columbus. 

Emory D. Potter, Supt., . . . Toledo. 





MICHIGAN. 




Andrew J. Kellogg, . 


. 


Allegan. 


Geo. Clark, . 


, 


Ecorse. 


E. R. Miller, 


. 


Richland. 


Geo. H. Jerome, Supt., 


IOWA. 


Niles. 


Samuel B. Evans, 


. 


Ottumwa. 


B. F. Shaw, . 


. 


Anamosa. 


Charles A. Haynes, . 


MINNESOTA. 


Waterloo. 


Wm. Golcher, 


. 


St. Paul. 


R. 0. Sweeny, 


. 


St. Paul. 


Robt. Ormsby, 


. 


St. Paul. 



1878.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 



31 



CALIFORNIA. 



B. B. Redding, 

S. R. Throckmorton, . 

J. D. Farwell, 



Sacramento. 
San Francisco. 
San Francisco. 



W. F. Whitcher, 
W. H. Venning, 



DOMINION OF CANADA. 



Ottawa. 
St. John. 



K. H. Fish, . 
J. R. Steelman, 
^N". B. Pearce, 



ARKANSAS. 



Pine Bluffs. 
Little Rock. 
Fayetteville. 



WISCONSIN. 



A. Palmer, . 
William Welch, 
P. R. Hoy, . 

A. F. DONSMAN, 



Boscabel. 
Madison. 
Racine. 
Waterville. 



A. P. LOCKWOOD, 



UTAH TERRITORY. 



Salt Lake City. 



KENTUCKY. 



P. H. Darbey, 
Polk Laffoon, 
Dr. S. W. Coombs, 
Hon. C. J. Walton, 
Pack Thomas, 
Hon. James B. Casey, 
Hon. John A. Steele, 
J. H. Bruce, 
Gen. T. T. Garrard, 
W. C. Allen, 



Thos. p. Janes, 



W. A. Pratt, 



H. G. Parker, 



GEORGIA 



ILLINOIS 



NEVADA 



Caldwell County, 

Hopkins 

Warren 

Hart 

Jefferson 

Kenton 

Woodford 

Garrard 

Clay 

Bath 



Atlanta. 



Elgin. 



32 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Jan. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 



Gov. Z. B. Vance . 
Prof. W. C. Kerr . 
Pres. R. P. Battle 
Col. S. M. Holt, . 
Capt. S. B. Alexander, 
Maj. Jonathan Evans, 
Capt. J. R. Thispan, 



Raleigh. 

Raleigh. 

Chapel Hill. 

Haw River. 

Charlotte. 

Fayetteville. 

Tarboro'. 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 33 



[B.] 

LISTS OF PONDS LEASED 

By the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries^ under Authority given 
by Chap. 384, Sect. 9, of the Acts 0/1869.^ 



1870. 

Feb. 1. Waushakum Pond, in Framinghani, to Sturtevant and 

others, 20 j^ears. 
Mar. 1. Tisbury Great Pond, in Tisbury and Chilniark, to Allen 

Look and others, 10 years. 
Apr. 1. Chaunce}^ Pond, in Westborough, to Trustees Keform 

School, 5 years, 
1. Mendon Pond, in Mendon, to Leonard T. Wilson and 

another, 20 5'ears. 
June 20. Silver Lake, in Wilmington, to Charles O. Billings and 

others, 20 years. 
Sept. 12. Baptist Lake, in Newton, to J. F. C. Hyde and others, 

. 20 3^ears. 
Oct. 15. Archer's Pond, in Wrentham, to William E. George, 

15 years. 

1871. 

Jan. 10. Nine Mile Pond, in Wilbraham, to B. F. Bowles, 10 
years. 
30. Little Pond, in Falmouth, to F. H. Dimmick, 10 years. 
Apr. — . Spectacle, Triangle, and Peter's ponds, in Sandwich, to 
G. L. Fessenden and another, 5 3'ears. 
17. Long Pond, in Falmouth, to Joshua S. Bowerman and 
three others, 20 years. 

1 "We would remind lessees of ponds that they are required, by their leases, 
to use all reasonable efforts to stock their ponds, and keep accurate records of 
the same, and make returns of their doings to the Commissioners on the first 
of October, each year, of the number and species of fish which they have put 
in or removed from their ponds. Any failure to comply with these conditions 
is a breach of contract invalidating their lease. It is important that the State 
should know just what is being done; and, where there appears to be misman- 
agement, or apparent failures, the Commissioners will visit the ponds, and 
ascertain, if possible, the cause. 

6 



34 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

1871. 

May 15. Pratt's Pond, in Upton, to D. W. Batcheller, 20 years. 
18. Little Sandy Pond, in Plymouth, to William E. Perkins, 
15 years. 
Nov. 1. Punkapoag Pond, in Randolph and Canton, to Henry 
L. Pierce. 20 vears. 

1872. 

Jan. 1. Sandy Pond. Forest Lake, or Flint's Pond, in Lincoln, 
to James L. Chapin and others. 20 years. 

Apr. 1. Onota Lake, in Pittsfield. to William H. MniTay and 
others. 5 years. 

Juh' 20. Little Pond, in Braintree. to Eben Denton and others, 
20 vears. 

1873. 

May 1. Meeting-house Pond, in Westminster, to inhabitants of 

Westminster. 15 years. 
1. Great Pond, in Weymouth, to James L. Bates and 

others. 15 years. 
July 1. Little Sandy Pond, in Pembroke, to A. C. Brigham and 

others. 16 years. 
Sept 1. Pontoosuc Lake, in Pittsfield and Lanesborough. to E. 

H. Kellogg and others. 15 years. 
Oct. 1. Farm Pond, in Sherborn. to inhabitants of Sherborn. 15 

years. 

1. Spot Pond, in Stoneham. to inhabitants of Stoneham, 

15 years. 
Nov. 1. Lake Chaubunagungamong. or Big Pond, in Webster, 

to inhabitants of Webster. 5 years. 
Dec. 1. Lake Waubau. in Needham. to Hollis Hunnewell. 20 

vears. 

1874. 

Mar. 1. Walden and White ponds, in Concord, to inhabitants 
of Concord, 15 years. 

2. Upper Nankeag. in Ashburnham. to inhabitants of Ash- 

burnham. 20 years. 
Apr. 1. Elder's Pond, in Lakeville. to inhabitants of Lakeville, 
15 years. 
20. North and South Poduuk ponds, in Brookfield, to inhab- 
itants of Brookfield. 15 years. 
May 2. Brown's Pond, in Peabody. to John L. Shorey. 15 years. 
1. Maquan Pond, in Hanson, to the inhabitants of HansQn, 
15 years. 
16. Wickaboag Pond, in West Brookfield, to Lemuel Ful- 

1am, 15 years. 
20. Unchechewalom and Massapog ponds, to the inhabit- 
ants of Lunenburs:. 20 vears. 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 35 

1874. 

Jul}' 1. Hardj-'s Pond, in TValtham, to H. E. Priest and others, 
15 3'ears. 
1. Hockomocko Pond, in Westborough, to L. N. Fairbanks 
and others, 15 ^-ears. 
11. Mitchell's Pond, in Boxford, to R. M. Cross and others, 

15 3'ears. 
11. Hazzard's Pond, in Russell, to N. D. Parks and others, 
20 3-ears. 
Oct. 1. East Waushacum Pond, in Sterling, to inhabitants of 
Sterling, 20 3'ears. 
20. Middleton Pond, in Middleton, to inhabitants of Mid- 
dleton, 15 3'ears. 

1875. 

Jan. 1. White and Goose ponds, in Chatham, to George W. 

Davis, 15 3'ears. 
Mar. 1. Lake Pleasant, in Montague, to inhabitants of Monta- 
gue, 10 3'ears. 
1. Hood's Pond, in Ipswich and Topsfield, to inhabitants 
of Topsfield, 15 3'ears. 
Apr. 1. Chaunce3' Pond, in Westborough, to inhabitants of 
Westborough, 15 3'ears. 
3. West's Pond, in Bolton, to J. D. Hurlburt and others, 
15 3'ears. 
15. Gates Pond, in Berlin, to E. H. Hartshorn and others, 

15 3'ears. 
24. Pleasant Pond, in Wenham, to inhabitants ot Wenham, 
15 3'ears. 
Ma3' 1. Morse's Pond, in Needham, to Edmund M. Wood, 15 
3'ears. 
1. Great Pond, in North Andover, to Eben Sutton and 

others, 20 3'ears. 
1. Chilmark Pond, in Chilmark, to J. Nickerson and others, 
agents, 20 3'ears. 
July 1. Winter Pond and Wedge Pond, in Winchester, to 
inhabitants of Winchester, 15 3'ears. 
1. Haggett's Pond, in Andover, to inhabitants of Andover, 
20 3'ears. 
Aug. 1. Oyster Pond, in Edgartown, to J. H. Smith amd others, 
20 years. 
7. West Waushacum Pond, in Sterling, to inhabitants of 

Sterling, 20 3'ears. 
9. Mystic (Upper) Pond, in Winchester, Medford, and 
Arlington, to inhabitants of Winchester and Medford, 
15 years. 



36 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Jan. 



1876. 

Oct. 1. 


18' 

Feb. 


76. 

1. 


Mar. 


1. 




1. 




20. 




28. 




28. 


May 


8. 


June 


1. 




10. 


Oct. 


1. 




1. 




1. 


1877. 

Mar. 1. 




15. 


Aug. 


10. 


Oct. 


1. 



Little Chauncev and Solomon ponds, in Northborough, 
to inhabitants of Northborough, 15 years. 

Great Sandy Bottom Pond, in Pembroke, to Israel 
Thrasher and others, 15 years. 

Dennis Pond, in Yarmouth, to inhabitants of Yarmouth, 
15 years. 

Crystal Lake, in "Wakefield, to L}Tnan H. Tasker and 
others, 15 3'ears. 

Lower Naumkeag Pond, in Ashburnham, to inhabitants 
of Ashburnham, 18 years. 

Dennison Lake, in Winchendon, to inhabitants of Win- 
chendon, 15 years. 

Phillipston Pond, in Phillipston, to inhabitants of Phil- 
lipston. 20 years. 

South-AVest Pond, in Athol, to Adin H. Smith and 
others, 15 3'ears. 

Norwich Pond, in Huntington, to inhabitants of Hunt- 
ington, 20 years. 

Dug Pond, in Natick, to W. P. Bigelow and others, 15 
years. 

Farm and Learned' s Pond, in Framingham, to inhabit- 
ants of Framingham. 15 years. 

"Whitney's Pond, Wrentham, to inhabitants of Wren- 
tham, 15 years. 

Little Pond, in Barnstable, to George H. Davis, 15 
years. 

Nine Mile Pond, in "Wilbraham, to inhabitants of "Wil- 
braham, 15 years. 

Pentucket and Rock Ponds, in Georgetown, to inhabit- 
ants of Georgetown, 15 years. 

Onota Lake, in Pittsfield, to William H. Murray and 
others, 15 years. 

Fort, Great Spectacle, and Little Spectacle ponds, in 
Lancaster, to inhabitants of Lancaster, 20 years. 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 37 



RETURNS ON PONDS. 



AsHBURNHAM, Nov. 15, 187T. 
To the Commissioners on Island Fisheries. 

Gentlemen, — In presenting the fourth annual report upon the 
stocking of our upper Nankeag Lake with useful fishes, I desire to 
say that the experiment is working satisfactorily. With a view to 
test the condition and numbers of these fish, a party, by invitation, 
visited the lake on the 3d of July last, having with them all the 
necessary outfit for various kinds of fishing ; and after two hours 
had thus been spent, fifteen bass were brought in, varying in 
weight from one-fourth of a pound to three pounds and a half, 
all of which, with the exception of the largest, were immediately 
put back into the lake. They were in handsome condition, plump 
and hard, and with the exception of the largest, — somewhat in- 
jured in the taking, and so not put back, which undoubtedly be- 
longed to the original lot brought from Lake Champlain, — had all 
grown in the lake. 

In the shallow waters could be plainly discerned countless num- 
bers of small fry hatched in the spring ; but such is the abundance 
of natural food in the lake, there is no prospect of an overstock- 
ing. I regret that I am unable to afford the Commissioners any 
information concerning the land-locked salmon and salmon-trout, 
no fish of either variety having been caught, although put in the 
lake at the same time. 

I am still sanguine, however, that ere long they will show them- 
selves more freely. Most of the land-locked salmon fry obtained 
of Mr. Commissioner Brackett, in June last, are still in my private 
ponds, in the hope that when they are a year or more old they may 
with more success be transferred to stock the lake. There is still 
a strong feeling of interest on the part of all our citizens in the 
success of the enterprise ; and it was handsomel}" tested in an oflTer 
of five hundred dollars, and all expense, to the town for the lease, 
by a citizen of Boston much enamored of the sport, who desired 



38 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

it as a private ground, which the town quite unanimously refused. 
Thanking 3^0 ur Board for their continued courtesies, 

I remain, 

Very respectfully j^ours, 

OHIO WHITNEY, Agent. 



PiTTSFiELD, Dec. 6, 1877. 
E. A. Brackett, Esq., Fish Commissioner. 

Dear Sir, — In compliance with the law, I now make what 
report we have to make in regard to stocking our lake with fish. 
We have not put any fish in for the past j-ear, as we did not know 
as we should take a new lease ; but we can report that black bass, 
rock bass, English carp, and land-locked salmon have certainly 
proved a success ; but we have nothing which assures that lake 
trout have taken, although over 40,000 have been put in. The 
land-locked salmon we had of you two years ago are about six 
inches long, and will weigh about four to six ounces. Will try 
and make a better report next time. 

Yours truty, 

WILLIAM H. MURRAY, /or iessee. 



Athol, Oct. 20, 1877. 
To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 

Gentlemen, — We present this, our first report. After taking a 
lease of South-west Pond, we selected the following officers : E. 
J. Gage, President, A. H. Smith, Vice-President, W. W. Fish, 
Treasurer, H, W. Smith, Secretary ; and voted to be known as 
the South-west Pond Fishing Club, to carry out the provisions 
of the lease granted b}^ the Fish Commissioners ; and by a vote of 
the club, E. J. Shaw was appointed to go to Winchester, and 
receive of the Commissioners the number of land-locked salmon 
fty to be placed in said pond. He received from Mr. Brackett 
3,000 land-locked salmon fry, and they were transported and 
placed in said pond without the loss of one. 

The September following, H. W. Smith and E. J. Shaw went 
to Sunapee Lake, N.H., and procured 268 black bass, of the 
averaaje weight of one pound, and lost 17 in transportation, and 
placed 251 in said pond in good condition. And during the past 
year, repeated visits and observations have been made, and num- 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 39 

bers of black bass can be seen at any time in different parts of the 
pond ; and in one of the main brooks land-locked salmon were 
quite numerous, from two to three inches long ; and we have every 
reason to think they are doing well. 

We have not taken fish of any kind from the pond since the 
lease was granted, and have every reason to think that none have 
been caught, as the families in the vicinity of the pond have been 
very much interested in the success of the enterprise, and have 
warned all persons that the pond was private propert}', and that 
no person was allowed to fish in it. 

And we assure your honorable board, that, in our opinion, there 
is no doubt of its ultimate success. 

Respectfully yours, 

HENRY W. SMITH, 

Secretary South-west Pond Fishing Club. 



WiNCHEXDoif, Mass., October, 1877. 
To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 

Gentlemen, — We are unable to make a very detailed report 
at this time, as to the small land-locked salmon received from 
the State Commissioners, and placed in our waters, as it is too 
soon to see ver}' decided results. During the first j^ear of our 
lease of Dennison Lake (in Winchendon, Mass.), we put in some 
three hundred and fifty black bass ; and we are able to report 
that they are doing well, and large numbers of young bass have 
been seen this season, showing that the process of stocking said 
lake is progressing rapidh'. 

There was some opposition to the leasing and stocking of those 
waters at first, by some of our citizens ; but we think our people 
universall}' favor it now, and are anxious for the success of the 
enterprise, and do not fish the waters that are leased, and keep 
watch that others do not. 

We received from the honorable Fish Commissioners a second 
lot of land-locked salmon in June, but have not been able to see 
an}' of them since. Of the first lot, put in in the summer of 
1876, a few have been seen this season ; and we can hope that, as 
they increase in size, we can see more of them, and in the future 
be able to give a fuller report of their increase, growth, &c. 

We are pleased to report that the best of feeling prevails among 



40 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

our people with regard to the terms of our lease ; and that it shall 
be faithfull}' carried out in the hope that we maj^ have a supply of 
bass and salmon at the end of the four 3^ears. 

Respectfully submitted, 

E. S. MERRILL, 

Chairman. 

H. H. WYMAN, 
Secretary of Board of Fish Commissioners. 



Newton Centre, Oct. 18, 1877. 
To the Commissioners of Inland Fisheries. 

Gentlemen, — In accordance with the terms of our lease, I 
have now to make the annual report of the result of the past 
year's operations. This is the seventh year of our lease, and our 
patience is now being ampl}^ rewarded b}^ fair results. There 
have been taken in all, this season, eighty-five black bass, weigh- 
ing, in the aggregate, one hundred and thirtj'-nine pounds. The 
largest weighed four pounds, smallest, one pound, though several 
smaller were taken, but returned to the water ; a few good-sized 
pickerel have also been taken, and quite a number of fine red 
perch, weighing half a pound each. 

Not more than half a dozen bass have been taken with a fly 
and trolling ; but minnow bait near bottom, in about twenty or 
thirt3' feet of water, has given the most successful result. Large 
numbers of smaller bass fry, two to three inches long, have been 
noticed in the shallow water ; and we have ever}' evidence that the 
undertaking is a success, and as the bass increase in numbers, 
and their food (which is now plent}') decreases, we shall see them 
read}' to respond to the tempting flj' of the most careless fisher- 
man. 

We have to acknowledge with thanks the receipt of a quantity 
of land-locked sahnon fry early in the spring, which we placed in 
our pond as an experiment. It may prove, however, as only 
food for the bass ; but we will report facts later. 

E. M. FOWLE, 

Secretary of Newton Black Bass Club, Crystal Lake. 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 41 



Luxemburg, Oct. 20, 1877. 
To the Massa'^husetts Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 

Gentlemen, — In making my annual report of our two leased 
ponds in Lunenburg, the Unchechewalom and Massapog Ponds, 
I state that, through the kindness of E. A. Brackett, Esq., one 
of 3-our Commission, I received about five thousand land-locked or 
fresh-water salmon fry at Winchester, and placed the same in 
Unchechewalom Pond, and in the stream connecting the two ponds 
last May. And the twenty-five hundred placed in the pond and 
stream last year will test the experiment of raising salmom in 
our ponds. 

The inhabitants living in the vicinity of our two ponds inform 
me that they have frequently seen the black bass in the ponds 
of different sizes. One man told me he saw as man}' as twenty 
black bass near the outlet of Massapog, that would weigh one 
and a half pounds apiece ; another man said that he had a fair 
view of a bass in Unchechewalom Pond, that would weigh five 
pounds, as well as many smaller ones. The inhabitants of our 
town are observant of the prohibition contained in our lease ; but 
I am sorrv to say that some non-residents (poachers) have tres- 
passed in a few cases, and taken some fish from these ponds. 
Our selectmen are taking measures to bring one of the poachers to 
justice. 

Some of these trespassers find it difiicult to believe that " hunt- 
ing and fishing " is not •• free." 

The inhabitants of this town claim the right to protect our birds 
and fishes from poachers and plunderers from abroad, who annu- 
ally infest our town, and carr\' off our game. 

And if our claim is not sustained by our present law, we must 
apply to our Legislature for a law 'that will protect us, and all 
other places, when the inhabitans thereof so vote. 

Yours respectfully, 

6 CYRUS KILBURN, Agent. 



42 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 



[C] 

LEGISLATION. — 1875. 

[Chap. 39.] 

An Act to amend Chapter Seventy-six of the Acts of the Year 
eighteen hundred and sixty-nine, relating to fishing in the 
Connecticut River. 

Be it enacted, ^*c., as follows: 

Sect. 1. Section one of chapter seventy-six of the acts of the year 
eighteen hundred and sixty-nine is hereby amended, so that shad may be 
taken from the Connecticut River with rod and line, and artificially- 
baited hook at any time between the fifteenth day of March and the first 
day of August in each year. 

Sect. 2. This Act shall take effect upon its passage. \_Approved March 
8, 1875. 

[Chap 115.] 

An Act to authorize the Leasing of Great Ponds in Dukes 

County. 
Be it enacted, ^'c, as follows: 

Sect. 1. The Commissioners on Inland Fisheries may lease any great 
pond, exceeding twenty acres in area, situated within the limits of Dukes 
County: provided, that the town or towns within which said pond lies 
shall, after the notice now requii-ed by law, at a meeting called for that 
purpose, assent to the granting of such lease. 

Sect. 2. Chapter three hundred and sixty of the acts of the year 
eighteen hundred and seventy is hereby repealed. 

Sect. 3. This Act shall take effect upon its passage. \_Approved April 
10, 1875. 

[Chap. 180.] 

An Act to prohibit Seining of Fish in the Ponds on the Island 

OF Xantucket. 

Be it enacted, §*c., as follows: 

Sect. 1. Xo person shall set, draw, or use any seine or net for taking 
fish in the great ponds on the island of Xantucket. 

Sect. 2. Any person violating this Act shall, on conviction, pay a fine 
of not less than twenty-five nor more than fifty doUai's, with forfeiture of 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 43 

boats, nets, and apparatus thus used, to be recovered before any court of 
competent jurisdiction, for the use of the town of Nantucket. 

Sect. 3. This Act shall take effect upon its passage. [^Approved May 3, 
1875. 



1876. 

[Chap. 50.] 

An Act concerning the Obstructions to the Passage of Fish in 
THE Tributaries of the Connecticut and Merrimack Rivers. 

Be it enacted^ Sfc, as follows: 

Sect. 1. The provisions of chapter two hundred and thirty-eight of 
the acts of the year eighteen hundred and sixty-six, and of chapter 
four hundred and twenty-two of the acts of the year eighteen hundred 
and sixty-nine, are hereby extended, and shall apply to the tributaries of 
the Connecticut and Merrimack Rivers within this Commonwealth. 

Sect. 2. This Act shall take effect upon its passage. \^Approved March 
16, 1876. 

[Chap. 62.] 

An Act to authorize the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries to 
OCCUPY Great Ponds for the Cultivation and Distribution of 
Useful Fishes. 

Be it enacted, ^c. , as follows : 

Sect. 1. The Commissioners on Inland Fisheries, as such commission- 
ers, are hereby authorized to occupy, manage, and control any great ponds 
within the limits of the Commonwealth, not exceeding six in number, and 
not then subject to lease from them, for the purpose of cultivating useful 
fishes, and of distributing the same within the Commonwealth, subject 
to the restrictions and limitations contained in chapter three hundred and 
eighty-four of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and sixty-nine as to 
leased ponds. 

Sect. 2. IMienever said commissioners shall determine so to occupy 
and improve any such pond, they shall post a notice of such pui'pose in 
some public place in the town or towns in which said pond is located, and 
shall file a like notice in the oJBBice of the town clerk of said town or 
towns, and in the office of the Secretary of State; and the affidavit of any 
officer qualified to serve civil process that said notice has been posted 
shaU be deemed full proof of the same. 

Sect. 3. From and after the time when said notice shaU have been 
filed and posted as above, said Commissioners shaU have all the rights in 
respect to said pond as are secured to lessees of ponds from said Commis- 
sioners ; and any violation of any of said rights shall be subject to the 
penalties imposed by section nineteen of said chapter. 

Sect. 4. This Act shall take effect upon its passage. \_Approved March 
22, 18^6. 



44 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 



[Chap. 104.] 

An Act requiring Certain Returns to the Commissioners on 

Inland Fisheries. 

Be it enacted^ Sfc. , as follows : 

Sect. 1 . The owner or owners of every pound, weir, or other similar 
fixed contrivance, or of any fishing-pier, seine, drag or gill net, used in 
any of the waters of this State for fishing-purposes, shall make written 
report, under oath, to the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries, on or before 
the first day of October in each year, specifying the number of each kind 
of edible fish caught by his or their respective pounds, weirs, or other 
similar fixed contrivances, piers, seines, drag or gill nets, during the 
year next preceding the date of said report. 

Sect. 2. It shall be the duty of the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries 
to furnish each owner or proprietor of any pound, weir, or similar fixed 
contrivance, pier, seine, drag or gill net, on or before the fifteenth day of 
March in each year, with suitable blank forms for the reports required by 
the preceding section, so arranged that each day's catch may be separately 
recorded thereon; and in filling out such reports, such owner or proprietor 
shall give the results of each day's fishing so far as practicable; and it 
shall be the duty of such owner or proprietor to apply to the Commis- 
sioners on Inland Fisheries for such blank forms. 

Sect. 3. Whoever knowingly and wilfully violates any of the provis- 
ions of this Act shall be punished by a fine of not less than ten nor more 
than one hundred dollars. 

Sect. 4. This Act shall take effect upon its passage. \_Approved April 
6, 1876. 



1877. 

[Chap. 119.] 
An Act to amend an Act in Relation to the Construction of 

Fish-weirs. 
Be it enacted^ ^c, as follows: 

Chapter fifty of the Acts of the year eighteen hundred and fifty-six is 
hereby amended by adding the following section: Sect. 4. No person 
shall construct or maintain any fish- weir within the tide-waters of this 
Commonwealth unless authorized in the manner set forth in the first 
section of this Act, or from any island within said tide-waters without 
authority in writing from the mayor and aldermen of every city, and the 
selectmen of every town, distant not over two miles from said island. 
Any person who shall construct or maintain any weir in violation of the 
provisions of this section shall forfeit the sum of ten dollars for each 
day he shall maintain such weir, to be recovered in any court of compe- 
tent jurisdiction to the use of any cities or towns, from the mayor and 
aldermen or selectmen of which he ought to have obtained the authority 
aforesaid, and shall also be liable to be indicted therefor and to be 
enjoined therefrom. \_Approved April 10, 1877. *, 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 45 

[Chap. 180.] 

An Act in Addition to an Act for encouraging the Cultiva- 
tion OF Useful Fishes. 

Be it enacted^ Sfc. , as follows : 

Sect. 1. In all cases where the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries 
have leased or shall hereafter lease any great ponds in this Common\\ealth 
for the cultivation of useful fishes, the said Commissioners may fix the 
limits of such great ponds, and determine what arms, coves or bays of 
the same shall be regarded as part of said great ponds ; and the limits 
of said great ponds, so fixed and determined by said Commissioners, and 
recorded in the registry of deeds for the county where such ponds lie, 
shall be taken to be the legal limits of said great ponds for all the pur- 
poses of such case. The expense of fixing and recording such limits 
shall be paid by the lessees. 

Sect. 2. This Act shall take effect upon its passage. {^Approved May 
4, 1877. 



46 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 



[D.] 
RETURNS OF WEIRS. SEINES. AND GILL-NETS. 



A good deal of pains was this year taken properly to distribute 
blanks among the fishermen, who were generally reached, with the 
exception of the Cape Ann region, where there are no weirs, but 
a certain number of purse-seiners and gill-netters who did not 
apply for blanks. 

The followinof headinsr was attached to each blank, which was 
divided into columns for the different species of fish : — 

Your attention is called to the following Act, whereby you are required, on 
or before the first day of next October, to return to the Commissioners 
on Inland Fisheries this blank, which you are to fill with the numbers 
taken of each kind of fish specified at the head.< of the columns, and 
according to the days of the month at the sides of the columns : — 

[Chap. 104.] 

Ax Act eequirixg Certain Returns to the Commissioners on 
Inland Fisheries. 

Be it enacted. &'c., as follows: 

Sect. 1. The owner or owners of every pound, weir, or other simi- 
lar fijxed contrivance, or of any fishing-pier, seine, drag or gill net, used 
in any of the waters of this state for fishing-piu^ses, shall make written 
report, under oath, to the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries, on or be- 
fore the first day of October in each year, specifying the number of each 
kind of edible fish caught by his or their respective pounds, weirs, or 
other similar fi:s:ed contrivances, piers, seines, di'ag or gill nets, during 
the year next preceding the date of said report. 

Sect. 2. It shaU be the duty of the Commissioners on Inland Fish- 
eries to furnish each owner or proprietor of any pound, weir, or similar 
fixed contrivance, pier, seine, drag or gill net, on or before the fifteenth 
day of March in each year, vriih suitable blank forms for the report 
required by the preceding section, so arranged that each day's catch ma 
be separately recorded thereon: and in fining out such reports, such 
owner or proprietor shall give the results of each day's fishing, so far as 



1878.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 



47 



practicable ; and it shall be the duty of such owner or proprietor to apply 
to the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries for such blank forms. 

Sect. 3. TMioever knowingly and wilfully violates any of the provis- 
ions of this Act shall be punished by a fine of not less than ten nor more 
than one hundred dollars. 

Sect. 4. This Act shall take effect upon its passage. ^Approved April 
6, 1876. 

RETURN OF THE 

[Here put what kind, whether seine, or pound, &c.] 

Fishery of , 

in the town of , from March 1 to September 15, 187 , 

showing the catch of each day's fishing. 



Datk. 


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March 1. 




















i 
i 









Considering the novelty of the matter, and their want of experi- 
ence, the fishermen deserve high praise for the pains they have 
taken. Of 64 weirs that received blanks, bQ made retm-ns. Of 
these, 43 will be found on the map, indicated by numbers which 
correspond to those of Table I. The remaining 13 are referred 
to their towns, as their localities are not exacth' known. To gill- 
netters, 188 blanks were issued, of whom 120 made returns. The 
others did not fish, or fished with companies, or failed to reply. 

It cannot be expected that the tables which follow should be very 
accurate. Doubtless the returns were more or less reliable accord- 
ing to the pains and the intelligence of each fisherman ; but, 
on the whole, the general nature of these fisheries in quantity 
and qualitv will be shown. Such statistics cannot fail to be 
most A^aluable for the interests of our fishermen, whose existence 
depends on a wise use of this gift of nature. 

As population increases, game and fish decrease, and it is no 
longer allowable to destroy them at pleasure. 

Then it is that laws are passed to protect wild creatures, and 
especially fishes, which are so important for food. Unfortunately 
this is one of the most difficult subjects for legislation ; so that our 
fishery-laws of former days were usually the reflection of the igno- 
rance and mutual jealousies of dilferent sets of fishermen. Laws 
which are not founded on known facts command no respect, and 



48 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 

cannot be enforced ; and so it has fared with man}- of our fisher}'- 
laws. 

What is the consequence? At ever}' session of the Legislature 
thousands of dollars' worth of time is consumed in committee- 
hearings and public discussions of ill-considered local laws for the 
limitation of fishing. Everj' committee- hearing breeds one or two 
more at the following session, where the petitioners endeavor to 
undo the work of their predecessors ; so that to-day our statute 
books are encumbered with several hundred enactments, the greater 
part of which only go to make up a garment of shreds and patches. 
From time to time there is unusual excitement and waste of 
mone3\ Thus, at the session of 1870, three thousand persons 
petitioned for a law to restrain fishing with weirs, seines, and 
gill-nets, while eight thousand names appeared as remonstrants. 

The hearing occupied several weeks. The witnesses, for the 
most part, had weak knowledge and strong prejudices ; and what 
real information was to be had was violently- pulled and twisted 
by the half-dozen able lawyers employed by the combatants. 

The remonstrants of one portion only of Cape Cod contributed 
over three thousand dollars to defend their side. The petitioners 
had leave to withdraw, but neither party was convinced, for there 
was little testimony calculated to convince anybod}'. 

Nothing came of it, therefore, but a loss of time and mone}' to 
the amount of many thousands of dollars. 

Is there no way of avoiding such waste? Is there no way of 
treating this vital trade of fishing as we treat other trades ? Can- 
not we collect facts and statistics, and act on them just as leather 
dealers do, or cotton manufacturers, or iron founders? The Com- 
missioners on Inland Fisheries think we can. 

Already, in 1871, the}' made a beginning b}' hiring a weir, and 
causing a record to be made of its catch during one season. This 
experiment, which cost a few hundred dollars, gave more solid 
information than has come from all legislative hearings during the 
past ten ^-ears ; it did more than any hearing ever did, in this, that 
it settled one or two points. 

The returns will furnish statistics of the numbers and the kinds 
of fish which visit our coast, of their favorite localities and modes 
' of running, and of the proper lime and manner of taking them. 
Continued through two or three seasons, these returns ought to fur- 
nish such a mass of information as should bar all expensive legisla- 
tive hearings, and give a certain basis for just laws which shall aid 
and encourage the fisherman instead of fettering and annoying him. 
The problem is, How many fish may be taken and leave enough for 



1878.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 



49 



seed? The solution of this problem is deemed the most important 
that can be undertaken by the Commissioners. 

But the fisherman must co-operate heartil}' and in his own inter- 
est. It is not so easy to get facts from a fisherman as from a 
farmer or a mechanic : his trade has something of the chance of the 
hunter. He is liable to come home empty-handed ; and so when 
he does get an opportunitj^ he likes to seize what he can. ^Yith 
his hunter character is mixed something of the sailor's careless- 
ness ; and so he is often averse to orderly- procedure, and rather 
suspicious of any thing new. But luckily this is a matter for 
Massachusetts fisherman ; and ever}' Massachusetts man is ex- 
pected to be reasonable and law-abiding, and read}^ to take a little 
trouble, that good may come to himself and his children. 

The net fisheries for bluefish and mackerel were this year almost 
a failure in man}' places. Should next year prove one of abun- 
dance we shall have two sets of tables, giving the catches of a 
bad and of a good season. 

It is, as 3'et, too early to make generalizations, or to lay down 
rules for the preservation and increase of our shore fisheries. One 
thing is plain, however, that on the two sides of Cape Cod and 
about Martha's Vineyard the fifty-six pounds take many times 
more fish than the one hundred and twenty gill-nets and the 
twenty-nine seines together. This will be seen on comparing the 
grand totals of the three sorts of apparatus for the more impor- 
tant fishes : — 









ti 


^ 




















a 


ci 


















" 


^ 


M 




S 






■s 


S 










tS 
















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^ 


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5 


a> 


2 


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Weirs, . . 


11,953 


1,046,719'888.213 


1,773 


225,420 '1,368,335 


136,319 


13,932 


85,582 


1,770,136 


Gill-nets, . 


162 


120,107 


19,532 


386 


53,627 


219,824 


90,061 


4,455 


7,460 


81,526 


Seines, . . 


131 


71,611 


233 


395 


697 


3,080 


47,513 


31 


1,166 


600,198 



On comparing Tables IV., V., and VI., it is seen that the little 
Taunton River, where some pains are taken to preserve the fish, 
actually yielded more shad than either the Merrimac or the Connect- 
icut. Such have been the consequences of improvidence. The 
failure of the upper Connecticut does not seem to be the result of 
raising the Windsor Locks dam, for the fishery helow the dam has 
also greatly diminished. 

The attention of city and town officers is specially called to 
chapter 119, Acts of 1877, whereby they are empowered to permit 
or to prohibit any weirs or pounds. 



60 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



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1878.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 



51 





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60 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



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1878.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 61 















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62 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Jan. 



•spa 


5 S Jl ' 


i 


•uapcquajv^ 


1,830 
4,615 
6,374 


1 

00 


e.i.>punoiji 


1,089 

662 

1,214 


1 


•So^nBX 


1,298 

572 

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-*" 


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570 

13 

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1 

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44,991 

24 


1 


•ssug podu;g 


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1 


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50,881 

23,212 

8,368 

28,103 


o 


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, g, o , 


o 


o 

1 


S. P. Dunn, & G. Hillcr, 

B. T. Dunn, & S. A. mUer, . 

C. D. Sherman, . 

C. E. Snow, .... 


1 


o 

C-i 
§ 

1 


Fairhaven, . 
Nantucket, . 



1878.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 



63 



Table No. IV. — Connecticut River Seines. 



Town. 


NAME. 


'6 


£.1 




« 
^ 


1 


1 

s 
3? 


Agawam, 

So. Hadley Falls, . 

u u u 

Chicppee, 

West Springfield, . 

Springfield, . 

u 


A. Convers, . 
A. J. Hills, . 
C. C. Smith, 
A. Ingraham, 
J. & H. W. Chapin, 
G. White, . 
J. O'Leary, . 
R. Cooley, . 
R. Parker, . 


283 

64 

2,674 

738 

421 

546 

77 

1,008 

692 


2 

8 

1 


4 


1 


16 


21 




6,503 


11 


4 


1 


16 


21 



Table No. V. — Mekrimac River Seines. 



Town. 


NAME. 


Shad. 


Ale\\-ives. 


striped 
Bass. 


Andover, Xorth, . 


AY. H. Day, . 


797 


_ 


_ 


" " 


A. C. Hardy, 


No return. 


- 


- 


" " 


W. A. Wiley, . 


23 


- 


- 


Bradford, 


D. W. Gage, 


Xo return. 


- 


- 


u 


II. Xesbet, . 


347 


- 


44 


HaverhiU, . 


T. Bailey, . 


No return. 


- 


- 


u 


Dempsey, 


1 


1,500 


- 


u 


W. P. Goodwin, . 


800 


- 


4 


u 


Chas. Ordway, 


Xo return. 


- 


- 


Groveland, . 


T. H. Balch, 


429 


- 


3 


(( 


Chas. Pemberton,. 


Xo return. 


- 


- 


Amesbury, 


J. MorriU, •. 


2,636 


- 


2 


Newburyport, 


J. H. Worthen, . 


Xo return. 


- 


- 




5,033 


1,500 


53 



64 INLAND FISFIERIES. [Jan. 

Table No. VI. — Taunton River Seines. 



Town. 


NAME. 


Shad. 


Alewives. 


striped 
Bass. 


Berkley, 


I. N. Babbitt, 


917 


150,617 


_ 


It 


Nichols & Shove, . 


930 


37,627 


100 


Dighton, 


N. Chase, . 


732 


109,436 , 


72 


a 


I. Sherman, . 


762 


91,250 


- 


('( 


Chas. Simmons, . 


No retm-n. 










f 600 


80,000 


- 


(( 


Chas. N. Simmons, 


} 1,100 


180,000 


- 






I 15 


1,000 


- 


u 


J. C. Standish, . 


327 


59,952 


- 


Somerset & Dighton, 


G. H. Simmons, . 


3 


34,696 


1 


u a 


J. Gibbs, . 


100 


82,200 


- 


Middleborough, 


R. Hathaway, 


- 


117,486 


- 


Raynham, 


G. B. Williams, . 


( 581 
I 380 


174,383 
109,911 


: 


Taunton, 


J. W. Hart, . 


338 


139,840 


- 


a 


R. W. Rounsville, 


523 


126,060 


- 




7,308 


1,497,458 


173 



Table No. VII. — Other Fresh Water Seines. 



Town. 


NAME. 


ri 


< 


If 


1^ 


i2 
1 


^ ^ ■^ 


Mattapoisett 
& Rochester, 


N". Hammond, . 


3 


347,124 










Falmouth, 


E. E. Winch, . 


- 


16,400 


- 


- 


- 




Plymouth , 


W. S. Hadaway, 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


10,950 


Barnstable, . 


C. Lincoln, 


- 


165,970 


- 


- 


- 


- 


(( 


A. Lovell, . 


- 


9,830 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Wellfleet, . 


G. Baker, . 


- 


21,205 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Yarmouth 
and Dennis, 


N. W. Grush, . 


_ 


355,102 


_ 


22,462 


_ 


_ 


Tisbiuy, 


A. Look, . 


- 


344,000 


10 


4,500 


1,000 


- 




3 


1,259,631 


10 


26,962 


1,000 


10,950 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 



65 



Table No. VIII. — Seine Fishery at Mouth of the Mek- 

RIMAC. 



E. Thurlow, . 
R. Pierce, 
B. M. Perkins, 
W. H. H. Perkins, 
N. Lattime, . 
B. Stevens, 



2,013,675 



Fishing with seines in the Merrimac, at the season when the 
menhaden stand in, is forbidden by law. The mouth of the river, 
has, however, never been defined by the Governor, as permitted 
b}' statute ; and it was represented to the Commissioners that 
vahiable menhaden fisheries existed in this neutral ground of 
brackish water. Therefore, under the personal promise of the 
fishermen to capture no shad or salmon, and with the guarantee of 
responsible persons in Newbuiyport, the Commissioners agreed to 
defer the definition of the river-mouth, and to assume that these 
menhaden were not positively included in the river proper. 
9 



66 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 



[E.] 

The following petition is curious, as showing the interest in fish- 
eries nearly a century ago, and from the fact that the original is 
in the writing of Fisher Ames. 

Gentlemen : — 

A number of persons of this and the neighboring towns, having volun- 
tarily associated themselves together, for the purpose of adopting and 
pursuing the best means of restoring the passage of the salt-water fish 
up Charles River, have appointed a committee of their body to commu- 
nicate, without reserve, to th^ towns and persons interested in the same 
object, the arguments and the prospects of a common benefit on which 
their opinions and their hopes are rested. 

That committee, accordingly, beg your permission to state the senti- 
ments of their body, as perspicuously and concisely as they can, expect- 
ing that the plain importance of the subject to your town will at once 
suggest their apology, and engage your attention and concurrence. 

It was at first proposed to dig .a canal on the Xeedham side of the 
great fall. But this scheme, upon deliberation and a view of the place, 
was rejected; for these among other reasons : because of the expense of 
labor and money to dig the canal, and because the natural bed of the 
river affords a much better passage. In pursuance of this opinion, a 
petition, on behalf of some towns and a large number of individuals, 
was presented to the General Court at their last session, praying that 
they would take such measures in the premises as their wisdom should 
direct. 

The petition was committed to a very respectable Committee of both 
Houses, who will take a view of the river, and report. 

We beg leave to make some observations to show that our project is 
not only practicable, but easy, and that the accomplishing of it will be 
highly beneficial to the inhabitants of the extensive tract of country 
through which the river and its numerous branches flow. However, we 
can barely touch upon the subject, and we shall leave it to your own 
reflections and inquiries to pursue the discussion. 

The salt-water fish formerly ascended Charles River. Tliis is proved 
by the uniform tenor of recent tradition; by the fondness of the Indians 
for their fishery at Natick, which the scarcity and meanness of the fish 
now found in the river could neither excite nor gratify; by the reserva- 
tions and grants in ancient deeds of the fishing-grounds of the river; by 
the name of a bridge in Sherburn, still called Bass bridge from the an- 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 67 

nual passage of those fish; by the well-attested fact that salmon have 
been taken in Wrentham within seventy years, and that their ascent was 
stopped by the dams; by the testimony of old people, upon oath; and by 
the resort of cod, haddock, &c., to the very wharves in Boston, where 
they were formerly caught in great numbers, so long as the small fish, 
whom they pursue and feed upon, could pass the falls, but which have 
retired further into the sea since the dams have stopped the small fish. 
And more than all, any person who has seen salmon and other fish as- 
cend the falls of other rivers must be satisfied, upon a view of this 
river and falls, that, before their passage was impeded by artificial ob- 
structions such fish did ascend, and that by the removal of such obstruc- 
tions they would re-ascend. For if they formerly passed, why should 
they not pass in future ? The removal of the dams and a single rock at 
the great fall in Newton, and at a trifling expense, would invite still 
greater shoals of fish than'ever passed in former times, by rendering 
their passage more easy than formerly. It is the business of the Court's 
Committee to consider the best expedients for improving the fish pas- 
sage. We therefore only hint at the improvements, which we are of 
opinion a very little labor will accomplish. 

We proceed to consider some objections: — 

The Expense. — This objection was urged with some reason against 
digging a canal. But it cannot apply to the scheme of the petitioners, 
who argue that the natural bed of the river will afford a fish-passage 
without any expense or labor, and that a very little labor will improve it 
sufficiently. Those who urge this objection adopted it while it was in- 
tended to dig the canal; and they still maintain it, being ignorant that 
that proposal is relinquished. It is also to be considered that the peti- 
tioners do not oblige themselves to expend a single shilling to improve the 
fish-passage. They petition for leave to do as they shall think fit, after 
the petition shall be granted. Those who shall content themselves with 
the passage as nature made it, will not incur any expense; and those who 
would unprove it, a very small expense. 

It is said the millers will not consent to have fishways made through 
their dams. We answer that they cannot prevent it. No men can have 
a right to do wrong. 

The course of Charles River is slow. The mill-ponds are raised by 
flooding large, and, in some cases, immense tracts of meadow. The soil 
becomes rotten, spongy, unproductive, and even subject (in consequence 
of flooding) to excessive drought. The air is filled with unpleasant and 
unwholesome fresh-water steams. May, then, a few millers assert and 
establish a right, not only to deprive thousands of the precious and com- 
mon benefits of nature in the fish, but to infect the air with pestilence, 
and to curse the soil with barrenness ? But the law has directed the mill- 
ers to leave a passage for the fish, which is a sufficient answer to this 
objection. 

It is scarcely necessary to observe that the success of this attempt 
would be highly beneficial. 

The largeness of the river, its long and very winding course, the great 
number of brooks and streams which faU into it, the noble and exten 



68 INLAND FISHERIES. [Jan. 78. 

sive ponds which feed the river, particularly in Dedham, Needham, 
Natick, Sherburn, Medway, Holliston, Franklin, and "Wrentham, afford 
a prospect of advantage to a greater number of people, and in a much 
greater degree, than any river which has been opened by law in the 
Commonwealth. To this we may add that it is highly probable that the 
fish will follow the stream of the mill-creek in Dedham, and, by ascend- 
ing the River Neponset, impart a share of this extensive benefit to the 
inhabitants of the towns upon that river. Considering these several cir- 
cumstances, it is to be doubted whether any river from the Merrimack 
quite to Connecticut River possesses so many natural advantages to allure 
the ascent of the fish, of the noblest kinds, and in the greatest abundance. 

To increase the fish in and near Boston harbor, to excite reward and 
feed industry in the country, to furnish the towns with a fund to pay 
their taxes and sustain their poor, are objects of such acknowledged 
importance that a practical success in the pursuit of them will at once 
vindicate our zeal and recompense our exertions. 

But we may not enlarge upon the subject. These are the reasonings 
which have produced conviction in our minds. Therefore we submit 
them to your good sense, with this remark: that those who are to receive 
these benefits ought to unite in a petition to the General Court, to ex- 
press their sense of the importance of them, and of their right to the 
enjoyment of them. As the river in your town is so narrow that the fish 
may be taken very easily, and your ponds afford you a prospect of more 
than a common share of advantage, we might have expected to find you 
at the head of the petitioners. After the petition shall be granted, all 
or any of the petitioners may decline a share of any labor or expense. 
But some reg-ard will be had, perhaps, to this circumstance in forming 
the law which shall regulate the taking of the fish, whereby those who 
shall neglect to petition shall receive a very small share of the advan- 
tage. 

It is our wish, gentlemen, to cultivate a good understanding with all 
those who, certainly, have a common interest with us in the success of 
pur petition ; and that your town should unite with others in a petition 
to the General Court the next session, or afford us your counsels and 
assistance in such other way as you shall best approve. If you think 
proper, you will lay this subject before your town for them to act upon 
it. 

We are, Gentlemen, with all respect, 

Your most obedient, humble servants. 
Dedham, 23d Dec, 1785. 




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PUBLIC DOCUMENT No. 34. 



THIRTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



COMMISSIONERS 



INLAND FISHERIES, 



Year ending September 30, 1878. 



BOSTON: 
Isanti, ^&er2, ^ Co., Prmters to t^e CommontoealtJ, 

117 Franklin Street. 
1879. 



\ 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Report 5 

Appendix A. List of Commissioners 33 

B. List of Ponds Leased 37 

C. Letters from N"athan Doane on Alewife Culture, and 

from W. H. Osborne on the Fisheries of Bridge- 
water • . . 41 

D. Legislation 45 

E. Retm-ns of Weirs, Seines, and Gill-nets . . .49 



^ommanujcaltl] of iKaseacliusctta* 



To His Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Council. 

The Commissioners on Inland Fisheries beg leave to pre- 
sent their Thirteenth Annual Report. 

Fish WAYS. 

Westfield River. 

At the first clam, owned by J. L. Worthy, a portion of the 
structure, which is very low at one side, has been cut away, 
and alterations made, so as to give the fish an easy passage 
over it. 

At the second dam, belonging to the Agawam Canal Com- 
pany, an excellent fishway has been built, and is now in 
good running order. 

The third one, belonging to the same company, is a very 
low dam, used principally for storage at night in seasons of 
drought. A little care in regulating the gate would obviate 
the necessity of a fishway at this place. Mr. William K. 
Baker, treasurer of the company, has given assurance that 
it shall receive proper attention, and that there shall be no 
impediment here to the passage of fish. 

This opens the river as far as Westfield. Above here are 
4 dams ranging from 4 to 16 feet in height : namely, Samuel 
Horton, Westfield ; Crane Brothers, Westfield ; Manufac- 
turers' Corporate Company, Westfield ; The Pultz & Walkley 
Company, Westfield. 

All of these parties have been informally notified that 
they will be required to build suitable passes over their 
dams ; and an early completion of them will be insisted upon. 

When they are finished, the people of Westfield, who are 
quite alive to the interests of fish-culture, will have ample 



6 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

room to exercise their reserve strength in stocking the river, 
thereby restoring to the inhabitants what they have been so 
long deprived of. 

Nashua River. 

The two large dams at Nashua have each been provided, 
this season, with a fishway of the same dimensions as the 
one now in use at Lawrence. 

Above Nashua, in that part of the river flowing through 
this State, are some obstructions which will require attention 
early next season. What they are, will be seen by the fol- 
lowing careful report made by Mr. J. L. S. Thompson. 

Lancaster, Nov. 23, 1877. 
To Fish Commissioners of Massachusetts, 

Notes of Survey of Nashua River, in open boat, from Lancaster to 
Nashua, Nov. 12, 1877: — 

The first point to notice is at Mitchell's Mills, below Shirley, about a 
mile and a half above Ayer Junction. The mill was recently burnt, and 
the dam broken, leaving the passage free; but, as parties contemplate a 
rebuilding of both dam and mill, some attention should be given this 
point. 

The first real obstruction is at Groton Paper Mill, and this is but 
slight. The dam is 7 feet from top of flush-board to apron, with a depth 
of 8 inches of running water. Below is deep water; and salmon will 
probably leap the dam. 

Second obstruction, at Pepperell. This dam is 12 feet high; water 
falling on rocks below, with little depth. A fishway would be necessary 
at this point. 

Between Pepperell and Nashua, one low dam, making a kind of 
reservoir for mills below. Salmon could probably leap this. 

The main obstruction is located at Nashua, — a stone dam 15 or 20 
feet high. A fishway will be necessary here. 

The above are the only obstructions existing on the Nashua River, 
and, with the exception of the last, easily removed. I confidently look 
for salmon in the river at Lancaster soon. 
Very truly yours, &c., 

J. L. S. THOMPSON, for Fish Commissioners of Lancaster. 

Squawhetty Bam. 

Plans and specifications of a fishway 12 feet wide and 2 
feet deep were furnished to Mr. Charles Robinson, treasurer 
of the East Taunton Iron Works, to be built over the 
Squawbetty dam. 

Mr. Robinson informs us that he has completed the work 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 7 

according to directions. Should this fishway prove as suc- 
cessful as in other places where the same form has been 
built, the trouble and annoyance which has beset the com- 
pany, through the energetic and persistent efforts of the 
Taunton fishermen for the last 30 years, will come suddenly 
to an end. It will be carefully looked after ; and, should 
it prove what there is every reason to expect from it, some 
change may be necessary at Middleborough. 

All the fishways, so far as is known, are answering the 
purpose for which they were built. 

For reasons stated in last year's Report, no superintendent 
was appointed for the Holyoke fishway this year, and it is 
not known what passed over it. We did not feel justified in 
spending a single dollar on the Connecticut River so long as 
the State of Connecticut continued to maintain her present 
attitude. If some change is not made by her legislature, 
looking to a more just and equitable arrangement, the deple- 
tion of the river is but a question of time. 

Lawrence. 

As the fishway here surmounts a dam 28 feet high, and is, 
withal, one of the most difQcult passes known, it has been 
thought best to keep a careful record of what has been seen 
passing over it. 

Below will be found Mr. Holmes's report of two inspec- 
tions each day. 

Report of Fish seen in Lawrence Fishway, 1878. 

April 22. Fish first seen this year, a few suckers and silver eel. 

23. A few suckers and chubs, one ale wife. 

24. A few alewives, suckers, and chubs. 

25. A few alewives, suckers, and chubs. 

26. A few alewives, suckers, and chubs. 

27. A few suckers and chubs. 

28. A few chubs. 

29 to May 3. Freshet in the river; fishway two-thirds under water; 
did not draw it off. 
May 4. A few suckers, and two small silver eels. 

5. A few alewives, suckers, and lamper eels. 

6. A few alewives, suckers, chubs, and lamper eels. 

7. A few alewives, suckers, and lamper eels, one brook trout. 

8. A few lamper eels and suckers. 

9. A few suckers. 

10. A few alewives and suckers. 



8 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

May 11. A few alewives and suckers. 

12. One large black bass, a few alewives and suckers, 2 lamper 

eels, and 1 silver eel. 

13. A few ale%^-ives, suckers, and lamper eels, 1 silver eel. 

14. A few alewives, suckers, and chubs. 
1-5. A few alewives, suckers, and chubs. 

16. A few alewives. suckers, and chubs. 

17. A few suckers and chubs. 

15. A few suckers and chubs. 

19. A few suckers and chubs. 

20. A few alewives. 

21. A few alewives. 

22. Did not see any fish. 

23. A few alewives. 

24. A few alewives. 

2.5. 100 alewives, a few suckers, chubs, and lamper eels. 

26. A few alewives, chubs, and lamper eels. 

27. A few alewives, chubs, and suckers, 1 lamper eel. 

28. Alewives and suckers, run large; a few chubs and lamper eels, 

and 1 black bass. 

29. One shad, a few black bass, alewives, lamper eels, and suckers; 

run excessively large : never saw so many fish in fishway 
before. 

30. Alewives, lamper eels, and suckers, run excessively large; 1 

shad. 1 trout, a few chubs, and red-fin shiners. 

31. Alewives. lamper eels, suckers, run excessively large: 1 shad, a 

few chubs, and black bass. 
June 1. Alewives, lamper eels, and suckers, run excessively large; a 
few chubs, black bass, and red-fin shiners. 

2. Lamper eels and alewives. run large; a few suckers, chubs, 

red-fin shiners, and small silver eels. 

3. Alewives and lamper eels, run large; a few red-fin shiners. 
•4. Alewives, lamper eels, chubs, and suckers, mn large. 

5. Alewives, lamper eels, chubs, and suckers, run large. 

6. Alewives, lamper eels, chubs, and suckers, run moderate. 

7. Alewives. lamper eels, chubs, and suckers, run moderate; a 

few black bass. 

8. Ale%vives, lamper eels, and suckers, run moderate. 

9. Tico salmon^ 8 to 12 lbs., a few alewives. 

10. Four salmon^ 12 to 15 lbs. 

11. Alewives, lamper eels, chubs, and suckers, run small. 

12. One large shad, alewives, lamper eels, chubs, and suckers, 

run small. 

13. One small shad, alewives, lamper eels and suckers, run small; 

a few small silver eels. 

14. A few alewives, lamper eels, chubs, and suckers. 

15. A few alewives, lamper eels, chubs, suckers, and silver eels, 

1 black bass. 

16. A few alewives, lamper eels, chubs, suckers, and silver eels. 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 9 

June 17. Two black bass, a few alewives, lamper eels, and silver eels. 

18. One salmon, 18 Ihs., a few alewives, suckers, and chubs. 

19. One salmon, 12 Ihs. 

20. A few alewives, suckers, chubs, and small silver eels. 

21. Three black bass, a few alewives, suckers, chubs, and silver 

eels. 

22. A few alewives, suckers, and chubs. 

23. A few alewives, suckers, chubs, silver eels, and lamper eels. 

24. Four salmon, 10 to 12 lbs., a few alewives, and silver eels. 

25. A few suckers, chubs, and small silver eels. 

26. A few suckers, chubs, and small silver eels. 

27. One salmon, 12 lbs., a few suckers, and silver eels. 

28. One salmon, 5 lbs., a few suckers, silver eels, and lamper eels. 

29. A few chubs, suckers, and small silver eels. 

30. Chubs, suckers, and small silver eels. 

July 1. One black bass, a few chubs, and silver eels. 

2. Small silver eels, run large; a few chubs. 

3. Silver eels, run heavy. 

4. Silver eels, run heavy, a few chubs, one alewife. 

5. Silver eels, run heavy, a few chubs. 

6. Silver eels, run heavy, a few chubs. 

7. Silver eels, run heavy, a few chubs. (Eels 1 in. to 1^ ft. long.) 

8. Silver eels, run heavy, a few chubs and suckers. 

9. Silver eels, run heavy, a few chubs. 

10. Silver eels, run heavy, a few chubs. 

11. Silver eels, run heavy, a few chubs. 

12. Silver eels, run heavy, a few chubs and suckers. 

13. Low water. Fishway closed. 

20. Let water into fishway. In p.m. found eels and horn pouts in 

it. 

21. Silver eels, run heavy, a few chubs and hornpouts. Fishway 

closed at 6 p.m., low water. 

25. Water let into fishway. In p.m. a few silver eels and suckers 

in it. 

26. Silver eels, run heavy, a few suckers and chubs. 

27. One black bass, silver eels, run heavy. 

28. Silver eels, run moderate, a few chubs, suckers, and roach. 

29. Silver eels, run moderate, a few suckers. 

30. Silver eels, run moderate, a few chubs. 

31. Silver eels, and a few chubs and suckers. 
Aug. 1. Silver eels, and a few suckers. 

2. Silver eels. 

3. Silver eels, a few chubs, and suckers. 

4. Silver eels, and a few chubs and suckers. 

5. Silver eels, and a few suckers. 

6. Silver eels, and a few suckers. 

7. Silver eels, and a few chubs and suckers. 

8. Silver eels, and a few suckers. 

9. One salmon, 8 lbs., silver eels, and a few chubs and suckers. 
2 



10 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

Aug. 10. Silver eels, chubs, and suckers. 

11. One black bass, silver eels, and suckers. 

12. One salmon, 6 lbs., silver eels, and a few suckers and chubs. 

13. One salmon, 6 lbs., silver, eels, and a few suckers. 

14. Silver eels, and a few chubs and suckers. 

15. Silver eels, and a few chubs and suckers. 

16. Silver eels, and a few chubs, suckers, and shiners. 

17. Four black bass, silver eels, a few chubs, suckers, and horn- 

pouts. 

19. Silver eels, chubs, and suckers. 

20. Silver eels, chubs, and suckers. 

21. Two black bass, silver eels, and suckers. 

22. One black bass, silver eels, and a few suckers. 

23. Silver eels, and a few suckers. 

24. Silver eels, and a few suckers. 

25. Five black bass, silver eels, and a few suckers. 

Nothing seen in the fishway from this time to Sept. 9, but a 
few suckers and small silver eels ; water then shut out, as 
river was low ; water let into fishway Oct. 17, and shut out 
again Oct. 20; no fish in the fishway at that time ; water let 
in again Oct. 24 ; nothing seen in fishway but a few suckers 
up to Nov. 6, when water was shut out again. 

Alewiyes (^Alosa tyr annus). 

From the beginning of these Reports, we have persistently 
urged the importance of cultivating and increasing, to the 
fullest extent, these fish, not merely as a matter of food, but 
as having a direct influence in attracting inshore the larger 
and more valuable fish; pointing to the self-evident fact, 
that, where its food is, there will be found all animal life. 
We have pointed out the folly of selling or leasing, from 
year to year, the right to take alewives, to parties whose in- 
terests naturally lead them to catch all they can, thereby 
destroying the fisheries. We have also called attention to 
the fact that nearly all the streams, with a little care and 
additional expense, might be made to produce tenfold their 
present returns. It is gratifying to know, that, in many 
instances, these suggestions have been regarded ; that new 
streams are constantly being stocked, and many of the older 
ones have been greatly improved. 

Among the many valuable communications upon the sub- 
ject which we have received, is one from Mr. Nathan Doane 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 11 

of Harwich. In 1870 he called upon the Commissioners to 
lay out new fishways, and improve some of the old ones on 
Herring Brook. At the time of our visit we found him 
feeling a little blue. He had bought the right to take ale- 
wives from the stream for 10 years; had just finished his 
first year's catch, and found there were not fish enough to 
pay the rent. He had, to use his own expression, got the 
elephant ; and the question was, what to do with him. We 
advised him to let all the spawning fish, as far as possible, go 
up to the pond, for at least 3 years. If he felt that his 
contract compelled him to take a part of them for the use of 
the town, they should be taken from the last run and not 
from the first. This would involve him, for the time, in a 
loss of some hundreds of dollars ; but, as he had hired the 
stream for 10 years, it was his only way out of an ultimate 
loss of a still greater sum. There were pounds and weirs on 
the coast near the mouth of his brook. What effect they 
might have on his fishery, he was unable to say ; but was of 
the opinion, that they were the cause of its present depletion, 
and might render any efforts to improve it useless. It re- 
quired no little faith, and a considerable amount of confi- 
dence in the advice, to induce him to carry it out. For this 
he has been amply rewarded, the result having more than 
met his expectations. In a letter accompanying his returns,^ 
he says, " Since I have had the brook, the fish have increased 
from 312 to 1,570 barrels ; last year's catch being 745,750 
fish." 

We give these facts, that others may see what has been and 
can he done. 

Fill the rivers and streams with alewives ; crowd them 
to their fullest capacit}^ and, if more come than are wanted 
for use, give them free passage : their young will go down 
to the sea by countless millions, filling the bays and swarm- 
ing along the coast, furnishing food, and thereby attracting 
into our waters the larger fish. 

The returns from inland fisheries for this year show the 
total catch of alewives to be about 4,700,000. If to this 
were added the catch of persons who failed to make returns, 
the total would be greatly increased. 

With this increase of alewives it is noticeable that there 

1 See appendix C. 



12 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

has been a corresponding improvement in the bay and shore 
fisheries, — a suggestive fact which the United States, while 
paying out millions of dollars to the English government, 
would do well to consider. As a matter of economy, it might 
be well for them to co-operate with the States in opening 
and re-stocking all the rivers and streams leading to the sea, 
to their fullest extent, with migratory fish. 

Such a movement would go far to restore our fisheries 
to what they were some sixty years ago, when there was no 
necessity of going out of our own waters to obtain all the 
fresh fish then required. 

Shad (^Alosa prcestahilis). 

The returns received from the Connecticut and Merrimack 
show an increase in the catch of shad over last year. 

We have in former reports so thoroughly pointed out the 
causes which led to the diminution of shad-fisheries in these 
rivers, that it is hardly necessary to repeat them here. 

With the Connecticut, nothing can be done until a more 
equitable arrangement is made between the two States. 
With the Merrimack the case is quite different. The river 
lies wholly within New Hampshire and Massachusetts, and 
both are acting jointly and in perfect harmony. As the fish- 
ways have proved passable for shad as well as salmon, a 
vigorous effort will be made to stock the river and its tribu- 
taries with these fish, should the appropriation warrant it. 

Land-locked Salmon (^Salmo sehago'). 

From the works situated on Grand Lake Stream in Maine, 
under the care of Charles G. Atkins, we received, last season, 
two hundred and seventy thousand (270,000) eggs, from 
which were hatched two hundred and forty-five thousand 
(245,000) healthy young salmon. 

These were distributed as follows : — 



L. Tuck, for pond in South Weymouth . 
N. C. Nicholson, for pond in Wellfleet . 
S. H. Sylvester, for pond in Middleborough 
W. F. Bigelow, for pond in Natick 
E. S. Merrill, for pond in Winchendon . 
George L. Estey, for pond in Milton 
John Marlow, for pond in Lynn 



4,000 
8,000 
30,000 
4,000 
8,000 
7,000 
3,000 



1878.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 



13 



A. W. Bisbee, for pond in North Rochester . 
J. D. W. French, for pond in North Andover 
James H. Curtis, for pond in West Scituate . 
Justin A. Wilson, for pond in Stoneham 
A. Jewett, jun., for pond in Hubbardston 

E. C. Howard, for pond in North Sandwich . 
Ohio Whitney, for pond in Ashburnham 
Spencer Borden, for pond in Fall River 
Charles F. Jenkins, for pond in Salem 
H. C. Ewing, for pond in Holyoke . 
J. D wight Francis, for pond in Pittsfield 
Asa French, for pond in Braintree . 
Oscar Stowell, for pond in Wakefield 
H. Newcomb, for pond in Greenwood 
H. E. Priest, for pond in Waltham 

F. C. Bacon, for pond in Lawrence 
H. J. Dunham, for pond in Stockbridge 
William H. Osborne, for pond in East Bridge wate 
D. G. L. Robinson, for pond in Wenham 

Dr. Stone, for pond in Harvard 

for pond in Winchester 



5,000 

4,000 
8,000 
5,000 
4,000 
8,000 
5,000 

10,000 
7,000 

16,000 
8,000 
6,000 
8,000 
4,000 
8,000 

20,000 
4,000 
4,000 
4,000 
8,000 



The remainder were turned into Halfway Pond in Plym- 
outh. The returns received from many of those who had 
charge of these fish are very favorable. It is quite certain 
that they are well established in Halfway Pond. And in 
Mystic Pond, situated in Medford and Winchester, where 
they were first introduced, they are appearing in considerable 
numbers. On the 11th of September a land-locked salmon, 
22i inches long and weighing 3^ pounds, was caught in Lower 
Mystic Pond by a boy while fishing for perch. The boy, not 
knowing what it was, sold it to J. P. Richardson of Medford, 
who forwarded it to the Commissioners for identification. 
A careful inspection of the pond made in October showed 
quite a large school of them, weighing from 2 to 8 pounds 
each, at the mouth of one of the streams entering the pond. 
The large fish are probably the Sebago salmon put in about 6 
years ago. One of the persons making the inspection hooked 
one of them ; but being in a small cloth canoe, barely large 
enough to carry one person, and having the fish on a light 
fly rod, he found it impossible to get him into the boat ; 
and, in attempting to reach the shore, the salmon recovered 
himself, and with a sudden leap left hook, line, boat, and 
fisherman, behind him. 



14 * INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

The successful introduction of this most valuable of all 
our fresh-water fish into the lakes and rivers of our State 
is of the greatest importance. Some of the distributions 
hitherto made are of doubtful character. Many of the ponds 
are not suitable for the fish ; and the Commissioners labor 
under the difficulty of not being able, in all cases, to deter- 
mine the question by personal inspection. Again, the num- 
ber of young salmon put into some of the ponds is too small, 
unless continued for several years, to produce any decided 
results. 

The attention of applicants is called to the following regu- 
lations ; — 

All parties ordering land-locked salmon must make appli- 
cation in writing, giving a careful description of the pond in 
which they desire to place them. 

The plan is to furnish them at the State hatching-house in 
Winchester, free of charge, to all applicants having under 
their control any of the great ponds of the State. For 
transportation, parties should bring with them good clean 
half-barrels or milk-cans, holding 10 or 12 gallons, a ther- 
mometer, and a dipper for aerating the water. The half- 
barrels will carry from 4,000 to 5,000, and the milk-cans 
about 3,000. 

The introduction of these fish into ponds having neither 
inlet nor outlet for them to run into is an experiment, the 
result of which time alone can settle. That trout will breed 
in such ponds, and that these salmon spawn on the shoals of 
Sebago Lake, is weU known. 

There will probably be about 200,000 of them to be dis- 
tributed next May. No order will be received after the 20th 
of April. 

California Salmon {Salmo quimiat^. 
Two hundred thousand spawn of these fish were received 
last year from the United States Commissioner, — 100,000 at 
Winchester, and the same number at the hatching-house at 
Plymouth, N.H., under the joint care of the two States. 
These hatched with a loss of about 10 per cent. 

The following distribution was made in December from 
the Winchester hatching-house : — 



1878.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 



15 



Ipswich River .... 


. 7,000 


Nashua River .... 


. 30,000 


North River 


. 25,000 


Saugus River ..... 


. 7,000 


Bridgewater . . . . . 


. 10,000 


Head-waters of Merrimac 


. 10,000 



Those hatched at Plymouth were all turned into the 
Pemigewasset and its tributaries about the 1st of January- 
These fish certainly survived the winter, and were seen in 
considerable numbers up to the last of July, when they dis- 
appeared. 

Mr. Livingston Stone states, in his report published by 
the United States Commission, that these fish spawn but 
once, and then die. This statement, if true, not only les- 
sened the value of this fish, now being so widely distributed, 
but was so at variance with all known habits of kindred 
species, that we ventured to criticise it in our last Report, in 
the hopes of calling out further information. Several com- 
munications have been received from gentlemen in Cali- 
fornia, famihar with the habits of these salmon, all adverse 
to the statement, or what one of the writers humorously calls 
Mr. Stone's dying theory., But the following letter from one 
of the able California commissioners more fully covers the 
ground, and appears to settle the question beyond dispute. 

Spawning of California Salmon. 

San Francisco, Cal., March 13, 1878. 
Professor Spencer F. Baird, Washington, B.C. 

Dear Sir, — In reading that portion of the Massachusetts Report for 
1878 which relates to California salmon, some questions are asked, and 
doubts expressed, on subjects which are to me quite clear. I thought it 
advisable to answer some of these questions to you, if you are not already 
informed in relation to them. 

First, The impassable barrier of which the Report speaks, across the 
McCloud River, is only a temporary affair, and is only placed across the 
river after the great body of spawning salmon have gone to the head- 
waters, and is only used during the necessary time of taking fish in the 
pool below for spawning purposes. 

Secondly, In relation to Mr. Stone's theory that all the McCloud River 
salmon die after having spawned : both the senate and assembly com- 
mittees of the legislature have been taking testimony of all the leading 
fishermen on the Sacramento River. Probably more than 50 fishermen 
have given testimony, especially on two [points : first, " Where does the 
spring run spawn?" and, secondly, "Do you catch any fish on their 
return from the spawning-grounds, and what proportions?" On the 



16 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

first question they expressed entire ignorance, except that in the San 
Joaquin River in the spring large numbers of salmon are ripe or nearly 
ripe : they are also ripe at this season in the short coast rivers. The con- 
current testimony of the fishermen was, that in October and November, 
in the Sacramento River they caught from 5 to 15 per cent of fish 
that had spawned. Many of these were taken on the " back of nets," 
drifting toward the ocean with their heads up the stream. This testi- 
mony was given by fishermen who had fished at Vallejo in salt water, at 
Rio Vista and Collinsville in brackish water, and so on up to Sacramento 
in entire fresh water. They all concurred that about 10 per cent of the 
catch in October and November was of fish on the return from their 
spawning grounds ; they do not draw their seines for these fish, as they 
will not sell, and are considered of no value. They say that these fish are 
black, hooked-mouthed, and have dog's teetli. Some are caught on the 
right side of the net, but a majority drift into the net on the upper side. 
They said that they saw them in large numbers at this season of the year ; 
and they were usually with head up stream, with only sufficient motion to 
their fins to keep them balanced, and floating to the sea with the current. 
I know of my own knowledge that some of the McCloud River salmon 
remain in the river until the next year. On the 5th of July last I was 
fishing on the head-waters of the McCloud River, about fifty miles above 
the United States fishery, catching salmon and trout. The salmon that 
season had just arrived, and would take the hook, but in the pools there 
were also numerous salmon of the previous year — hook-mouth and dog- 
teeth — which could not be tempted to take any thing. Sir John Reed, 
who was fishing in the same pool with me, improvised a long gaff with 
which he caught one of these fish of the previous year. Although thin, 
it weighed 22 pounds. We saw several others, but did not attempt 
to take them. These fish certainly must have remained in the water 6 
or 8 months without food, and for some unaccountable reason failed to 
return to the ocean. It is certainly true that large numbers do die and 
get injured, but from the testimony of the fishermen I am satisfied that 
large numbers return to the ocean each year. The opinion of the fisher- 
men is that they return to the ocean after spawning, with the first rains 
on the head- waters. The coast-rivers salmon spawn in January and Feb- 
ruary, in the short streams that empty into the ocean, and immediately 
return after spawning. Most of our coast rivers have bars at their 
mouths, thrown up by the waves; and, when these rivers and streams are 
low, fresh water passes through these sandbars to the ocean. When the 
floods come in the winter, they tear open a passage through these bars. 
The salmon immediately enter, and work up into all the small branches in 
the hills where it is possible for them to reach, spawn in a few days, and 
immediately return down stream into the ocean. It was but last Satur- 
day I took 7 of these salmon in pools in a small stream which ran through 
a pasture within twenty miles of San Francisco. This stream empties 
into the bay. Our winter rains have been more heavy than usual, and 
all these short coast and bay streams are full of salmon spawning. 

Now, as regards young fish, I have repeatedly taken young salmon, 
one year old, with a fly, at the U. S. fishery in July and August. These 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 17 

young fish were always in the centre of the river, while trout would 
be taken in shoaler water near the shore. I am therefore certain that 
some of them remain in the river for one year after they are hatched. 
Many grilse are taken in the bay here from the wharves, weighing from 
I of a pound to 5 or 6 pounds. I have never seen any taken in salt 
water which I thought was younger than 2 or 3 years. I am certain 
that Mr. Stone is in error in reporting that California salmon die after 
having spawned. 

The joint committee of the senate and assembly have agreed to report 
a bill for the close season, from Aug. 1 to Sept. 15, and also from Satur- 
day noon until Sunday noon of every week throughout the year. We 
have urged, that, in addition to every Sunday, the close season should be 
from Aug. 1 to Oct. 1. This concession has been made to the fishermen, 
who ask, that, in consideration of giving them the additional two weeks, 
the penalties might be increased to $25 for each salmon found in pos- 
session during the close season, and $250 penalty and confiscation of 
any net found in the water during the close season. They also promise 
that they themselves, in their own neighborhoods, will see that this law 
is faithfully observed. In their testimony they admit the benefits 
derived from the artificial hatching of salmon, and urge upon the legis- 
lature to increase the appropriation for this purpose, but did not seem 
willing that the close season should be longer than one month and every 
Sunday. So this bill, as reported, is a compromise as between what we 
ask, and what the fishermen want. 

Shad are becoming quite numerous, and there are one or two every day 
in the market, which sell for from 5 to 8 dollars apiece. They are gener- 
ally caught in the bay by fishermen fishing for herrings. 

B. B. REDDING. 



472,500 California salmon spawn were received last Octo- 
ber : 367,500 at Plymouth, N.H., and 105,000 at Winchester. 

These are all hatched with a loss less than 10 per cent, 
and will shortly be distributed. 

Salmon in the Meekimack. 

The run of salmon in this river last year was mainly from 
the planting of 1873. No young salmon were put into the 
Merrimac in 1874, and no decided run was expected in 1878. 
It should be remembered that they spawn only every other 
year, and that they return in four years from the time they 
are hatched. This would, for 1878, give us an off year. 

But few were seen at the Lawrence fishway, and only 11 
taken at the works at Plymouth, — 8 males and 3 females. 
Doubtless more would have been taken, had it not been for 
the unfortunate delay in building the new fishway at Man- 

3 



18 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

Chester, which kept the fish back until the fall rains had 
so swollen the river that it was almost impossible to use 
the nets, or prevent the fish going above. A more sub- 
stantial arrangement will be completed next spring for 
catching the fish, when there is every reason to look for a 
good run of salmon, as those that went up last year, and 
the planting of 1875, may be expected to return the coming 
season. 

Our experience with young salmon in this river shows 
pretty conclusively that they do not go down to the sea until 
the third year. The salmon put in the river in 1876 have 
been carefully watched, and were found to be very numerous 
all along the river, especially near the mouths of trout- 
brooks, showing no disposition to change their quarters until 
about the middle of last August, when they began slowly to 
move down stream. None were found after the 1st of Sep- 
tember above Livermore Falls, and by Nov. 1 only a few 
stragglers were found near the hatching-house. It is there- 
fore probable that they left the river during the rise occa- 
sioned by the fall rains, and not on the spring freshets as has 
been heretofore supposed. 

The hatching-house and ponds at Livermore Falls are 
being constructed by the joint action of the States of New 
Hampshire and Massachusetts, and are nearly completed. 

The work has been carried on under the superintendence 
of A. H. Powers, one of the New Hampshire commissioners, 
who makes the following report : — 

Plymouth, N.H., Nov. 16, 1878. 
E. A. Brackett, Commissioner on Fisheries. 

Dear Sir, — I took charge of the hatching-house and grounds at Liver- 
more Falls on the 28th of March ; but owing to the frost was unable to 
do much until about the middle of April, when I commenced to increase 
the depth and area of the reception ponds. 

This was continued until the middle of June, when we stopped, pre- 
paratory to taking what few salmon might be expected up the river. It 
was considered important that the character of the water in the pond 
should be thoroughly tested this year. As you are aware, it has proved 
perfectly successful. The salmon were very healthy all through the 
season, and when turned out in November were in good condition, prob- 
ably better than those which remained in the river. Some that were 
somewhat injured in taking them, and upon which fungus appeared, 
soon cleansed themselves of it, and became bright as they were when 
first caught. 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 19 

Some further excavating of the pond may be required next spring, 
when, I trust, the pond will be sufl&ciently large and deep to sustain all 
the fish we may take for some years to come. A portion of the banks 
has been graded and grassed, but not enough yet to prevent the water 
being roiled by heavy showers, which makes it difficult to watch the fish 
during spawning time. This can be improved in the spring; and, by 
filling in gravel near the mouth of the flow-pipe, would probably attract 
the fish to this point, where the water is clear. 

We have enclosed the works by a picket-fence 6 feet high and 1,000 
feet long. Inside of this has been constructed a small tool and guard 
house. 

The tanks have been completed, and are now tight ; have a capacity 
for 600,000 salmon-eggs, and, with a little expense, could be made to 
carry double that number. Owing to the sudden rise of water which 
takes place with almost every summer shower, it is necessary that some 
change should be made in our arrangements for taking fish. 

On the 8th of October last I received from Professor Baird, United 
States Commissioner, 367,500 California salmon-eggs, shipped from 
McCloud River, Cal., which are nearly all hatched, with a loss of not 
more than 10 per cent, including all losses from time of shipment to 
date. 

Owing to the delay in building the Manchester fishway, the heavy rise 
in the river after it was completed, and the non-planting of young salmon 
in 1874, I have not been very successful in taking salmon. The first 
was taken the 22d of June, and the last Oct. 23, — 11 in all, weighing 
from 7^ to 15 pounds, — 8 males and 3 females. Ten were taken in 
the night, between the hours of 8 p.m. and 6 a.m., and 1 on the 20th of 
October, about midday. 

The California salmon-fry turned into the river in 1878 were very 
numerous up to the last of July, and had grown to the length of about 3 
inches. On the 20th of June they were so plenty as to be seen in num- 
bers in any locality near the hatching-house. 

Atlantic salmon, 7 inches long, of the planting of 1876, were so 
plentiful up to about the middle of August, that it was impossible to 
fish without frequently hooking them. Mr. R. R. Holmes actually 
hooked 3 at one cast, and remarked that the river was alive with them. 
In August they began to disappear, and at this date very few are seen. 
On the 6th of November I dipped up a small Atlantic salmon, about 3 
inches long, at the outlet of the hatching-house brook, which must have 
resulted from last year's run of salmon in this river, as there has been no 
plant since 1876, which, as before stated, have grown to the length of 7 
inches. 

With the exception of the improvements suggested above, — all of 
which can be completed next spring before the fish come up, — I see no 
reason why the works should not be in complete working order. 

Yours truly, 

A. H. POWERS, Superintendent. 



20 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

Connecticut River. 
The extraordinarily bad season of 1877 in the Connecti- 
cut River brought the diminution of shad to such painful 
notice, that our Legislature passed resolves calling the 
attention of Connecticut to the fact. By invitation of the 
Committee on Fisheries of the Connecticut Assembly, the 
Massachusetts Commissioners on Inland Fisheries appeared 
on the 26th of February, 1878, and made the following state- 
ment : — 

Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen of the Committee on Fisheries. 

We come before you, on your invitation, not as advocates or as witness- 
es, but as State oflBcers, to make such statements and explanations as 
may be called for by the recent resolves of the Legislature of Massachu- 
setts touching the exhaustion of the shad-fisheries in the Connecticut 
River; and we propose very briefly to consider each paragraph in this 
document. The preamble begins : — 

" Whereas, The Connecticut River formerly abounded in shad and sal- 
mon, which had much diminished, however, in recent times, by reason of 
excessive fishing and impassable dams." 

The truth of this statement is so generally acknowledged that it need 
not delay us. At the close of the last century salmon and shad were 
still very abundant in the Connecticut, and the former were often sold at 
50 cents each. The salmon penetrated to the head- waters, and spawned 
in Israel's River and the Upper and Lower Ammonoosucks. The shad 
penetrated only to Bellows Falls, which they could not surmount. They 
passed Tm-ner's Falls, however, in great nmnbers; and as many as 5,000 
in a day have been taken with dip-nets from a single rock at this 
point. In 1798 a high dam erected just below the mouth of Miller's 
River shut the salmon from their spa^aiing-grounds, and practically ex- 
terminated them within a dozen years. The shad, breeding in aU the 
lower waters, continued in plenty until 1849, when the erection of an 
impassable dam at Hadley Falls seriously curtailed then- numbers. This 
wiU be treated more fully under another head. The preamble con- 
tinues : — 

" Whereas, The State of Massachusetts, as well in a spu-it of comity for 
neighboring States as for the benefit of her own citizens, has appointed 
Commissioners on Inland Fsheries, and has expended large sums of money 
in building fishways, in hatching shad, and in seeding the river with 
great numbers of young salmon, whereby shad were at one time restored 
to their ancient abundance, and whereby there is now a good hope of 
restoring salmon to the river. ' ' 

The origin of our Commissioners on Inland Fisheries did not spring from 
a desire to increase our own wealth, but entirely from a wish to render 
justice to our sister States, Vermont and New Hampshire; the latter of 
which passed in 1864 a resolve which recited that, " whereas the rivers 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 21 

and lakes of this State were wont formerly to furnish an inexhaustible 
supply of salmon, shad, and other migratory fish, which have now entirely 
disappeared from our waters ; and whereas there is nothing to prevent the 
return of such fish but the want of suitable fishways over the dams across 
the Connecticut, Merrimack, and Saco, and other rivers, and in such 
numbers as to contribute very largely to the supply of wholesome and 
agreeable food for the inhabitants of this State: therefore, resolved, that 
the attention of the States of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Maine be 
invited to this subject, and that they be earnestly requested to take early 
measures to cause such fishways to be constructed ... as due alike to the 
relations of comity between those States and our o^ti, to the obligations 
of national law, and to the interest of those States themselves." 

In March, 1865, a joint committee of the Massachusetts Legislature 
held a hearing for the parties in interest; and, on their recommendation, 
two commissioners were appointed the following summer, to investigate 
and report on the subject. At the following session, the Legislature 
established the commissioners for 5 years, and made an appropriation 
of 1)7,000; in 1867 the appropriation was $10,000; and annual appropria- 
tions have been since continued, never of less than $2,500, and usually of 
$5,000. During the 12 years of their service, the commissioners have 
steadily borne in mind the original object of their appointment, and 
have striven to free the Merrimack and Connecticut from obstruction. 
Although the legislative committee and two successive attorneys-general 
opined that the Holyoke Water Power Company was exempt from put- 
ting a fishway in their dam, the commissioners held a different view, 
and sued the company in the name of the State. The case was tried by 
the Supreme Court, and appealed to that of the United States, where 
the decree was affirmed; and the company was compelled to build a fish- 
way on the most approved model, and at a cost of about $30,000. As 
early as 1867 Seth Green was employed by the commissioners to attempt 
the artificial hatching of shad at Hadley Falls. He was entirely success- 
ful; and the operation has been since continued by Massachusetts, or Con- 
necticut, or by the United States. Of the effects of this artificial propa- 
gation we do not propose to speak dogmatically, but to give some facts 
and reasons that may perhaps indicate those effects. The closing of 
the Holyoke or Hadley Falls dam in 1849 was, for reasons which will be 
considered farther on, a severe injury to the shad-fisheries; indeed, the 
injury to fisheries helow the dam was a point which had escaped lawyers, 
and was one of the main grounds of the decision which compelled the 
company to build a fishway. The statistics of Parsonage Pier in Con- 
necticut fishery show this very distinctly. The average catch there for 
the 10 years from 1827 to 1836 was 10,376; for the next 10 years, 
9,332, showing a slight decline, attributable perhaps to increase of popu- 
lation and fishing. For the 5 years after the closing of the Holyoke 
dam, 1819-53, the average rose suddenly to 19,490. For the next 10 
years, 1854-63, it as suddenly fell to 8,364; and for the following 6 
years, 1864r-69, it further decreased to 4,482, less than one-half its first 
yield. The closing of Holyoke dam shut back all the shad that had 
frequented the upper spawning-beds; and they retreated in confusion 



22 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Oct. 



down the river, and were taken in plenty. Alewives have conducted 
themselves in the same way in other streams. It takes 3 years for a 
shad to attain the merchantable size, and about 5 years for its maxi- 
mum growth. When the dam was closed, there were in the river the 
full-grown fish (some of which had bred in the upper ground) , and there 
were 4 successive crops of younger fish, the last of which would not 
get their full growth for 4 years. The unusual abundance would last 
so long as the column was annually recruited by the younger generations, 
w^hich would be for 5 seasons. After that the crop of the lower stream 
would sink to that of the spawning-beds, which still were accessible. 

Returns from another pier fisheiy for a less number of years (1851- 
68) give substantially the same results. In 1851 the catch was 15,942; 
the average of the next 9 years was 6,765; and, of the last 8 years, 
only 5,448. On the whole, then, there was a decrease, and a continuous 
decrease, from the closing of the Holyoke dam — and perhaps before 
that date — to the year 1868. That season was unusually poor for shad- 
fishing all along the coast of the Northern and Middle States; but, in 
apparent contradiction, the Connecticut River teemed at all points with 
little yearling shad. Xext season (1869) larger fish, of two years old, 
were in great plenty. On Sunday, May 21, 1870, vessels in Long Island 
Sound observed vast shoals of shad. The next day they struck in, at and 
about the mouth of the river, and filled the nets. The total yield of the 
pounds that day was reported over 25,000. At Haddam Island, in the 
river, 700 were taken at one sweep of the seine, which was more than 
one-third the yield of a similar seine for the whole of the previous sea- 
son. The Hudson on the west, and the Merrimack on the east, showed 
no unusual catch; indeed, the phenomenon was a local one, confined to 
the Connecticut. The whole effect may not be due to Green's propaga- 
tion in 1867, because in 1868 Connecticut forbade any mesh smaller than 
5 inches, whereas a 2i-inch mesh had before been used; and, further- 
more, a " close time " of 36 hours a week was ordered. The result 
was, that the yearlings and two-year-olds escaped through the meshes, 
and swelled the catch of large fish in the following years. Nevertheless 
a part of the increase may reasonably be laid to the artificial propaga- 
tion, whose tendency seems to be to counteract the natural decrease in 
our fisheries, even if it does not cause an increase. The following statis- 
tics of the best fishery within the Massachusetts line may illustrate the 
point. 

Hadley Falls Shad Fishery Statistics — 1868-1877. 



TEAES 


1868. 


1869. 


1870. 


Gross catch for each year . 


7,341 


8,807 


11,618 


Date of taking first shad . 


May 6. 


May 13. 


May 6. 


Number of 'days in fishing-season 


40 


33 


40 


Average number of fish a day . 


183 


267 


290 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 

Hadley Falls Shad Fishery, &c. — Concluded. 



23 



1871. 


1873. 


1873. 


1874. 


1875. 


1876. 


1877. 


10,634 


7,691 


7,294 


15,057 


9,135 


10,741 


2,674 


May 1. 


May 11. 


May 14. 


May 13. 


May 18. 


May 22. 


May 14. 


44 


45 


35 


37 


38 


33 


42 


241 


170 


208 


407 


240 


325 


63 



Total catch for 10 years, 1868-77 
Yearly average for the 10 years 
Yearly average for first 5 years 
Yearly average for second 5 years 
Daily average for 10 years 
Daily average for first 5 years 
Daily average for second 5 years 



90,992 

9,099 

9,220 

8,980 

239 

230 

248 



Previous to this period, and posterior to the closing of the Holyoke 
dam, the catch had been much larger. In 1865 it was estimated at 
35,000, and in 1853 at 45,000. 

Hence we draw the conclusion that a cause has been at work to keep 
up the fishery at this point, because, with the exception of the last 
season, it has maintained a pretty uniform average for 10 years since 
1868, before which time it had much decreased; and such cause we find 
in artificial propagation conducted on this very fishing-ground, whose fish 
would return, as is well known, to the spot on which they were bred. 
In 1874, 800,000 young salmon were put in the Connecticut River, of 
which 271,000 were contributed by Massachusetts. If such success 
crowns this as that of the Merrimack, next spring (1878), will see a large 
number of salmon, weighing from 10 to 15 pounds, endeavoring to force 
the mouth of the river, and mount to their spawning-grounds once more, 
after an interval of nearly a century. They will meet no impediments 
north of the Massachusetts line. The dams at Holyoke and at Turner's 
Falls are f ui'nished with the same fishway that last season carried every 
sahnon over the great Lawrence dam. It is for Connecticut to consider 
whether her laws and her modes of fishing are such as to allow fair pas- 
sage to this valuable fish. There is no reason why the river should not 
furnish annually 100,000 pounds of salmon, without lessening the other 
fisheries. 

The preamble continues : — 

" Whereas, The State of Connecticut has, in like manner and for similar 
purposes, expended money, and appointed commissioners who have dili- 
gently performed their duties, and have made wise plans, in agreement 
with their feUow-commissioners of Massachusetts, for increasing and 
maintaining the river fishes." 



24 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

The appointment of fishery commissioners in Connecticut was nearly 
contemporaneous with that in Massachusetts. Of the Connecticut com- 
missioners, 2 have been in service about 9 years, and the third 7 years; 
a good indication of their acceptable conduct. Of the Massachusetts 
commissioners, one has served since the first appointment in 1865, one 9 
years, and the third 5 years. Eleven years ago, in 1867, the commis- 
sioners of the New England States arranged informal meetings for con- 
sultation from time to time. In that entire period there has been no 
important difference of opinion among them as to the methods best to be 
pursued, or the laws to be enacted. The commissioners from Connecticut 
and Massachusetts were often, from their position, the most nearly con- 
nected. It was by their agreement that Connecticut passed the con- 
ditional Act of 1867 (chap. 106, May session), by which a " close time " 
for pounds and nets was ordered, from Saturday night to Monday morn- 
ing of each week; and the mesh of weirs was put at 5 inches. This Act 
being conditional on the passage of a similar one by Massachusetts, that 
State passed the necessary law at the next session of its Legislature ; and 
it is safe to say, that had it remained on the statute-books, and been 
honestly enforced from that day to this, the river would have abounded 
in shad, and the fishermen would have been much better off than now 
they are. It has already been stated that the shad-hatching at Holyoke, 
and the introduction of salmon-fry in the upper Connecticut, have been 
undertaken by both States, acting under agreement. 

The preamble finishes thus: — 

" Whereas, Certain persons in the State of Connecticut have fished and 
still continue to fish in improper ways and at improper times, in opposi- 
tion to the advice of the commissioners of said State, and in violation of 
agreements with them made, so that only a few shad escape, and arrive 
at their spawning-beds, of which the greater part are in the State of 
Massachusetts; and so that the fisheries in Massachusetts are no longer 
profitable, and so that the number of spawning shad which escape is not 
enough to keep up the supply in the river. ' ' 

It is not easy to agree what is an " improper way and improper time " 
of taking fish ; although we may say in general that any way or time is 
improper that does not leave enough to renew the crop. The difficulty 
of decision was well exhibited at the hearing at Hartford in 1867, at 
which the Massachusetts commissioners were present by invitation. 
There was a great mass of testimony from fishermen. The pond-owners 
averred that sweep-seining was very destructive to shad, but that pounds 
actually increased them, by capturing many sharks and other predatory 
animals. The gill-netters said the pounds destroyed all the young fish, 
but that gill-nets could only be used a small part of the time, and did 
much good by catching spawn-eating eels. Finally, the sweep-seiners 
said their nets only made a sweep or two, and then left the channel free, 
while the gill-nets constantly vexed the stream, and killed more fish 
than they caught. Not even on such a question as the direction of the 
run of shad, could these men, some of whom had fished for seventy years, 
be brought to agree; for, whereas many were sure the shad came from 
the direction of Montauk Point, and consequently were taken only on the 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 25 

east sides of the pound, others were equally sure that they came through 
Hell-Gate, or, at any rate, from the westward, and were taken on the 
west sides. 

With the desire of getting reliable information, the commissioners of 
Connecticut and Massachusetts visited the pounds set in the Sound, west 
of the river's mouth, on May 20, 1868, and May 25, 1869. On the first 
occasion, 26 pounds were found between Saybrook Light and Monon- 
nessuc Point, a distance of about 10 miles. Some of these extended 
about a mile into the Sound, and were furnished with 2 bowls, 1 at the 
end, and the other midway. The pound selected for a test was, in each 
case, set with a 2|^-inch mesh; but the results were quite different. The 
Westbrook pound of 1869 contained some 6,000 or 7,000 fishes in all, 
among which were a considerable number of large shad, but few small 
shad, with a mass of menhaden and alewives, and a few sea-herring, 
tautog, weak fish, rays, &c. The Saybrook pound of 1868 was estimated 
to contain some 20 barrels of fishes. Of these, about 70 were marketable 
shad; some 1,500 were young shad, fit only to be packed as herring, or 
sold for manure; and the rest were miscellaneous fishes, as before, but 
without menhaden. In neither case were there any sharks. The 2 
drawings, on different years and in different places, but at the same 
season, showed that the pounds sometimes took large quantities of young 
shad, and sometimes few or none. Had they always taken young shad in 
the proportion observed in 1868, it was estimated that these pounds 
would, in one season, have destroyed 3,822,000 immature shad But the 
second experiment served to show that the destruction, though probably 
considerable, was much below these figures. Furthermore, the careful 
experiments conducted with a Massachusetts pound in 1871 proved that 
if properly placed, set with a proper mesh, and closed during a certain 
time each week, a pound may be an unobjectionable mode of fishing. 
Indeed, INIr. Milner, a man of great experience, approves it, under certain 
circumstances, but insists on a " close time "of 2|- days each week. It 
is scarcely necessary for us to bring proofs that certain persons in this 
State fish in a way not approved by its commissioners, who have always 
been in favor of limitations on pounds, whose owners, on the contrary, 
desire to fish the whole season, and with such mesh as they like. We 
wish to touch as lightly as possible on the topic of violations of agreement 
between the commissioners of this State and certain fishermen ; and we 
will therefore simply draw attention to the following reports: 1867, pp. 
4, 5, and 25; 1870, p. 6; 1871, p. 30; 1874, passim. In 1871, on p. 30 
they state, in set terms, that certain poundmen were dishonest, did not 
observe close time, and violated their voluntary agreements. These are 
the deliberate statements of State officers in the discharge of their trust. 

Without entering into the question of what kind of fishing is injuring 
the shad supply, it seems certain that the sudden increase in 1870 was 
temporary, although for several seasons thereafter the catch showed its 
beneficial influence. Still for the last three seasons, and especially for 
the last two, complaints of marked decrease have come from most points 
on the river. But the past season (1877) has been so disastrous as to 
attract universal attention. According to an excellent authority, Mr. O. 
4 



26 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

H. Kirtland, the pounds, seines, and gill-nets near the river's mouth took 
only from one-half to one-fourth their average catch; while the 9 
Massachusetts seines yielded from one-third to one-fifth their average, 
and their gross catch was less than the average of the Hadley Falls 
seine, and less than that of the Taunton River. These facts go far to 
prove that not enough shad escape to keep up the race, despite the arti- 
ficial propagation. That their chief spawning-beds are in fresh water, 
and within Massachusetts, seems demonstrated: 1st, by the testimony of 
observers; 2d, by the fact that when, in 1849, the upper spawning-beds 
were cut off, a great reduction in numbers took place; 3d, by the want 
of proper testimony to show that shad breed in salt water. On this 
point Professor Baird and Mr. Milner, who are high authorities, write 
us, under date Feb. 11, 1878, that they " do not think there is any foun- 
dation whatever as to the impression in regard to the spawning of shad in 
salt water. All our investigations on the Southern coast have failed to 
reveal spawning fish in other than fresh or perhaps very slightly brack- 
ish water." 

The Resolves then follow : — 

" Resolved, By the Senate and House of Representatives in General 
Court assembled, — 

"1. That the attention of the State of Connecticut be invited to this 
subject, and that she be earnestly requested to ^take ,such action in the 
premises as may be due to the relations of comity between sister States, 
and to the interests of both. 

" 2. That his Excellency the Governor be requested to transmit a copy 
of these Resolves to his Excellency the Governor of the State of Con- 
necticut, with the request that the same may be communicated to the 
general assembly of that State, now in session." 

Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen of the Committee, our duty ends here. 
It would obviously be improper for us to attempt to dictate the legislation 
of a sovereign State. 

The Commissioners liad been told that a majority of the 
committee were, in one way or another, interested in pounds 
at the river's mouth ; and their conduct went far to corrobo- 
rate the statement. The chairman might readily have been 
taken for an advocate who appeared in behalf of the pound- 
men ; and there was, in addition, a hired attorney, who seemed 
to mistake the officers of a sister State for witnesses who were 
to be diligently cross-examined. It was obvious, from the 
outset, that their errand was a vain one, that no judicial pro- 
ceedings could be expected, and that nothing more could be 
done than to lay a foundation for work at a more propitious 
moment. 

Especial marks of incredulity were shown, when, in the 
statement of the Massachusetts Commissioners, the return of 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 21 

the salmon to the river was predicted for the following 
spring. But, in the month of May, the incredulity of the 
Connecticut fishermen was broken down, only to be replaced 
by rapacity. The adult salmon, product of the plant of 
1874, did indeed enter the river's mouth, heading for its 
upper waters. Instantly they were set upon ; and, so far as 
can be learned, about 500 fine fish, weighing from 8 to 20 
pounds each, were in the course of the season taken, and sold 
in the markets. Thus did 4 years of expectation end in disap- 
pointment ; and thus was great expenditure of money, labor, 
and skill, thrown away. In marked contrast to this conduct 
was the strict enforcement of law in Massachusetts. A few 
straggling salmon succeeded in getting to the Holyoke dam, 
where one of them was speared. But even this single 
offence was not allowed to pass ; and a warrant was immedi- 
ately issued for the arrest of the offender. Indeed, in the 
matter of State comity, so far as fisheries are concerned, our 
Commonwealth may properly claim to have acted in good 
faith from the outset. When, in 1864, the Legislature of 
New Hampshire called on Massachusetts to take measures 
for the restoration of migratory fishes to the Merrimack and 
Connecticut, our Legislature took immediate and earnest 
action; and the large sums of money since spent by the 
Commonwealth for this object are a proof of honest en- 
deavor. We cannot doubt that the people of Connecticut, 
once roused to a sense of the situation, will see to it that 
wise fishery-laws are passed and enforced. 

In conclusion it may be said, the wealth of a nation con- 
sists mainly in its agricultural, manufacturing, and fishing 
interests. The first two departments have always received 
that attention which they justly demand. To bring them 
to their present state of perfection, has been the work of 
centuries, requiring the greatest energy and the fullest exer- 
cise of genius ; while the last, under the mistaken idea that 
it did not come within the range of culture, has been left on 
the verge of civilization. Beyond the inadequate efforts to 
check the destructive inroads which man, still linked to his 
barbarous nature, is ever prone to make upon the lower 
forms of life, nothing had been done until within a few years. 
Every thing had been left to the unaided and uncertain 
development of Nature, who, however tireless in pushing 



28 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

countless millions into being, is still more remarkable in her 
shortcomings. For every success there are a thousand fail- 
ures ; like trees crowded together in a great forest, the strong 
are ever overshadowing and absorbing the weak. 

It is a survival not of the fittest, but of the most favored. 
Upon our ability to create suitable conditions, to subordinate 
the lower to the higher forms of life, depends the success of 
all cultivation. Recent discoveries and inventions have made 
fish-culture as certain as any other industry. Starting from 
a small beginning, it has spread over the civilized world, 
and in many countries has already become an important ele- 
ment in political economy. While the inland fisheries, as 
compared vrith those of the deep sea, are limited, yet the 
yearly returns of 12,000,000 from the salmon fisheries of 
Ireland, and 185,000 for rental of one small river in Scotland, 
show that, in proportion to the capital and labor employed, 
they are more remunerative. We may not directly increase 
the sea-fisheries : the artificial hatching of cod and haddock 
would probably make no perceptible difference in their num- 
bers, nor does there appear to be any need of it. Nature 
has made them not only wonderfully prolific, but has taught 
them to deposit their spawn under conditions hardly within 
our reach. Fortunately the rivers and streams, which are the 
arteries of the ocean, ever bearing to her bosom the necessary 
conditions of life, are largely under our control. The ease 
and certainty with which we can multiply the migratory fish 
that enter these waters open the only available avenue to the 
restoration of the in-shore fisheries. 

A great deal has been said during the last year, of the lack 
of employment, and its consequent effect upon a portion of 
our people. Whatever of truth or error these statements 
may have contained, it is evident that the increasing popula- 
tion demands that every resource within our means should 
be carefully and thoroughly developed. 

THEODORE LYMAN, 
E. A. BRACKETT, 
ASA FRENCH, 
Commissioners on Inland Fisheries, 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 29 



EXPENDITURES OF COMMISSION. 



Salary $1,650 00 

Travelling and other expenses .... 233 75 



General Expenses. 
Subscription to Schoodic salmon-breeding enter- 
prise ^500 00 

R. R. Holmes, services and expenses . . . 104 35 
Expenses on salmon-eggs from California to 

Chicago 168 23 

Linen hose and couplings 95 00 

Nets and twine 80 60 

Expressage 56 05 

Printing v 50 96 

Rent of land for fish-house .... 50 00 

Plans, specifications, &c 41 10 

Fish-cans, chains, &c. 42 53 

Labor, State hatching-house . . . . 19 50 

Advertising 6 75 

Serving notices 7 50 

Improvement of Hatching-House and 

FiSHWAY. 

Labor, &c., on Plymouth hatching-house . . 721 15 

Labors, &c., on Lawrence fishway ... 72 60 



$1,883 75 



2,016 32 
$3,900 07 



APPENDIX. 



[A.] 
COMMISSIONERS OX FISHERIES. 



UIv^ITED STATES. 

Professor Spencer F. Baied . . . j Smithsonian Institution, 

( Washington, D.C. 

MAINE. 

E. M. Stilwell Bangor. 

Henry O. Stanley Dixfield. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

Luther Hayes Milton. 

Samuel Webber Manchester. 

Albina Powers Grantham. 

VERMONT. 

M. Goldsmith ...... Rutland. 

Charles Barrett Grafton. 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

Theodore Lyman Brookline. 

E. A. Brackett Winchester. 

Asa French South Braintree. 

CONNECTICUT. 

William M. Hudson Hartford. 

Robert G. Pike Middletown. 

James A. Bill ...... Lyme. 

RHODE ISLAND. 

Newton Dexter Providence. 

Alfred A. Reed, Jun. .... Providence. 

John H. Barden Scituate. 

NEW YORK. 

Horatio Seymour Utica. 

Robert R. Roosevelt .... New York City. 

Edward M. Smith Rochester. 



34 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Oct. 



NEW JERSEY. 

J. R. Shotwell Rahway. 

G. A. Anderson ...... Trenton. 

B. P. Howell Woodbury. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

H. J. Reeder Easton. 

B. L. Hewitt Hollidaysbnrg. 

James Duffy Marietta. 

MARYLAND. 

T. B. Ferguson Baltimore. 

T. Downes Denton. 

VIRGINIA. 

A. MosELY Richmond. 

Dr. W. B. Robertson Ljaichburg. 

M. C. Ellzey Blacksburg. 

ALABAMA. 

Charles S. G. Doster .... Montgomery. 

Ro. Tyler Montgomery. 

D. R. Hundley Courtland. 

OHIO. 

John C. Fisher Coshocton. 

Robert Cummings Toledo. 

John H. Klippart Columbus. 

Emory D. Potter, Supt Toledo. 

MICHIGAN. 

Andrew J. Kellogg Allegan. 

George Clark Ecorse. 

E. R. Miller Richland. 

George H. Jerome, Supt Niles. 

IOWA. 

Samuel B. Evans Ottumwa. 

B. F. Shaw Anamosa. 

Charles A. Haynes Waterloo. 



MINNESOTA. 



William Golcher 
R. O. Sweeny 
Grover C. Burt . 



St. Paul. 
St. Paul. 
Mankato. 



1878.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 



35 





CALIFORNIA. 




B. B. Redding . 




. San Francisco. 


S. R. Throckmorton 




. San Francisco. 


J. D. Far WELL. 


DOMINION OF CANADA. 


. San Francisco. 


W. F. Whitcher . 




. Ottawa. 


W. H. Venning 


ARKANSAS. 


. St. John. 


N. H. Fish 




. Pine Bluffs. 


J. R. Steelman 




. Little Rock. 


N. B. Pearce . 


WISCONSIN. 


. Fayetteville. 


A. Palmer 




. Boscabel. 


William Welch 




. M9,dison. 


P. R. Hoy 


. 


. Racine. 


A. F. Donsman. 


UTAH TERRITORY. 


. Water villa. 


A. P. ROCKWOOD 




. Salt Lake City 



KENTUCKY. 

P. H. Darbey Caldwell County. 

Polk Laffoon Hopkins 

Dr. S. W. Coombs Warren 

Hon. C. J. Walton Hart 

Pack Thomas Jefferson 

Hon. James B. Casey Kenton 

Hon. John A. Steele Woodford 

J. H. Bruce Garrard 

Gen. T. T. Garrard Clay 

W. C. Allen Bath 



GEORGIA. 

Thomas P. Janes Atlanta. 



W. A. Pratt . 



ILLINOIS. 



Elsfin. 



H. G. Parker 



NEVADA. 



Wilson E. Sistey . 



COLORADO. 



. Brookvale. 



36 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Oct. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 



Gov. Z. B. Vance . 
Professor W. C. Kerr 
President R. P. Battle 
Col. S. M. Holt 
Capt. S. B. Alexander 
Major Jonathan Evans 
Capt. J. R. Thispan . 



Raleigh. 

Raleigh. 

Chapel Hill. 

Haw River. 

Charlotte. 

Fayetteville. 

Tarborough. 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 37 



[B.] 

LISTS OF PONDS LEASED 

By the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries^ under authority given 
by Chap. 384, Sect. 9, of the Acts of 1869.' 



1870. 

Feb. 1. TTaushakum Pond, in Framingham, to Sturtevant and others, 

20 years. 
Mar. 1. Tisbury Great Pond, in Tisbmy and Chilmark, to Allen Look 

and others, 10 years. 
April 1. Mendon Pond, in Mendon, to Leonard T. Wilson and another, 

20 years. 
June 20. Silver Lake, in Wilmington, to Charles O. Billings and others, 

20 years. 
Sept. 12. Baptist Lake, in Newton, to J. F. C. Hyde and others, 20 

years. 
Oct. 15. Archer's Pond, in Wrentham, to WiUiam E. George, 15 years. 

1871. 

Jan. 10. Nine Mile Pond, in Wilbraham, to B. F. Bowles, 10 years. 

30. Little Pond, in Falmouth, to F. H. Dimmick, 10 years, 
April — . Spectacle, Triangle, and Peters Ponds, in Sandwich, to G. L. 
Fessenden and another, 5 years. 

17. Long Pond, in Falmouth, to Joshua S. Bowerman and 3 

others, 20 years. 
May 15. Pratt's Pond, in Upton, to D. W. Batcheller, 20 years. 

18. Little Sandy Pond, in Plymouth, to William E. Perkins, 15 

years. 
Nov. 1. Punkapoag Pond, in Randolph and Canton, to Henry L. 
Pierce, 20 years. 

1872. 

Jan. 1. Sandy Pond, Forest Lake, or Flint's Pond, in Lincoln, to 
James L. Chapin and others, 20 years. 

1 We would remind lessees of ponds that they are required, by their leases, to use all 
reasonable efforts to stock their ponds, and keep accurate records of the same, and make 
returns of their doings to the Commissioners on the 1st of October, each year, of the num- 
ber and species of fish which they have put in or removed from their ponds. Anj- failure to 
comply with these conditions is a breach of contract invalidating their lease. It is important 
that the State should know just what is being done; and, where there appears to be mis- 
management, or apparent failure, the Commissioners will \isit the ponds, and ascertaiu, if 
possible, the cause. 



38 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

1872. 

April 1. Onota Lake, in Pittsfield, to William II. M array and others, 

5 years. 
July 20. Little Pond, in Braintree, to Eben Denton and others, 20 

years. 

1873. 

May 1. Meeting--house Pond, in Westminster, to inhabitants of West- 
minster, 15 years. 
1. Great Pond, in Weymouth, to James L. Bates and others, 15 
years. 

July 1. Little Sandy Pond, in Pembroke, to A. C. Brigham and others, 
16 years. 

Sept. 1. Pontoosuc Lake, in Pittsfield and Lanesborough, to E. H. 
Kellogg and others, 15 years. 

Oct. 1. Farm Pond, in Sherborn, to inhabitants of Sherborn, 15 
years. 

1. Spot Pond, in Stoneham, to inhabitants of Stoneham, 15 

years. 
Nov. 1. Lake Chaubunagungamong, or Big Pond, in Webster, to 

inhabitants of Webster, 5 years. 
Dec. 1. Lake Wauban, in Needham, to HoUis Hunnewell, 20 years. 

1874. 

Mar. 1. Walden and ^'S^iite ponds, in Concord, to inhabitants of Con- 
cord, 15 years. 

2. Upper Nankeag, in Ashbiu'nham, to inhabitants of Ashburn- 

ham, 20 years. 
April 1. Elder's Pond, in Lakeville, to inhabitants of Lakeville, 15 
years. 
20. North and South Podunk ponds, in Brookfield, to inhabitants 
of Brookfield, 15 years. 
May 2. Bro-^-n's Pond, in Peabody, to John L. Shorey, 15 years. 

1. Maquan Pond, in Hanson, to the inhabitants of Hanson, 15 
years. 
16. Wickaboag Pond, in West Brookfield, to Lemuel Fullam, 15 

years. 
20. Unchechewalom and Massapog ponds, to the inhabitants of 
Lunenburg, 20 years. 
July 1. Hardy's Pond, in Waltham, to H. E. Priest and others, 15 
years. 
1. Hockoraocko Pond, in Westborough, to L. N. Fairbanks and 
others, 15 years. 
11. Mitchell's Pond, in Boxford, to R. M. Cross and others, 15 

years. 
11. Hazzard's Pond, in Russell, to N. D. Parks and others, 20 
years. 
Oct. 1. East Waushacum Pond, in Sterling, to inhabitants of Sterling, 
20 years. 
20. Middleton Pond, in Middleton, to inhabitants of Middleton, 
15 years. 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 39 

1875. 

Jan. 1. "Wliite and Goose Ponds, in Chatham, to George W. Davis, 

15 years. 
Mar. 1. Lake Pleasant, in ]Montague, to inhabitants of Montague, 10 
years. 
1. Hood's Pond, in Ipswich and Topsfield, to inhabitants of 
Toj^sfield, 15 years. 
April 1. Chauncey Pond, in Westborough, to inhabitants of West- 
borough, 15 years. 
3. West's Pond, in Bolton, to J. D. Hm-lbiirt and others, 15 

years. 
15. Gates Pond, in Berlin, to E. H. Hartshorn and others, 15 

years. 
24. Pleasant Pond, in Wenham, to inhabitants of Wenham, 15 
years. 
May 1. Morse's Pond, in Needham, to Edmund M. Wood, 15 years. 

1. Great Pond, in North Andover, to Eben Sutton and others, 

20 years. 
1. Chilmark Pond, in Chihnark, to J. Nickerson and others, 
agents, 20 years. 
July 1. Winter Pond and Wedge Pond, in Winchester, to inhabitants 
of Winchester, 15 years. 
1. Haggett's Pond, in Andover, to inhabitants of Andover, 20 
years. 
Aug. 1. Oyster Pond, in Edgartown, to J. H. Smith and others, 20 
years. 
7. West Waushacum Pond, in Sterling, to inhabitants of Ster- 
ling, 20 years. 
9. Mystic (Upper) Pond, in Winchester, Medford, and Arling- 
ton, to inhabitants of Winchester and Medford, 15 years. 
Oct. 1. Little Chauncey and Solomon Ponds, in Northborough, to in- 
habitants of Xorthborough, 15 years. 
1876. 

Feb. 1. Great Sandy Bottom Pond, in Pembroke, to Israel Thrasher 

and others, 15 years. 
Mar. 1. Dennis Pond, in Yarmouth, to inhabitants of Yarmouth, 15 
years. 
1. Crystal Lake, in Wakefield, to Lyman H. Tasker and others, 
15 years. 
20. Lower Naumkeag Pond, in Ashburnham, to inhabitants of 

Ashburnham, 18 years. 
28. Dennison Lake, in Winchendon, to inhabitants of Wincheu- 

don, 15 years. 
28. Phillipston Pond, in Phillipston, to inhabitants of Phillipston, 
20 years. 
May 8. South- West Pond, in Athol, to Adin H. Smith and others, 15 

years. 
June 1. Norwich Pond, in Huntington, to inhabitants of Huntington, 
20 years. 



40 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

18T6. 

June 10. Dug Pond, in Natick, to W. P. Bigelow and others, 15 years. 
Oct. 1. Farm and Learned's Pond, in Framingham, to inhabitants of 
Framingham, 15 years. 
1. Whitney's Pond, Wrentham, to inhabitants of Wrentham, 

15 years. 
1. Little Pond, in Barnstable, to George H. Davis, 15 years. 

1877. 

Mar. 1, Nine Mile Pond, in Wilbraham, to inhabitants of Wilbraham, 

15 years. 
15. Pentucket and Rock Ponds, in Georgetown, to inhabitants of 

Georgetown, 15 years. 
Aug. 10. Onota Lake, in Pittsfield, to William H. Murray and others, 

15 years. 
Oct. 1. Fort, Great Spectacle, and Little Spectacle Ponds, in Lancas- 
ter, to inhabitants of Lancaster, 20 years. 
1. Battacook Pond, in Groton, to George S. Graves and others, 

15 years. 
Nov. 1. Tispaquin Pond, in Middleborongh, to Abishai Miller, 15 

years. 
1. Asnebumskitt Pond, in Paxton, to Ledyard Bill and others, 

15 years. 
1878. 
Jan. 1. Sniptuit, Long, Snow, and Mary's Ponds, in Rochester, to 

inhabitants of Rochester, 15 years. 
Mar. 16. Asnaconcomic Pond, in Hubbardston, to Amory Jewett, jun., 

15 years. 
April 1. Dorrity Pond, in Millbury, to inhabitants of Millbury, 10 

years. 
May 1. Spectacle, Peters, and Triangle Ponds, in Sandwich, to George 

L. Fessenden, 10 years. 
. 1. Bear Hill Pond and Hall Pond, in Harvard, to inhabitants of 

Harvard, 15 years. 
July 1. Lake Buell, in Monterey and New Marlborough, to Andrew 

L. Hubbell and others, 5 years. 
Oct. 1. Eel Pond, in Melrose, to J. A. Barrett and others, 15 years. 

Halfway Pond, in Plymouth, taken by Commissioners for 5 

years from March 1, 1878, in accordance with provisions of 

chap. 62 of the Acts of 1876. 



1878.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 34. 



41 



[C] 

Hartvichport, Nov. 28, 1878. 
E. A. Brackett, Commissioner on Inland Fisheries. 

Dear Sir, — I took the brook of the town in 1869 for 10 years: the 
time has now expired. 

The number of alewiyes for each year is as follows : — 



1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 



(This year you ordered fishway put in). 



(Bluefish came, and drove them away) 



312 barrels. 

360 

496 

634 

739 

939 

722 

558 
1,161 
1,570 



For the first 2 years there were 2 weirs to the south-west of the river, 
but being unprofitable were removed. They were about a mile and a 
half distant, and I do not think were any detriment to alewives in the 
river. To the east there have always been 2 pounds, — one near the 
shore, about a mile from the river, the other farther off in deep water. 
The one inshore took considerable many alewives. I think the fishways 
which you ordered were a great improvement; and I am indebted to 
you, one of the Commissioners, for the increase of fish. I think, if all 
have done as well as the Fish Commission, the State owes them a debt 
of gratitude. Those who had the brook previous to my taking it lost 
money, and the last year the Town allowed them nearly §300. You see, 
it has been the reverse since I have had it: I have always kept alewives 
running up every day when they came in any quantities ; and, as you 
remarked to me, " Let them go up, and give them free pass down, and 
you will have plenty of alewives." I found you were correct. But I fear 
some one will take it now who will soon make the brook worthless again. 
Any further information I will readily forward to you. 

Yours truly, NATHAN DOANE. 



To the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries of Massach^isetts . 

Gextlemex, — In compliance with your request that I furnish you 
with the facts concerning the fisheries in the towns of Bridsfe water, East 



42 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

Bridgewater, West Bridgewater, and Halifax, Plymouth County, I am 
led first to remark that these towns are so situated geographically, being 
contiguous, as to have a common interest in this respect. 

The Town River, which rises in Xippenicket Pond in Bridgewater, 
flows through a portion of West Bridgewater, and again entering the 
territory of Bridgewater forms the westerly branch of the Taunton 
River. 

The Satucket River rises in Robins's Pond, East Bridgewater, and 
flows thence through the central part of this town into Bridgewater, there 
uniting with the Town River, forming the easterly branch of the Taunton 
River. 

In Halifax are three large ponds, known as East and West Monponset, 
and Stump Pond, all connected, which discharge their waters through 
^lonponset River or Brook, into Robins's Pond. The Town River has 
three principal tributaries, — Cowesit and West- Meadow Brook, in West 
Bridgewater, and South Brook, in Bridgewater. 

The Satucket has two important tributaries: namely, Matfield River, 
which rises south of the Blue Hills, in Stoughton, and bears, in different 
parts of its course, three distinct names, Salisbury, Matfield, and John's 
River; and the Poor- Meadow River, which flows through portions of 
Abingtou and Hanson. Into the Matfield flow two good-sized brooks, 
namely, Beaver and Byram's, or Forge. Anciently a distinction was 
made between certain portions of what is now known as Taunton River. 
That part of it between the point of union of the Town and Satucket, 
and a place caUed Titicut, in Bridgewater, was called the Great River, 
and from Titicut to the sea, Taunton Great River; and formerly, also, a 
portion of Town was called Mill River, and of Satucket, Poor- Meadow 
River. 

The Monponset Pouds in Halifax are very extensive, and in some parts 
quite deep; but the waters are somewhat colored, by reason of their 
swampy smTOundings, though the shores in several places are composed 
of a fine white sand, and are well adapted for spawning-grounds. 
Robins's Pond is about a half-mile in width, surrounded by sandy 
shores and marshy shallows. The Nippenicket Pond is also a large 
pond, and one of the finest for the culture of fish to be found in Massa- 
chusetts. 

All these streams formerly swarmed with alewives and shad, and 
other migi'atory fish; but in the year 1819 the Legislature, very unwisely, 
relieved the owners of dams in the towns of Bridgewater, East Bridge- 
water, West Bridgewater, and Halifax, from the obligation to keep up or 
maintain fishways. 

The first dam on the Taunton River is at Squawbetty, or East Taun- 
ton, where a way has always existed, but which has long been inadequate 
for the passage of shad, and has this year been replaced by a large 
Brackett-way. Between Squawbetty and the paper-mill in Bridgewater, 
— a distance of about 12 miles, — there are no obstructions to the passage 
of fish; but at the -latter place is a long, rolling dam. In compliance 
with chap. 190, Acts of 1872, the owners of this dam put in a fine 
Brackett-way, 80 feet long, and 5 feet in width. There are two dams 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 43 

on the Town River, one on the Satucket, and one on Monponset Brook, 
all of which have been furnished with suitable ways, except that in West 
Bridgewater, which is soon to be replaced by a Brackett-way. 

In May, 1S72, the four towns named began the work of stocking their 
ponds and rivers with ale wives. These were obtained at the fishing-places 
on the Xemasket River in ^liddleborough, taken alive, and transported in 
tanks to their respective repositories, — Xippenicket Pond in Bridgewater, 
Robins's Pond in East Bridgewater, and Monponset Pond in Halifax. 
This process was repeated in 1873, and again in IST-i, making three suc- 
cessive years. Into Xippenicket were placed in 1872 about 1,000 ale- 
wives, in 1S73 500, and in 1874 about 2,000, — the fish for this pond 
being transported a distance of about four miles. The stocking of 
Robins's and Monponset Ponds — the distance from Middleborough 
being more than double that of Xippenicket, and the fish consequently 
dying in large numbers on the passage — was not attended with so much 
success: yet in the three years about 3,000 live, healthy alewives were 
safely deposited in these three ponds. 

Beside these experiments in 1875, there were put into the Town 
River 80,000 shad-fry, in 1876 10,000 California salmon-fry, in 1877 
4,000 land-locked salmon-fry, and in the same year 60,000 shad-fry. 
Into the Satucket River in 1872 were put 30,000 shad-fry, and in 1877 
4,000 land-locked salmon-fry. 

The whole experiment was looked upon by the people with distrust, 
and by some with absolute disfavor, though the several towns willingly 
made all needed appropriations; and the owners of dams, though sub- 
jected to considerable expense, complied with the statute with a prompt- 
ness and willingness that entitle them to great credit. 

It was announced that the alewives bred in the year 1872 would 
return full-grown in 1875, but there were few who believed it; and 
accordingly, in the spring of the latter year, the streams and ways were 
carefully watched by many incredulous eyes. The season was a little 
late and cold; but before the end of May the alewives, in considerable 
numbers, appeared at the foot of Paper-^Iill dam, and, in the course of 
a few days, at all the other dams, making a successful passage over every 
way into the ponds where they were respectively bred, the two schools 
apparently parting, at the junction of the Town and Satucket Rivers, 
with the precision of a well-disciplined army, though a few stragglers 
were found in nearly all the tributaries named. 

The run has gradually increased each year since ; and last spring, being 
the first time that the towns have fished since the year 1818, about 15,000 
fine large alewives were seined at the Paper Mill, the common fishmg- 
ground agreed upon by the four towns. A much larger number would 
have been taken, had it not been for the lateness when the fishing com- 
menced, and the failure to suitably prepare the bed of the river for 
seining. 

Xone of the other fish have yet been discovered in our rivei-s ; though 
the fishermen on the lower waters of the Taunton have, since 1876, 
reaped a larger harvest of both shad and alewives — the result of our 
sowing, and that of the people of Middleborough — than in many yeai-s 
previously. 



44 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

The establishment of the fishways has increased the number of all the 
common fresh-water fish in our ponds and rivers, especially the white 
perch, which have come in large numbers with the herrings, and among 
them, also, trout and black bass. The trout and bass pass the ways just 
as successfully as the alewives; and of the former several have been taken 
since 1872, of 1 and 2 pounds in weight. 

It is confidently believed, and the result of the experiment thus far 
justifies such beUef , that not only will our ancient and valuable ale wife- 
fisheries be fully restored, but that of the shad also, provided the laws 
are strictly enforced with reference to the lower waters of the Taunton, 
where there has always been much excessive and illegal fishing, and 
where the fishermen claim to believe, that, no matter how many fish they 
capture, there are just as many left in the stream as though they had 
not taken any, — in other words, that 99 from 100 leaves 100, and not 1. 

Yours truly, 

WILLIAM H. OSBORNE. 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 45 



[D.] 
LEGISLATION. — 1876. 

[Omitted in last Report.] 

An Act for the Protection of Trout, Land-locked Salmon, 
AND Lake Trout. 
Be it enacted hy the Senate and House of Representatives, in General Court 
assembled, and hy the authority of the same, as follows : 

Section 1. Whoever, within this Commonwealth, sells, offers for 
sale, exposes for sale, or has in his possession, trout, land-locked salmon, 
or lake trout, except alive, between the first day of October in each 
year, and the next succeeding first day of April, shall forfeit, for each 
fish taken, caught, or killed, between the first day of October in 
each year, and the next succeeding first day of April, and so sold, offered 
for sale, exposed for sale, or had in his possession, the sum of ten dollars; 
and, in all prosecutions under this Act, the burden of proof shall be upon 
the defendant to show that the trout, land-locked salmon, or lake trout 
(the selling, offering for sale, exposing for sale, or possession of which is 
the subject of the prosecution) were legally caught. 

Sect. 2. The mayor or aldermen of any city, the selectmen of any 
town, and all police officers and constables within this Commonwealth, 
shall cause the provisions of this act to be enforced in their respective 
cities and towns ; and all forfeitures and penalties for violations of the 
provisions of this Act shall be paid, one-half to the person making the 
complaint, and one-half to the city or town in which the offence is com- 
mitted. 

Sect. 3. All acts and parts of acts conflicting with this Act are 
hereby repealed, so far as they are inconsistent herewith. 

Sect. 4. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 



1878. 

[Chap. 32.] 

An Act to amend Chapter One Hundred and Ninety of the 
Acts of the Year Eighteen Hundred and Seventy-two, re- 
lating to the Alewife and other Fisheries in the Towns 
of Bridgewater, West Bridgewater, East Bridgewater, and 
Halifax. 

Be it enacted, Sfc, as follows: 

Section 1. Section three of chapter one hundred and ninety of the 

acts of the year eighteen hundred and seventy-two is hereby amended by 



46 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

adding after the word "flow," at the end of said section, the following 
words: " And it shall be lawful for said towns to agree upon and take 
said fish at one common fishing-place for all of said towns, upon either 
of said rivers or their tributaries, within their limits or upon that portion 
of the Taunton River within the limits of the town of Bridgewater; to 
regulate the taking of said fish under the direction of said commission- 
ers, and to determine the manner in which the expense attending such 
common fishing shall be apportioned between them, and to make all 
necessary appropriations therefor." 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. ^Approved 
March 2, 1878. 

[Chap. 78.] 

An Act concerning Shell-fish on the Shores and Flats of 
Thompson's Island. 

Be it enacted^ ^c, as follows : 

Section 1. Whoever takes any shell-fish from the shores or flats of 
Thompson's Island in Boston Harbor without the permit of the managers 
of the Boston Asylum and Farm School for Indigent Boys, or the chief 
of the police of the city of Boston, shall for every offence pay a fine of 
not less than five dollars or more than ten dollars, and costs of prosecu- 
tion; said fine to be recovered by complaint before the municipal court 
of the city of Boston. 

Sect. 2. Any constable or police-ofl&cer of the city of Boston may 
without a warrant arrest any person whom he finds in the act of taking 
shell-fish in violation of the provisions of the preceding section of this 
act, or in the act of carrying away shell -fish so taken, and detain him in 
some place of safe keeping until a warrant can be procured against such 
person upon a complaint for said offence : provided, that such detention 
shall not exceed twenty-four hours. {^Approved March 23, 1878. 

[Chap. 172.] 

An Act to amend Chapter Three Hundred and Eighty-four of 
the Acts of the Year Eighteen Hundred and Sixty-nine, 
concerning the Cultivation of Fishes. 

Be it enacted, ^c, as follows : 

Section 1. Whoever uses any sweep-seine in the waters of the Con- 
necticut, Westfield, Deerfield, IMiller's, Merrimack, ISTashua, or Housa- 
tonic rivers, or their tributaries, having a mesh which stretches less than 
five inches, shall forfeit for the first offence twenty-five dollars, and for 
every subsequent offence fifty dollars ; and in each case shall also forfeit 
the apparatus thus unlawfully used, and the fish captured. 

Sect. 2. Section twenty-one of chapter three hundred and eighty- 
four of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and sixty-nine is hereby 
repealed. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect on the first day of December next. 
^Approved April 23, 1878. 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 3i. 47 

[Chap. 179.] 
Ax Act for the Better Protection of the Oyster Fisheries in 

THIS Commonwealth. 
Be it enacted^ ^'c, as follows : 

Section 1. Xo person shall dig, take, or carry away any oysters by 
any method whatever, from any flats or creeks, for which a license has 
been granted under the provisions of section sixteen of chapter eighty- 
three of the General Statutes, between sunset and sunrise. Any person 
holding a license under the provisions of said section, who shall violate 
the foregoing provisions, shall, upon conviction thereof, in addition to 
the penalties hereinafter provided, forfeit his license, together with the 
oysters remaining on the premises licensed, to the town or city granting 
the same. 

Sect. 2. Any person who shall violate any of the provisions of this 
Act, and any person who digs or takes any oysters from any flats or creeks 
described in any license granted under the provisions of section sixteen 
of chapter eighty- three of the General Statutes, during the continuance 
of such license, without the consent of the person so licensed, shall be 
punished by a fine not more than one hundred dollars, or imprisonment 
in the house of correction not less than thirty days nor more than six 
months, or by both said fine and imprisonment. One half of said fine 
shall be paid to the complainant, and the other to the county within 
whose jurisdiction the offence was committed. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect on the first day of June next. 
\_Approved April 24, 1878. 

[Chap. 202.] 
An Act to preserve the Eel Fisheries in Ipswich River and 

its Tributaries in the Town of Ipswich. 
Be it enacted, ^c, as follows : 

Section 1. AVhoever takes, catches, or destroys any eels in Ipswich 
River or its tributaries, in the town of Ipswich in the county of Essex, 
in any other manner than by spear, or hook and line, shall forfeit for 
every eel so taken, caught, or destroyed, not less than one dollar nor more 
than five dollars ; one-half of said fine to be paid to the complainant. 

Sect. 2. All fines or penalties for violating this act, with costs, may 
be recovered by complaint or action of tort in any court of competent 
jurisdiction. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. \_Approved 
April 29, 1878. 

[Chap. 224.] 
An Act to further regulate fishing in the Connecticut River. 

Be it enacted, ^c, as follows : 

Section 1. Section three of chapter one hundred and forty-four of 
the acts of the year eighteen Imndred and seventy-four, is hereby 
amended by striking out the word ' ' four, ' ' where it first occurs in said 
section, and inserting in lieu thereof the word " two." 



48 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

Sect. 2. Whoever takes or catches any fish beyond two hundred 
yards and within four hundred yards of any fishway now built, or here- 
after to be built on the Connecticut River or its tributaries lying within 
this Commonwealth, in any other manner than by naturally or artificially 
baited hooks and line, shall forfeit for each fish so taken or caught the 
sum of twenty-five dollars. 

Sect. 3. The limitation of time for catching black bass in the Con- 
necticut River or its tributaries, in this State, shall hereafter be the same 
as that now fixed, or which shall hereafter be prescribed by the Legisla- 
ture of Connecticut for taking black bass in said river in that State. 

Sect. 4. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Approved May 
3, 1878. 



1878.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 49 



[E.] 
Returns of Weies, Seines, and Gill-Nets. 

In the following tables will be found the returns of 52 
weirs ; 28 sea-seines ; 97 gill-nets ; 6 seines at the mouth of 
the Merrimack; 7 seines in the Connecticut, 9 in the Merri- 
mack, and 10 in the Taun-^on ; also 29 fresh-water fisheries 
by seine or by dip-net. The numbers are approximate. 
Some returns are made with more care and fidelity than others. 
In certain cases, the barrels or the pounds were given, and the 
number of fish could not be accurately known. Sometimes a 
fisherman has included two or thre'^ fisheries in one, adding 
to his weir, perhaps, some line-fishing or eeling with pots. 
We are to suppose that the twentv-five trout mentioned were 
taken with hook and line, as their capture by net is illegal. 

On the whole, the fishermen have been willing and prompt 
in compl34ng with the law, and the Commissioners have been 
careful to enforce it gently. Only in one case was an exam- 
ple made by the arrest of the delinquent, who was compelled 
by the court to make his return. 

General deductions from the tables are purposely omitted 
until the material of several years has been accumulated. It 
may, however, be said, in general, that, as compared with last 
year, sea-herring, mackerel, and flat-fish have fallen off ; while 
bass, tautog, scup, menhaden, and bluefish are more plenty. 
In shad there was an average season in the Connecticut, as 
compared with the extraordinary scarcity of last year, while 
the Taunton River yielded a very small crop. The great in- 
crease of alewives is encouraging, — an increase most benefi- 
cial, and easy to effect, as may be seen by the letter of Mr. 
Doane in the appendix. 



50 



IXLAXD FISHERIES. 



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53 



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PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 



56 



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1878.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 



61 



Table No. IV. — Connecticut River Seines. 



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C.C.Smith . . . . 
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R. H. Parker .... 


1,261 
307 
8,169 
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21 




12 








17,790 






21 




2 



1 Taken alive and set free. 



Table No. V. — Merrimac River Seines. 



Town. 


NAME. 


i 


i 

< 


i 

1 

s 


i 


Bradford .... 
Newbury .... 

u 

West Newbury . 
Q-roveland .... 

Amesbury .... 


H. A. Nisbett . 
A. E. Larkin . 
W. H. Morrison 
A. C. Nelson . 
William N. Dempsey 
W. P. Goodwin 
F. H. Balch . . 
Charles W. Pemberton 
John Morrill 




478 

48 

1,547 

667 

406 

4,159 


35,700 

18,950 

78,209 

356 


21 

97 
5 

10 
4 

6 


460 








7,305 


133,215 


143 


460 



62 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

Table No. VI. — Taunton River Seines. 



Town. 


NAME. 


1 


1 

< 


w 


Bridgewater 
Berkley . 

Dighton . 

Middleborough 
Raynham . 
(( 

Taunton . 




S. Leonard 

I. N. Babbitt & Co. . 

E. Hathaway . 

Nichols & Shove 

Noah Chase . 

Charles N. Simmons 

J. Garland 

R. W. Rounsville . 

G. B. & E. Williams 

J. W. Hart 






275 
326 
360 
222 
480 

398 
538 
269 


14,742 
105,940 
130,762 
190,000 

65,850 
156,000 
166,328 

91,203 
272,149 

81,965 


144 












2,868 


1,274,939 


144 



Table No. VII. 



Other Fresh-water Seines, or Dip-net 
Fisheries. 



Towns. 


NAME. 


■73 

1 


> 

1 




1 


Weymouth .... 


Weymouth Iron Company 


- 


122,625 


- 


- 


Kingston .... 


Cobb & Drew 






- 


23,140 


- 


- 


Rochester and Mattapoisett 


N. Hammond 






- 


391,452 


- 


- 


Barnstable .... 


J. J. Backus 






- 


17,471 


- 


- 


Brewster .... 


Charles E. Hall 






- 


63,914 


- 


- 


Wellfleet .... 


B. S. Young 






- 


27,243 


- 


- 


Eastham .... 


J. Fulcher . 






- 


5,450 


- 


- 


Harwich .... 


Nathan Doane 






- 


774,250 


- 


- 


Marshpee .... 


M. Amos 






- 


4,425 


- 


15 


«« 


George R. Coombs 




- 


1,350 


- 


10 


<« 


Watson F. Hammond 




- 


14,275 


- 


- 


" 


W. R. Mingo 




- 


10,950 


- 


- 


<« 


George T. Oakley 




- 


4,250 


- 


- 


<t 


W. H. Simon . 




- 


1,700 


- 


- 


Falmouth .... 


C. E. Winch 




- 


23,500 


- 


- 


War oh am .... 


William T. Cobb 




- 


379,000 


- 


- 


Marion 


Charles A. Hammond 




- 


5,900 


- 


- 



1878.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 



63 



Table No. 


VII.— 


Other Fresh - Water Seines, etc. — Concluded. 


Towns. 


NAME. 


i 

m 


i 
> 

< 


c3 

m 


"3 

o 
}-> 


Marion 


M.B. Marble .... 




8,678 


27 


- 


«« 






. 


George B.Nye . 




. 


- 


8,510 


10 


- 


Westport 






• 


J. Gr. Remington 
L. D. Tripp 
P. S. Tripp . . 
L. W. White 




• 


4 


20,000 

1,317 

1,582 

243 


1 
6 


- 


Yarmouth 






. 


D. S. Baker 




. 


- 


25,445 


- 


- 


Dennis . 






. 


Baker & Wixon . 






57 


2,482 


- 


- 


Tisbury 






. 


G. Rodgers & Co. 




. 


- 


9,493 


101 


- 


Edgartown 






. 


David ifisher 




. 


- 


- 


474 


- 


« 






. 


W. W. Huxford . 




. 


- 


3,278 


- 


















61 


1,951,923 


619 


25 



Table No. VIII. — Seine Fishery at Mouth of the Merrimac. 



NAME. 


6JD 

a 


S 


1 
■a 


o 


4 


'S 

m 


J. A. Emery 

E.F.Hunt 

J. Janvrin 

N. Lattime 

W. H. H. Perkins & Co 

E. Thurlow 


66 
3,700 
55,875 


57 
280 

60 


31,800 
40,200 
28,238 
17,950 
97,050 
257,850 


225 


50 
_ 


4 




59,641 


397 


473,088 


225 


50 


4 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT. No. 25. 



FOUETEENTH ANNUAL EEPORT 



COMMISSIONERS 



INLAND FISHERIES, 



YEAR ENDING SEPTEMBER 30, 1879. 



BOSTON! 

l^anti, ^ijerg, $c C0., Printers U tje ^omntflit^ealtS, 

117 Fbanklln Street. 
1880. 



\ 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Report ..... 5 

Appendix A. Lists of Commissioners 21 

B. Lists of Ponds leased 25 

C. Legislation 29 

D. Letter from Walter M. Brackett on the Canadian 

Sea-Trout 33 

E. Returns of Weirs, Seines, and Gill-nets . . .34 



CommonroeaUl) of ilta06act)U0ett0. 



To His Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Council. 

The Commissioners on Inland Fisheries beg leave to pre- 
sent their Fourteenth Annual Report. 

FiSHWAYS. 

The large fishwaj built at East Taunton, over what is 
generally known as Squaw Betty Dam, has, so far as we can 
learn, given general satisfaction. Mr. Charles Robinson, 
who watched it daily during the run of fish, says that every 
kind of fish belonging to the river were seen in the fishway, 
— the alewives in great numbers. At the time we visited it, 
it was crowded with these fish. A few shad were seen in 
the pass, and some were reported to have been caught above 
the dam. Both the fishermen and the mill-owners appear to 
be satisfied with what has been done ; and the conflict 
between them, which has existed more or less for half a 
century, has, in all probability, been settled. It was, how- 
ever, not to be expected that men whose heads had grown 
gray in these battles should suddenly convert their weapons 
into ploughshares ; and it was soon apparent that the conflict 
had been transferred from Squaw Betty to Middleborough, 
and the attack directed mainly against the dam at the shovel- 
works, with occasionally a stray shot at the Star Mills. 

At the first-mentioned dam is an old Foster fishway, some- 
what poorly altered to the form now generally used in this 
State. The testimony, in regard to fish passing over it, was 
conflicting ; but an examination, during the run of alewives, 
showed that a large portion of them did pass up into the 
lake, and, if the water was properly regulated, there was no 
serious objection to the fishway. 



6 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

A portion of the fish have undoubtedly been bred below, 
and have no disposition to go above. 

The present structure, together with the dam, is fast going 
to decay; and, if it is not speedily attended to, in a short 
time no fishway will be needed. 

The mill is not occupied, and it is not an easy matter to 
find who owns the property, or who are the responsible par- 
ties. When this is settled, either the owners must put in a 
new fishway similar to the one at Squaw Betty, or give the 
fish the natural bed of the river. 

Westfield River. 

At the third dam on Westfield River, owned by the Aga- 
wam Canal Company, the gates were hoisted, but the water 
came through with so much force that the fish could not 
pass up. 

Some change will be made here the coming season. 

Fishways will be required at Easton, and over the upper 
dams on the Westfield River, and also several minor passes 
for alewives. 

Lawrence. 

It has been thought best to keep a careful record of what 
has been seen passing the fishway over this high dam. 

Below will be found Mr. Holmes's report of two inspec- 
tions each day, during the running season. 

Fish seen in the Lawrence Fishway in the Year 1879. 

May 5. Water let into the fishway; the river is very high; water very- 
turbid. 
9. Saw the first fish, two suckers and one brook trout. 

11. One sucker in fishway. 

12. Alewives and suckers, run moderate; a few chubs and two 

lamper eels. 

13. Alewives and suckers, run moderate; a few chubs and three 

lamper eels. 

14. Alewives and suckers, run moderate; a few chubs and one 

lamper eel. 

15. Alewives and suckers, run moderate, and two lamper eels. 

16. Alewives and suckers, run moderate; one lamper eel. 

17. A few suckers; water has risen in river. 

18. A few suckers; river high and turbid. 

19. A few alewives, one lamper eel. * 

20. A few suckers. 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUxMEXT — No. 25. 7 

May 21. One sucker. 

22. A few suckers. 

23. A few ale wives. 

24. A few chubs and suckers. 

25. A few alewives, suckers, and chubs. 

26. Alewives and suckers, run large ; a few chubs and lamper eels. 

27. A few suckers and chubs. 

28. A few lamper eels and silver eels. 

29. A few suckers and chubs. 

30. A few suckers, lamper eels, and silver eels. 

31. A few suckers and chubs. 

June 1. A few suckers, chubs, and lamper eels. 

2. Alewives and suckers, run very large; a few lamper eels, and 

three salmon, 10 to 12 lbs. 

3. Alewives, suckers, chubs, and lamper eels, run excessively- 

large; one salmon, 12 lbs. 

4. Alewives, suckers, chubs, and lamper eels, run excessively 

large; one salmon, 9 lbs. 

5. Alewives, suckers, chubs, and lamper eels, run excessively 

large; one salmon, 7 lbs., one shad, and one black bass, 1^ lbs. 

6. Alewives and suckers, run very large; a few chubs and one 

black bass. 

7. Alewives, run moderate; a few suckers, chubs, and lamper 

eels. 

8. Alewives, run moderate; a few suckers, chubs, and lamper 

eels, two black bass. 

9. Alewives, run moderate; a few suckers and lamper eels. 

10. Alewives, run moderate; a few suckers, chubs, lamper eels, 

and silver eels, one salmon, 8 lbs. 

11. At 9 A.M., one salmon, 8 lbs. ; at 11 a.m., tJiree salmon, 10 to 

16 lbs., one black bass; alewives, suckers, lamper eels, and 
small silver eels, run small. 

12. Alewives, suckers, chubs, and lamper eels, nm small; one 

black bass, one salmon, 16 lbs. 

13. Alewives, suckers, chubs, and lamper eels, run small; four 

salmon, 8 to 12 lbs. 

14. Alewives, suckers, chubs, and lamper eels, run small ; two 

black bass, three salmon, 10 to 18 lbs. 

15. A few alewives, suckers, chubs, and lamper eels, one black 

bass, two salmon, 10 to 1-4 lbs. 

16. A few alewives, suckers, and lamper eels, three salmon, 10 to 

14 lbs. 

17. Alewives, run small; a few laraper eels and small silver eels. 

18. A few alewives, suckers, chubs, and lamper eels, one black 

bass. 

19. A few alewives, suckers, lamper eels, and small silver eels. 

20. A few alewives, suckers, and small silver eels. 

21. A few alewives, suckers, and chubs, one small shad 



8 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

June 22. Alewives, run small; a few suckers, chubs, and small silver 
eels, one small shad. 

23. A few alewives, suckers, chubs, lamper eels, and small silver 

eels, one black bass. 

24. A few alewives, suckers, chubs, and small silver eels. 

25. A few suckers and chubs, one salmon, 15 Ihs. 

26. Small silver eels, run moderate; a few chubs and suckers, 

three black bass. 

27. Small silver eels, run moderate; a few suckers and chubs. 

28. Small silver eels, run moderate; one salmon, 14 lbs. 

29. Small silver eels, run large ; schools of small suckers and chubs . 

30. Small silver eels, run large; a few suckers, one salmon, 8 lbs. 
July 1. Small silver eels, run moderate; schools of small chubs and a 

few suckers. 

2. Small silver eels, run moderate; schools of small suckers and 

chubs. 

3. Small silver eels, run moderate. 

4. Small silver eels, run small; two black bass, two roach (small) , 

two shiners, and a few suckers and chubs. 

5. Small silver eels, run moderate; a few suckers and chubs, and 

two small hornpouts. 

6. Small silver eels, run moderate; a few suckers and chubs, two 

small hornpouts, two shiners. 

7. Small silver eels, run moderate; a few suckers and chubs. 

8. Small silver eels, run moderate; a few suckers, chubs, and 

roach, two black bass. 

9. Small silver eels, run moderate; a few suckers and chubs. 

10. Small silver eels, run moderate; a few suckers and chubs. 

11. Small silver eels, run moderate; a few suckers and chubs. 

12. Small silver eels, run moderate; a few suckers and chubs, 

two black bass. 

13. Small silver eels, run moderate; a few suckers, chubs, and 

roach. 

14. Small silver eels, run moderate ; a few suckers and chubs. 

15. Small silver eels, run moderate; a few suckers and chubs. 

16. Small silver eels, run moderate; a few suckers and chubs. 

17. Small silver eels, run moderate; a few suckers, chubs, and 

roach. 

18. Small silver eels, run moderate; a few suckers and chubs. 

19. Small silver eels, run moderate; a few suckers and chubs. 

20. Small silver eels, run large; a few suckers and chubs. 

21. Small silver eels, run large; a few suckers and chubs. 

22. Low water; water shut out of fishway. 

26. Let water into fishway; drew down in p.m. ; a few suckers, 

chubs, and small silver eels in it. 

27. A few suckers, chubs, and small silver eels. 

28. A few suckers, chubs, roach, and hornpouts, one black bass, 

two red perch, and one shiner. 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 9 

July 29. Small silver eels, run moderate; a few suckers, chubs, and 
roach. 

30. Small silver eels, run moderate; a few suckers, chubs, and 

roach. 

31. Small silver eels, run moderate; a few suckers and chubs. 
From Aug. 1 to Aug. 26 did not- see any thing in the fishway 

but small silver eels (a hundred or so at a time), and a few 
suckers, chubs, roach, and shiners (water being shut out of 
fishway from Aug. 6 to 16, on account of low river). 

Aug. 27. One salmon^ 16 Ihs. : nothing but small silver eels and a few 
suckers and chubs the rest of the month, excepting the 31st. 
31. Two black bass. 

From Sept. 1 to Oct. 3, did not see any thing in the fishway 
but small silver eels and a few suckers and chubs, with now 
and then a roach or shiner. 

Oct. 3. One salmon, 6 lbs. 

The water was shut out of the fishway Oct. 9, on account of 
low water, and was not let in except on Sundays during 
the whole month. Did not see any fish of any account. 
Think this has been the most unfavorable October we have 
had since the fishway has been in operation, the water being 
very low the whole month. 

Nov. 1. Nothing in the fishway. 

Yours respectfully, 

THOMAS S. HOLMES. 



Palmer^ s River. 

A petition has been received from the selectmen of Reho- 
both, complaining of the unlawful and destructive fishing on 
Palmer's River, that part of it running through Rhode Island, 
by which the people of this State are said to be deprived of 
their share of the fish. The river abounds in shad, and if 
properly controlled by the two States would yield a large 
amount of spawn for stocking rivers and streams without 
subjecting the States to the exorbitant charges made by the 
owners of seining-grounds on the Connecticut and Merrimack. 

Connecticut River. 

Serious depredations were committed on the fishway at 
South Hadley during the past season. Thousands of fish 
were taken from it, and it was found necessary to employ a 
superintendent to look after what little interest we have left 
in the river. 

It is to the credit of Connecticut, that she has passed a 

2 



10 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

law shortening the tmie for taking shad. Such a law, if en- 
forced, will do much toward preventing the total destruc- 
tion of these fish. 

But for the salmon, they are all, or nearly all, killed out 
of the river by the fishermen. It is true that the Legisla- 
ture last year passed a law prohibiting the taking of these 
fish for three years ; but every one at all conversant with 
these matters knows that so long as the gill-nets are allowed 
to patrol the river, all such laws are worthless. No man can 
save the salmon after they are gilled in these nets. Nor is 
there likely to be any conviction for the offence, because 
these men are fishing for shad, and it is not their fault that 
the salmon are gilled : they cannot help it ; neither could 
they, were they so disposed, return them alive to the river. 
It is not probable, under these circumstances, that any court 
would find them guilty. 

Aside from this, should the Commissioners think best to 
re-stock the river and next season turn young salmon into it, 
before they would have time to mature and return to deposit 
their spawn, the law would have expired, and the same de- 
struction by Connecticut fishermen, which occurred in 1878, 
might be repeated. Our evidence goes to show that few or 
none of these fish have reached this State. What have been 
taken in the lower part of the river are known only to the 
fishermen. 

There appears to be very little encouragement for Mas- 
sachusetts to co-operate with Connecticut in re-stocking the 
river with salmon. 

The effort to obtain shad-spawn at South Hadley was 
rendered abortive by the exorbitant price insisted upon 
by the owners of the seining-grounds at that place. The 
Commissioners of Massachusetts and Connecticut felt jus- 
tified, even at the loss of the spawn, in resisting all such 
excessive demands. If the facts could have been known 
earlier, a place might have been obtained where the shad 
could be pounded and kept till the spawn was ripe, and where 
the owner had sufficient foresight to see the advantage he 
would derive from establishing the breeding-grounds lower 
down the river. Such an arrangement could probably be 
carried out at small expense. Two years' seining and pound- 
ing would perhaps be all that would be required to establish 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 11 

new breeding-grounds, and would relieve the United States 
Commissioner, as well as the Commissioners of the two States, 
from dependence on a monopoly. 

As the cultivation and rearing of trout more strictly comes 
within the scope of private enterprise, it has been thought 
best not to devote any more time or expense in that direction 
than was necessary to furnish the desired information in 
regard to it. At the time the lease was obtained of the 
grounds and ponds for the works at Plymouth, N.H., we 
were obliged to take with them some three hundred trout, 
with the provision that the same number should be returned 
at the expiration of the lease. These, with what have since 
been taken when fishing for salmon, furnish quite a number 
of breeding fish, from which we have taken this year some- 
thing over one hundred thousand spawn, one-half of which 
belongs to Massachusetts. The State has been to no addi- 
tional expense in procuring these eggs, and it may be desira- 
ble tb furnish a part of the young fish to persons having 
control of streams, on condition that they will keep a record, 
and furnish statistics in regard to them. 

There are other waters still open to the public, to which 
private parties would be willing to bear the expense of trans- 
portation, for the sake of having streams re-stocked. 

These young trout will be ready to deliver at the hatching- 
house at Winchester in April next. 

Land-locked Salmon (^Salmo Sehago), 

From the works situated on Grand Lake Stream in Maine, 
and carried on jointly in the interest of the United States 
Commission and several of the New England States, under 
the superintendence of Charles G. Atkins, Massachusetts 
received as her share 240,000 eggs, from which were hatched 
224,763. These young salmon were remarkably fine, and 
were delivered without loss to various parts of the State, as 
follows : — 

J. D. Whitney, for pond in Harvard . 

W. H. Walker, for pond in East Brookfield 

E. S. Merrill, for pond in Winchendon . 

W. B. Bigelow, for pond in Natick 

G. L. Estey, for pond in Milton 

Henry Hobbs, for pond in Wenham 

Fred. W. Clapp, for pond in Framingham 





6,000 




10,000 




4,000 




3,000 




6,000 




. 10,000 




. 8,000 



12 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Oct. 



Charles T. Jenkins, for pond in Lynnfield 

W. R. Adams, for pond in Ashburnham 

A. Jewett, for pond in Hubbardston 

W. H. Walker, for pond in East Brookfield 

Daniel Wetherbee, for pond in Acton 

O. Stowell. for pond in Wakefield . 

S. H. Sylvester, for pond in Middleborough 

A. L. Hubbel, for pond in Great Barrington 

W. E. Gavit, for pond in Stockbridge . 

AV. H. King, for pond in Meudon . 

J. H. Curtis, for jwnd in West Sci.tuate . 

A. E. Maynard, for pond in Paxton 

Reuben Noble, for pond in Westfield 

G. H. Weld, for pond in Rochester 

G. O. Brigham, for pond in Westborough 

D. W. Bartlett, for pond in Essex . 

H. C. Ewing, for pond in Holyoke 

R. E. Foster, for pond in Milford . 

T. H. Lawrence, for pond in Falmouth . 

T. H. Tindel, for pond in Marshpee 

H. E. Priest, for pond in Waltham 



8,000 

20,000 

10,000 

8,000 

9,000 

3,000 

20,000 

6,000 

20,000 

3,000 

3,000 

6,000 

20,000 

4,000 

4,000 

10,000 

6,000 

3,000 

3,000 

6,000 

2,000- 



The returns from most of those who received these fish 
are sufficiently encouraging to warrant a further distribution 
of them on the following conditions : — 

All parties ordering land-locked salmon must make appli- 
cation in writing, giving a careful description of the pond in 
which they desire to place them. 

The plan is to furnish them at the State hatching-house in 
Winchester, free of charge, to all applicants having under 
their control any of the great ponds of the State. For trans- 
portation, parties should bring with them good clean half- 
barrels or milk-cans, holding ten or twelve gallons, a ther- 
mometer, and a dipper for aerating the water. The half-bar- 
rels will c'arry from 4,000 to 5,000, and the milk-cans about 
3,000. 

The introduction of these fish into ponds having neither 
inlet nor outlet will for the present be discontinued. 

There will probably be about 200,000 for distribution next 
spring. No orders will be received after the 20th of April. 

None of the spawn of the California salmon, although 
freely offered by the United States Commissioner to the 
States, has been accepted by any of the New England Com- 
missioners this year. 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 13 

There seems to have been a general feeling, without pre- 
concerted action, that it was best not to incur any further 
expense in trying to introduce them in our waters until 
something more was known about them. The oft-repeated 
assertion that these fish all die after spawning has been 
pretty thoroughly exploded.^ But although rapid in their 
growth, and apparently very healthy, they have, from some 
unknown cause, failed to report themselves. Of the hun- 
dreds of thousands that have been put into our rivers, not 
one adult fish has been seen or taken, and, so far as we know, 
not a single smolt has been caught in any of our streams. It 
is to be hoped that the cause of this apparent failure will be 
discovered, and that the energetic and praise worth}^ efforts of 
the United States Commissioner to introduce them into East- 
ern waters will yet be successful. 

There was an increased run of salmon in the Merrimack 
the past season over that of the preceding one.- They came 
in schools during the month of June ; but very few made 
their appearance after that month. During the greater part 
of June there was scarcely a day that they were not seen 
either in the fishway or around the mouth of it. 

Another noticeable fact was that some of the fish were 
unusually large for this river : one which passed the nets at 
Plymouth during a heavy rise of water was killed in attempt- 
ing to scale Livermore Falls. It weighed over 23 pounds. 
Doubtless it was of the first year's plant. 

The season has been an unfortunate one for securing these 
fish for breeding purposes. Either the water would be so 
high that the nets could not be maintained, or so low that 
the salmon were deterred from making any effort to reach 
their breeding-grounds. A few hours' rain in the mountains 
will raise the river at Plymouth very rapidly from four to six 
feet. During the low stage of water many salmon could be 
seen in deep pools below Plymouth. At New Hampton, late 
in the season, no less than eight large ones were seen in one 

1 Notwithstanding the very able and exhaustive article by B. B. Redding, 
Commissioner of California, and the testimony of some forty or fifty fisher- 
men before the Legislature of California, all adverse to his statement, Mr. 
Stone still clings to the idea that the salmon of the McCloud River die after 
spawning. 

2 See report of the Lawrence fishway, above. In 1877, 47 salmon were 
noted in this pass ; in 1878, 17 ; and in 1879, 29. 



14 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

pool. The drought has been severe this fall, and it is prob- 
able that many salmon have spawned in the rapids below 
Livermore Falls, instead of going above, as they otherwise 
would have done. The unfortunate error of closing the fish- 
way at Manchester, at a time when there were many fish 
below, will, we trust, not be repeated. 

The exact number of young salmon deposited alive in the 
river in 1875 is not known. They were intrusted to the care 
of Mr. Wadleigh, then Commissioner for New Hampshire, 
whose inexperience caused considerable loss; and in one 
instance the fish were disposed of in a direction not contem- 
plated by the Commissioners of this State. These things 
have had their effect in lessening the number of adult fish 
taken at the hatching-house. The planting of 1876, under 
the care of John McNeil, was by far the largest and probably 
the most successful effort that has been made in any one 
year toward re-stocking the river. The result of this plant- 
ing will be due the coming season. 

Undoubtedly some plan will be devised to lessen the num- 
ber of fish that escape the nets at high water ; but it is not 
likely that the entire run of salmon could be stopped at 
the hatching-house without going to a considerable expense. 
But it is only while the run is comparatively small that this 
evil will be felt. 

A good many salmon have been taken along the coast in 
pounds, weirs, and gill-nets. One man near Newburyport 
took twelve, and many were taken near New Bedford, and 
sold in that market. Yet, of all the statements received from 
the fishermen giving the number of edible fish taken by them, 
only two report any salmon. 

There were many parrs and smolts found in the Pemige- 
wassett the past summer, which must have come from spawn 
naturally deposited by the salmon that reached the head- 
waters during the last two years. 

Below will be found the report of Mr. A. H. Powers, Com- 
missioner of New Hampshire, and superintendent of the 
hatching-house, in the joint interest of the two States. 

To E. A. Brackett, Commissioner of Inland Fisheries for the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts. 
The 367,500 California salmon mentioned in my report one year ago 
were distributed in the month of January as follows: 25,000 were put in 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 15 

the Contoocook River, 28,000 in the Salmon Falls River, and the remain- 
der in the Pemigewasset. At any time till the last of August these sal- 
mon (parrs) could be seen in large numbers, anywhere in the river near 
the hatching-house, from three to five inches long, very lively, and appar- 
ently healthy. 

Some improvements have been made in the storage-pond in the way 
of excavations, making it larger and certain parts of it deeper. 

A tank, seven by twenty feet, has also been placed at the inlet of the 
four-inch flow-pipe, covered on the bottom with gravel six inches deep, 
for the double purpose of receiving the salmon when first taken from the 
river, and attracting them there when ready to spawn. It worked admir- 
ably for both purposes. The river-water constantly running into this 
tank kept the temperature very nearly the same as that of the river, so the 
fish were allowed to rest before being placed in the cold pond-water; and 
during the night they could, if they chose, go back and forth from the 
river-water to the pond-w^ater, and thus the sudden change of tempera- 
ture was avoided. This, with the improvement in carrying them from 
the pound to the pond, has prevented the growth of fungus, and they 
have been perfectly healthy at all times. 

From our breeding trout, one hundred and sixty thousand eggs have 
been taken. 

Twenty- two Atlantic salmon have been taken this season, weighing 
from eight to twenty pounds each. The first was caught June 13, and the 
last Oct. 29. All were caught at night, or before 6.30 a.m. Thirteen were 
females, and from them we have secured over a hundred thousand eggs, 
at the following dates: Oct. 10, the spawn of one female was taken; Oct. 
24, two; Oct. 26, one; Oct. 29, two; and the remaining females were 
treated on the 1st of November. 

For over thirty years not a salmon passed up the Pemigewasset. 

This is the first time, in this country, at least, that any considerable 
quantity of eggs has been taken from mature salmon caught from a 
depleted river artificially re-stocked. The result cannot fail to be highly 
gratifying to those who have, or have had, the matter in charge; and has, 
to a certainty, demonstrated that the faith of the few, who argued that 
the rivers could be re-stocked to advantage, was well founded. Those 
who have believed it impossible must now be convinced that it is not 
only possible, but quite practicable. 

A. H. POWERS. 
Plymouth, N.H. 



That the California salmon, put into this river in 1878, 
survived the winter and summer up to the last of August, 
making a much more rapid growth than the Atlantic salmon, 
is certain; but whether they will be found next summer as 
smolts, or whether their sudden departure last summer was 
final, remains to be seen. Of the large number that have 
been turned into the Merrimack during the last five years, this 



16 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

is the only instance in which any trace of them has been 
detected so late in the season. 

The Bucksport establishment for taking Penobscot salmon 
spawn was re-opened this season ; and the money heretofore 
used to pay for the transportation and expenses of California 
salmon was used to secure spawn from this place. 

The hundred thousand eggs taken at Plymouth, with what 
may be obtained from Bucksport, together with the natural 
deposit in the river, will make a fair planting for the coming 
season. 

The State of New Hampshire has passed a law extending 
the time for taking salmon to 1882, in order to carry out 
what has been so successfully begun : a similar law should 
be passed by Massachusetts. 

The extent to which fish-culture is being carried, not only 
in this country, but all over the civilized world, is having 
its effect upon the more intelligent class, and the popular 
element is no longer arrayed against it. The mill-owners, 
who above all others were supposed to have the best reason 
for opposing it, have in this State borne themselves in most 
instances with commendable good taste, and in some instances 
with great liberality. The most serious opposition, and the 
most difficult to control, comes from the fishermen. Impa- 
tient of restraint, and seeing only the wants of to-day, all 
regulations for the protection of the whole are apt to be con- 
strued into an attack upon their individual rights.^ Yet no 
class of men are more likely to be benefited by the effort 
now being made to stock our inland waters with migratory 
fish, than the fishermen along our coast. Upon this, more 
than any thing else, depends their success. If these men 
would form associations for discussing and obtaining informa- 
tion in regard to the movements and habits of fish, thereby 
acquiring a knowledge beyond the mere skill in catching 
them, a very different state of feeling would soon grow up 
among them. The day has gone by when it could be, " every 
fisherman for himself, and the Devil take the hindmost." 

The tendency of the age is for combinations for mutual 



1 During the past season, Mr. Jonathan Morrill of Amesbury was arrested 
for illegal fishing. Mr. Morrill is, we regret to say, an old offender, setting a 
bad example to his brother fishermen. The court promptly fined him, and 
confiscated his boat and seine. 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 17 

improvement and protection. There is scarcely a department 
of industry that has not a union for that purpose ; and, when 
backed by intelligent action, such associations are of the 
greatest importance, giving to each department a force that 
it otherwise could not have. There is every reason why the 
fisherman, like the farmer, should understand every thing 
pertaining to his business. The farmer who simply knew 
how to gather his crops would in all probability find them 
growing uncomfortably less. To be successful, he must 
know the nature of the crops, the kind of soil best adapted 
to them, and the time and manner of planting and cultivat- 
ing. Even then, if his fences are down, and man and beast 
are allowed promiscuously to take of the products of his 
intelligence and labor, he would find little encouragement 
for continuing his work. Not only must his fences be kept 
up, but the State must protect him from depredations. 

The intelligent fisherman, who wisely looks after his busi- 
ness, will see much in common with the farmer. He will 
readily see that it is important for him to understand the 
nature and habits of fish, their times of spawning, and the 
best way of increasing their numbers, and to insist upon 
wise legislation for their protection. 

No department of industry can be made to develop its best 
results without the exercise of that intelligence which readily 
takes advantage of all the elements which lead to success. 

THEODORE LYMAN, 
E. A. BRACKETT, 
ASA FRENCH, 
Commissioners on Inland Fisheries, 



18 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 79. 



EXPENDITURES OF THE COMMISSION. 



Salary $1,500 00 

Travelling expenses 152 99 



$1,652 99 



Contingent Expenses. 

Subscription to fund of Schoodic salmon-breed- 
ing establishment $500 00 

Robert R. Holmes, services . . . $172 00 
Travelling and other expenses . . 57 20 

229 20 

Subscription to Penobscot Salmon-breeding Co. . 300 00 

A. H. Powers, supt. Plymouth hatchery, services, 300 00 

James U. Hunt, services and expenses . . . 82 05 

H. C. Johnson, services 51 00 

Printing 56 28 

Repairs to hatching-house 91 00 

Rent of land 50 00 

One-half rent of house and land at Plymouth . 50 00 

Sundry labor 107 75 

Clerical services 18 25 

Expressage 37 95 

Fishing-privilege, Merrimack River . . . 30 00 

Sign and painting . . . . . . 15 60 

Fish-pails, rubber boots, &c. .... 10 50 

Lumber 32 31 



Sl,961 89 
S3,614 88 



APPENDIX, 



[A.] 
COMMISSIONERS ON FISHERIES. 



UNITED STATES. 

Professor Spencer F. Baird .... Washington, D.C. 

ALABAMA. 

Charles S. G. Doster Prattville. 

CALIFORNIA. 

S. R. Throckmorton San Francisco. 

B. B. Redding San Francisco. 

J. D. Farwell Alameda. 

COLORADO. 

W. E. SiSTEY Brookvale. 

CONNECTICUT. 

W. M. Hudson Hartford. 

Robert G. Pike Middletown. 

James A. Bill Lyme. 

GEORGIA. 

Thomas P. Janes (commissioner of agi-iculture ) . ,, , 
and ex-officio commissioner of fisheries) . . > 

ILLINOIS. 

N. K. Fairbank Chicago. 

S. P. Bartlett Quincy. 

J. Smith Briggs Kankakee. 

IOWA. 

B. F. Shaw Anamosa. 

KANSAS. 

D. B. Long EUsworth. 



22 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Oct. 



KENTUCKY. 



William Griffith, pres. 
John B. Walker . 
Hon. C. J. Walton 
Hon. John A. Steele 
Hon. J. H. Bruce . 
P. H. Darby . 
Dr. S. W. Coombs . 
Hon. James B. Casey 
Gen. T. T. Garrard 
Hon. W. C. Allen 



166 West Main Street . 



Louisville. 

Madisonville. 

Munfordsville. 

Versailles. 

Lancaster. 

Princeton. 

Bowling Green. 

Covington. 

Manchester. 

Owingsville. 



MAINE. 

E. M. Stilwell Bangor. 

Everett Smith Portland. 

MARYLAND. 

T. B. Ferguson Baltimore. 

Thomas Hughlett Easton. 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

Theodore Lyman Brookline. 

E. A. Brackett Winchester. 

Asa French Boston. 

MICHIGAN. 

Eli R. Miller Richland. 

A. J. Kellogg Detroit. 

Dr. J. C. Parker Grand Rapids 

MINNESOTA. 

First District, Daniel Cameron . . . .La Crescent. 

Second District, William W. Sweney, M.D. . Red Wing. 

Third District, R. Omsby Sweney, chairman . St. Paul. 



MISSOURI. 

L G. W. Steedm AN, chairman, No. 2,803 Pine St., St. Louis. 

John Reid Lexington. 

Silas Woodson .St. Joseph. 

NEVADA. 

H. G. Parker Carson City. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

Samuel Weber Manchester. 

Luther Hayes South Milton. 

Albina H. Powers Plymouth. 



1879.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



23 



Dr. B. P. Howell . 

Col. E. J. AXDERSON 

Theodore Morford 



NEW JERSEY. 



Woodbury. 

Trenton. 

Newton. 



NEW YORK. 

R. Barnwell Roosevelt, 76 Chambers Street 

Edward M. Smith 

Richard U. Sherman 

Eugene G. Blackford, 809 Bedford Avenue 

north CAROLINA. 

L. L. Polk (commissioner of agriculture) 
S. W. Worth (superintendent of fisheries) . 



NEBRASKA. 



RoBT. R. Livingston 
H. S. Kaley . 
W. L. May . 



New York. 
Rochester. 
New Hartford. 
Brooklyn. 



Raleigh. 
Morgantown. 



Plattsmouth. 
Red Cloud. 
Fremont. 



OHIO. 

J. C. Fisher, president Coshocton. 

R. CuMMiNGS, treasurer Toledo. 

L. A. Harris, secretary Cincinnati. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

H. J. Reeder Easton. 

Benjamin L. Hewit Hollidaysburg. 

James Duffy Marietta. 

John Hummel Selinsgrove. 

Robert Dalzel Pittsburg. 

G. M. Miller Wilkesbarre. 

RHODE ISLAND. 

Alfred A. Reed Providence. 

John H. Barden Rockland. 

Newton Dexter Providence. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

A. p. Butler Hamburg. 

TENNESSEE. 

W. W. McDowell Memphis. 

George F. Akers Nashville. 

W. T. Turley Knoxville. 



UTAH. 



A. P. RocKwooD (absent; information from Prof. ? o i^ t t, rt'± 
J. L. Barfoot, curator Desert Museum) . . > 



24 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

VERMONT. 

M. Goldsmith Rutland. 

Charles Barrett . . . . . . Grafton. 

VIRGINIA. 

Col. Marshall McDonald Lexington. 

WEST VIRGINIA. 

Henry B. Miller Wheeling. 

Christian S. White Romney. 

N. M. LowRY . Hinton. 

WISCONSIN. 

Gov. William E. Smith, ex-officio ,' . . Madison. 

Philo Dunning, president Madison. 

J. V. Jones Oshkosh. 

C. Valentine, secretary and treasurer . . . Janesville. 

Mark Douglas Melrose. 

John F. Antisdel Milwaukee. 

Christopher Hutchison Beetown. 

H. W. Welsher, superintendent .... Madison. 

dominion of CANADA. 

W. F. Whitcher Ottawa. 



1879.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



25 



[B.] 
LISTS OF PONDS LEASED 

By the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries^ under Authority given 
by Chap. 384, Sect. 9, of the Acts of 1869.^ 



1870. 

Feb. 1. 
Mar. 1. 
April 1. 
Sept. 12. 
Oct. 15. 

1871. 

Jan. 10. 

30. 

April — . 

17. 

May 15. 
18. 

Nov. 1. 

1873. 

Jan. 1. 
July 20. 

1873. 

May 1. 



Waushakum Pond, in Framingham, to Sturtevant and others, 

20 years. 
Tisbury Great Pond, in Tisbury and Chilmark, to Allen Look 

and others, 10 years. 
Mendon Pond, in Mendon, to Leonard T. Wilson and another 

20 years. 
Baptist Lake, in Newton, to J. F. C. Hyde and others, 20 

years. 
Archer's Pond, in Wrentham, to William E. George, 15 years. 

Nine Mile Pond, in Wilbraham, to B. F. Bowles, 10 years. 
Little Pond, in Falmouth, to F. H. Dimmick, 10 years. 
Spectacle, Triangle, and Peters Ponds, in Sandwich, to G. L. 

Fessenden and another, 5 years. 
Long Pond, in Falmouth, to Joshua S. Bowerman and 3 

others, 20 years. 
Pratt's Pond, in Upton, to D. W. Batcheller, 20 years. 
Little Sandy Pond, in Plymouth, to William E. Perkins, 15 

years. 
Punkapoag Pond, in Randolph and Canton, to Henry L. 

Pierce, 20 years. 

Sandy Pond, Forest Lake, or Flint's Pond, in Lincoln, to 

James L. Chapin and others, 20 years. 
Little Pond, in Braintree, to Eben Denton and others, 20 

years. 

Meeting-house Pond, in Westminster, to inhabitants of West- 
minster, 15 years. 



1 We would remind lessees of ponds that they are required, by their leases, to use all 
reasonable efforts to stock their ponds, and keep accurate records of the same, and make 
returns of their doings to the Commissioners on the 1st of October, each year, of the num- 
ber and species of fish which they have put in or removed from their ponds. Any failure to 
comply with these conditions is a breach of contract invalidating their lease. It is important 
that the State should iinow just what is being done; and, where there appears to be mis- 
management or apparent failure, the Commissioners will visit the ponds, and ascertain, if 
possible, the cause. 



26 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

1873. 

May 1. Great Pond, in Weymouth, to James L. Bates and others, 15 

years. 
July 1. Little Sandy Pond, in Pembroke, to A. C. Brigham and others, 

16 years. 
Sept. 1. Pontoosuc Lake, in Pittsfield and Lanesborough, to E. H. 

Kellogg and others, 15 years. 
Oct. 1. Farm Pond, in Sherborn, to inhabitants of Sherborn, 15 

years. 

1. Spot Pond, in Stonehara, to inhabitants of Stoneham, 15 

years. 
Nov. 1. Lake Chaubunagungamong, or Big Pond, in Webster, to 

inhabitants of Webster, 5 years. 
Dec. 1. Lake Wauban, in Needham, to Hollis Hunnewell, 20 years. 

1874. 

Mar. 1. Walden and White Ponds, in Concord, to inhabitants of Con- 
cord, 15 years. 

2. Upper Xankeag, in Ashburnham, to inhabitants of Ashburn- 

ham, 20 years. 
April 1. Elder's Pond, in Lakeville, to inhabitants of Lakeville, 15 
years. 
20. North and South Podunk Ponds, in Brookfield, to inhabitants 
of Brookfield, 15 years. 
May 1. Maquan Pond, in Hanson, to the inhabitants of Hanson, 15 
years. 
2. Brown's Pond, in Peabody, to John L. Shorey, 15 years. 
16. Wickaboag Pond, in West Brookfield, to Lemuel FuUam, 15 

years. 
20. Unchechewalom and Massapog Ponds, to the inhabitants of 
Lunenburg, 20 years. 
July 1. Hardy's Pond, in Waltham, to H. E. Priest and others, 15 
years. 
1. Hockomocko Pond, in Westborough, to L. N. Fairbanks and 

others, 15 years. 
11. Mitchell's Pond, in Boxford, to R. M. Cross and others, 15 

years. 
11. Hazzard's Pond, in Russell, to N. D. Parks and others, 20 
years. 
Oct. 1. East Waushacum Pond, in Sterling, to inhabitants of Sterling, 
20 years. 
20. Middleton Pond, in Middleton, to inhabitants of Middleton, 
15 years. 

1875. 

Jan. 1. White and Goose Ponds, in Chatham, to George W. Davis, 

15 years. 
Mar. 1. Lake Pleasant, in Montague, to inhabitants of Montague, 10 

years. 
Mar. 1. Hood's Pond, in Ipswich and Topsfield, to inhabitants of 

Topsfield, 15 years. 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 27 

1875. 

April 1. Chauncey Pond, in Westborough, to inhabitants of West- 
borough, 15 years. 
3. West's Pond, in Bolton, to J. D. Hurlburt and others, 15 
years. 
15. Gates Pond, in Berlin, to E. H. Hartshorn and others, 15 

years. 
24. Pleasant Pond, in Wenham, to inhabitants of Wenham, 15 
years. 
May 1. Morse's Pond, in Needham, to Edmund M. Wood, 15 years. 
1. Great Pond, in North Andover, to Eben Sutton and others, 

20 years. 
1. Chilmark Pond, in Chilmark, to J. Nickerson and others, 
agents, 20 years. 
July 1. Winter Pond and Wedge Pond, in Winchester, to inhabitants 
of Winchester, 15 years. 
1. Haggett's Pond, in Andover, to inhabitants of Andover, 20 
years. 
Aug. 1. Oyster Pond, in Edgartown, to J. H. Smith and others, 20 
years. 
7. West Waushacum Pond, in Sterling, to inhabitants of Ster- 
ling, 20 years. 
9. Mystic (Upper) Pond, in Winchester, Medford, and Arling- 
ton, to inhabitants of Winchester and Medford, 15 years. 
Oct. 1. Little Chauncey and Solomon Ponds, in Northborough, to in- 
habitants of Northborough, 15 years. 
1876. 

Feb. 1. Great Sandy Bottom Pond, in Pembroke, to Israel Thrasher 

and others, 15 years. 
Mar. 1. Dennis Pond, in Yarmouth, to inhabitants of Yarmouth, 15 
years. 
1. Crystal Lake, in Wakefield, to Lyman H. Tasker and others, 

15 years. 
20. Lower Naumkeag Pond, in Ashburnham, to inhabitants of 

Ashburnham, 18 years. 
28. Dennison Lake, in Winchendon, to inhabitants of Winchen- 

don, 15 years. 
28. Phillipston Pond, in Phillipston, to inhabitants of Phillipston, 
20 years. 
May 8. South-west Pond, in Athol, to Adin H. Smith and others, 15 

years. 
June 1. Norwich Pond, in Huntington, to inhabitants of Huntington, 
20 years. 
10. Dug Pond, in Natick, to W. P. Bigelow and others, 15 years. 
Oct. 1. Farm and Learned's Pond, in Framingham, to inhabitants of 
Framingham, 15 years. 
1. Whitney's Pond, Wrentham, to inhabitants of Wrentham, 15 

years. 
1. Little Pond, in Barnstable, to George H. Davis, 15 years. 



28 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

1877. 

Mar. 1. Mne Mile Pond, in Wilbraham, to inhabitants of Wilbraham, 
15 years. 
15. Pentucket and Rock Ponds, in Georgetown, to inhabitants of 
Georgetown, 15 years. 
Aug. 10. Onota Lake, in Pittsfield, to William H. Murray and others, 

15 years. 
Oct. 1. Fort, Great Spectacle, and Little Spectacle Ponds, in Lancas- 
ter, to inhabitants of Lancaster, 20 years. 
1. Battacook Pond, in Groton, to George S. Graves and others, 
15 years. 
Nov. 1. Tispaquin Pond, in Middleborough, to Abishai Miller, 15 
years. 
1. Asnebumskitt Pond, in Paxton, to Ledyard Bill and others, 
15 years. 

1878. 

Jan. 1. Sniptuit, Long, Snow, and Mary's Ponds, in Rochester, to 

inhabitants of Rochester, 15 years. 
Mar. 16. Asnaconcomic Pond, in Hubbardston, to Amory Jewett, jun., 

15 years. 
April 1. Dorrity Pond, in Millbuiy, to inhabitants of Millbury, 10 

years. 
May 1. Spectacle, Peters, and Triangle Ponds, in Sandwich, to George 
L. Fessenden, 10 years. 
1. Bear Hill Pond and Hall Pond, in Hai'vard, to inhabitants of 
Harvard, 15 years. 
July 1. Lake Buell, in Monterey and New Marlborough, to Andrew 

L. Hubbell and others, 5 years. 
Oct. 1. Eel Pond, in Melrose, to J. A. Barrett and others, 15 years. 

1. Accord Pond in Hingham, South Scituate, and Rockland, to 

inhabitants of those towns, 10 years. 
1. Wright's and Ashley's Ponds, in Holyoke, to Henry C. Ewing 

and others, 10 years. 
1. Magog Pond, in Acton and Middleton, to inhabitants of 
Acton, 15 years. 
Halfway Pond, in Phnnouth, taken by Commissioners for 5 
years from March 1, 1878, in accordance with provisions of 
chap. 62 of the Acts of 1876. 

1879. 

Feb. 1. Lake Mahkunac and Lake Overic, in Stockbridge, to inhabit- 
ants of Stockbridge, 10 years. 

June 1. "Bald Pate," "Four Mile," and " Stiles " Ponds, in Box- 
ford, to inhabitants of Boxford, 10 years. 

July 1. Silver Lake, in Wilmington, to inhabitants of Wilmington, 10 
years. 
1. Fresh Pond, in Falmouth, to Thomas H. Lawrence, 20 years. 

Oct. 1. Pomp's Pond, in Andover, to inhabitants of Andover, 15 
years. 

Nov. 1. Lake Quinapowitt, in Wakefield, to inhabitants of Wake- 
field, 14 years. 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 29 



[C] 
LEGISLATION. — 1876. 

[Omitted in former Report.] 

[Chap. 208.] 

An Act to regulate the Fisheries in Taunton Great River 
AND Nemasket River. 

Be it enacted, Sfc, as follows : 

Section 1. No shad or ale wives shall be taken in any part of Taun- 
ton Great River or Nemasket River, between the hours of twelve o'clock 
in the night following Thursday of each week, and four o'clock on Mon- 
day morning succeeding, from the first day of March to the tenth day of 
June of each year, including both of said days. 

Section five of chapter four hundred and one of the acts of the year 
eighteen hundred and fifty-five, and chapter two hundred and fifty-eight 
of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and seventy-one, are hereby 
repealed. 

Sect. 2. Not more than one seine shall be cast, set, swept, or used 
on said rivers, within the same limits or over the same ground and at the 
same fishing place or location, nor shall any seine be cast, set, swept, or 
used within forty rods of any other seine. Any person violating this sec- 
tion shall pay a fine of not less than fifty nor more than two hundred 
dollars ; and whoever violates the provisions of the first section shall be 
liable to the penalties and forfeitures provided in said chapter four hun- 
dred and one of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and fifty-five. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect on the first day of July next. 
[Approved April 28, 1876, 



1879. 

[Chap. 45.] 

An Act to establish an Alewife Fishery in Eastham. 

Be it enacted, Sfc, as follows: 

Section 1. The town of Eastham is hereby authorized to make the 
necessary improvements for the preservation and taking of alewives in 
the Great Pond, so called, in the town of Eastham and the waters con- 
nected therewith and the outlet therefrom to the sea, and may take land 



30 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

and do all acts necessary for the purpose of establishing, protecting, and 
regulating an alewife fishery in said waters. 

Sect. 2. The said town of Eastham shall be liable to pay all dam- 
ages that shall be sustained in any way by any persons in their property, 
in carrying into effect this act. If any person sustaining damage as 
aforesaid shall not agree with the selectmen of the town upon the 
amount of damage to be paid therefor, he may have his damage assessed 
and paid in the manner provided by law in respect to land taken for 
highways. 

Sect. 3. Any fishery so created shall be deemed to be the property 
of said town of Eastham ; and said town may make any proper regula- 
tions concerning the same, and may lease such fishery for a period not 
exceeding five years, upon such terms as may be agreed upon between 
said town and the lessees of the same. 

Sect. 4. No persons without the permission of said town or of the 
lessees of said fishery shall take, kill, or haul on shore, any alewives in 
the fishery so created by the town. 

Sect. 5. Whoever violates any of the provisions of this act or any 
of the regulations of the town regarding said fishery shall forfeit and 
pay a sum not less than five nor more than fifty dollars for each offence, 
to be recovered by prosecution before any court in the county of Barn- 
stable competent to try the same. Said forfeiture shall accrue to the 
benefit of the inhabitants of the town. 

Sect. 6. All prosecutions under the preceding section shall be insti- 
tuted within thirty days from the time the offence was committed. 

Sect. 7. This act shall take effect upon its passage. ^Approved Feb- 
ruary/ 21, 1879. 

[Chap. 65.] 

An Act to amend Chapter Forty of the Acts of the Year 
Eighteen Hundred and Three, relative to the Privilege 
of taking Certain Fish in Mystic River in Medford. 

Be it enacted, ^c, as follows: 

Section 1. Section three of chapter forty of the acts of the year 
eighteen hundred and three is hereby amended by striking out the word 
''freeholders" in the third line of said section, and inserting in place 
thereof the word " inhabitants." 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. \_Approved Feb- 
ruary 27, 1879. 

[Chap. 83.] 

An Act for the Better Protection of the Shad and Alewife 
Fishery in Taunton Great River. 

Be it enacted, ^c, as follows: 

Any person who shall wilfully drive or stick any stake in or upon any 
fishing ground or privilege duly located in Taunton Great River, or who 
shall, by throwing into the waters thereof any substance or thing, or in 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 31 

any other manner, prevent, obstruct, or impede any purchaser or pur- 
chasers of such ground or privilege or their agents from seining or fish- 
ing thereon at such time and manner as provided by law, shall for each 
offence be punished by a fine not exceeding ten dollars. {^Approved Feb- 
ruary 28, 1879. 



[Chap. 110.] 

An Act regulating the Taking of Perch in the Town of 

Plymouth. 

Be it enacted, Sfc, afi follows: 

Section 1. Whoever takes or catches any white or red perch, except 
with naturally or artificially baited hooks and lines, in any of the ponds 
or streams within the limits of the tow^i of Plymouth, shall for each 
offence forfeit not less than two nor more than twenty dollars. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [^Approved 
March 12, 1879. 



[Chap. 119.] 

An Act for the Protection of the Fisheries of INIill River and 
ITS Tributaries in the Town of Essex. 

Be it enacted, ^'c, as follows: 

Section 1. The owners and proprietors of dams on IVIill River or 
Brook, in the town of Essex, are hereby required to erect and maintain 
fishways over or around said dams, and they shall be subject to all the 
powers given to the commissioners on inland fisheries under the laws of 
the Commonwealth. 

Sect. 2. No person shall take, catch, or cause to be taken or caught 
by any means whatsoever, in said river or its tributaries, or the ponds 
and connecting streams out of which said river and tributaries flow, any 
of the fish called alewives or shad, nor any land-locked salmon in said 
ponds and connecting streams, until the first day of May in the year 
eighteen hundred and eighty-four. 

Sect. 3. The inhabitants of the town of Essex may make all proper 
regulations concerning said fisheries in said Mill River and its tributa- 
ries, within said town of Essex, provided they do not conflict with the 
general laws relating to inland fisheries. 

Sect. 4. Any person oifending against any of the provisions of this 
act shall forfeit for each offence a sum not less than five nor more than 
thirty dollars, and shall be subject to all further penalties in such cases, 
as is by law made and provided. [^Approved March 13, 1879. 



82 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

[Chap. 127.] 

An Act to amend Chapter Eighty-two of the Acts of the 
Year Eighteen Hundred and Seventy-four, " to protect the 
Eights of Owners of Ponds." 

Be it enacted y §'c., as follows : 

Section one of chapter eighty-two of the acts of the year eighteen 
hundred and seventy-four is hereby amended by striking out the words 
" or artificial" in the second line of said section, and by inserting after 
the word " acres " in the fourth line, the words " or of any artificial pond 
of any size, in which fishes are lawfully cultivated or maintained." [^Ap- 
proved March 21, 1879. 



[Chap. 137.] 

An Act for the Better Protection of the Fishery of the 
Nine Mile Pond Fishing Company. 

Be it enacted^ 8fc. , as follows : 

Section 1. Whoever takes or catches any alewives in Centre villa 
River, so called, in the town of Barnstable, between that part of said 
river where the mouth of the canal of the Nine Mile Pond» Fishing Com- 
pany opens into the same, and a point fifteen rods above said mouth, 
shall forfeit and pay a fine of not less than five nor more than fifty dol- 
lars for each offence. 

Sect. 2. Nothing herein contained shall be construed to authorize the 
taking of alewives by any person between said mouth of said canal and 
tide-water. 

Sect. 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Approved 
March 21, 1879. 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 33 



[D.] 

LETTER FROM WALTER M. BRACKETT, ON THE 
CANADLIN SEA-TROUT. 

Boston, Nov. 26, 1879. 
Hox. Theodore Lyman. 

Dear Sir, — During my summer visits to Canada, where T have had 
ample opportunity of becoming thoroughly acquainted with the hal^its of 
the " sea-trout," it has often occurred to me that their introduction into 
our rivers would prove a valuable acquisition to our present limited sup- 
ply of salmonidse. 

The commission have done so much good work, and have been so suc- 
cessful in their labors, that I have no doubt but that, with a little trouljle 
and a small expenditure of money, this valuable fish could be success- 
fully introduced into our rivers. 

Although it is still (in the minds of many) a mooted question as to 
whether they are, or are not, a distinct species of Salmo, yet I have no 
doubt on the* subject. Their habits alone are, I think, conclusive evi- 
dence. They are clearly and distinctly a migratory fish, making their 
appearance at the mouths of the rivers as early as the 1st of June, and 
remaining but a short time, evidently in quest of food. About the 1st 
of July and up to the middle of August, they crowd up the rivers in 
myriads on the way to their spawning-grounds. They are a hardy fish, 
voracious feeders in both salt and fresh water; and as an article of diet 
unsurpassed by any other of the Salmo species. They abound in nearly 
all the salmon rivers of the Dominion of Canada, and far up on the Lab- 
rador coast, but are not usually found in the smaller streams. Like the 
Sabno salar, they invariably return to the rivers in which they are bred. 

I hope your commission will consider this proposition, and, if deemed 
expedient, take measures to accomplish the desired object, in which case 
I shall be most happy to give you all the aid and comfort in my power. 

Yours truly, 

WALTER M. BRACKETT. 



34 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. '79. 



[E.] 
RETURNS OF WEIRS, SEINES, AND GILL-NETS. 

The following tables show the returns of 53 weirs, 31 sea-seines, 100 
gill-nets; 7 Connecticut River seines; 8 in the Merrimack and 3 at its 
mouth, and 9 in the Taunton; also 22 fresh- water fisheries by seine or 
gill-net: of the last, and of those in the Merrimack, several of the more 
important have failed to make their returns. 

On the whole the year has been a bad one from the great falling-off in 
menhaden and bluefish, as well as of alewives: sea-herring on the con- 
trary, with the less important tautog and flat-fish, have been very abun- 
dant. 



TABLES. 



36 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



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PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



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1879.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



39 



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40 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



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1879.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



41 



320 
27,401 

1,350 
52,500 


1 


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G15 

25,188 

12,500 

1,875 

1,500 


t^ 

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s 


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3,952 

25,000 


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2,412 
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co" 


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P. Kirby 

James R. Lawton 
P. G. Potter . 
P. S. Tripp . 
S. J. Tripp . 
Horace B. Cash . 
Robert K. Dunham . 
David H. Eldredge 
John Hamblin 
G. Phinney . 
J. H. Smith . 
S. G. Vincent 
Allen Look . 
B Waite & C. H. Pattee 
Freeman Hancock 
W. S. Hadaway . 
Total. 


* 
outh, 




Westport 
tt 

tt 

Nantucket 
tt 
tt 

It 

Edgartown 
tt 

West Tisburj 
South Dartm 
Chilmark 
Chilton ville 





42 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Oct. 





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1879.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 43 



I I I t I I 



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O lOOrtHl-t-OOOOt-OOC^JO I ICO-* 

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44 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Oct. 



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1879.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



45 



I I I I I I I I I I I 



I I I I in I I I I I I 



B 3 

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I I I I 



1 1 1 1 1 


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o o 

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C3 CO .rt M 



46 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Oct. 



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1879.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



4T 



I I I I I I I t 



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ajd&H"p^<ii-5Mt-^c6pM^i-ii-ii-^h5i-^ 



^ 



48 INLAND FISHERIES. 

Table No. IV. — Connecticut River Seines. 



[Oct. 



TOWN. 


Name. 


a: 




Agawam 


A. Converse 


1,352 


- 


(( 


A. J. Hills 


596 


- 


South Hadley 


C. C. Smith 


6,296 


3 


Chicopee 


J. & H. W. Chapin .... 


1,224 


- 


West Springfield . 


George A. White . . . . 


1,372 


- 


Springfield .... 


J. 0. Leary 


69 


- 


" 


R. H. Parker 


2,500 


- 






13,409 


3 



Table No. V. — Merrimack River Seines. 



TOWN. 


Name. 


i 

.s 

CO 


1 


f 
< 


jA 


North Andover . 


W. H. Day . 




519 


13 


- 


- 


Bradford 


H. A. Nisbett 






187 


- 


- 


- 


Haverhill . 


C. E. Ordway 






318 


1 


- 


- 


Newbury 


A. E. Larkin . 






- 


- 


7,000 


- 


n 


W. H. Morrison 






- 


- 


8,350 


- 


n 


A. C. Nelson . 






- 


10 


21,542 


379 


« 


I. P. Newton . 






- 


- 


1,405 


- 


Amesbury . 


Jon. Morrill . 






1,757 


1 


- 


- 






2,781 


25 


38,297 


379 



1879.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 

Table No. VI. — Taunton River Seines. 



49 



TOWN. 


Name. 


1 


> 

1 

< 


P3 
-a 

GO 


Bridgewater 
Berkley 
Dighton 
(( 

(( 
Middleborough 
Raynham . 

Taunton 




S. Leonard , 
Nichols & Shove 
N. Chase and others 
E. Hathaway . , 
C. N. Simmons . 
G. Brayton . 
W. A. Rohinson 
G. B. Williams . 
J. W. Hart 
Total 






500 
299 
450 
640 

~ 
635 

203 

282 


2,925 

155,000 

4,550 

85,100 

120,000 

81,213 

64,511 

72,184 

65,900 


125 






3,009 


651,383 


125 



Table No. VII. — Other Fresh-Water Seines, or Dip-Net 

Fisheries. 











i 


TOWN. 


Namb. 




> 


I 

'is 


Weymouth . 


Weymouth Iron Company 


- 


145,600 


- 


Kingston 


Cobb & Drew .... 


- 


24,272 


- 


Sandwich 


H. G.O.Ellis . . . . 


- 


214,887 


- 


Rochester and Matta- 










poisett 


N. Hammond .... 


- 


306,913 


- 


Barnstable . 


Nine Mile Pond Fish Co. 


- 


20,615 


- 


Brewster 


J. Wixon and J. Howland 


- 


22,800 


- 


Wellfleet 


N.C.Nicholson 


- 


29,581 


- 


Mashpee 


M. Amos 


-. 


30,000 


- 


. . . 


W. F. Hammond 


- 


11,038 


- 


(( 


W. R. Mingo .... 


- 


9,509 


- 


« 


G. T. Oakly .... 


- 


1,174 


- 


(< 


W, H. Simon .... 


•- 


850 


- 


Falmouth 


C.E. Winch . . . . 


- 


7,500 


- 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT. No. 25. 



FIFTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



COMMISSIONERS 



INLAISTD FISHEEIES, 



FOK THE YEAR ENDING 



SEPTEMBEE 30, 1880. 



BOSTON: 

laantJ, ^iiag, $c Co., printers to tje CcmmonenealtJ, 

117 Franklin Street. 
1881. 



\ 



CONTENTS. 



KEPORT . 
APPENDIX A. 

B. 

C. 

D. 

E. 



List of Commissioners 

List of Poxds leased . 

Legislation . 

Carp-Culture 

Returns of Weirs, Seines, and Gill-Nets, 



PAGE 

5 
27 
31 
36 
39 
69 



€ommontt)ettltl) of itto00acl)U0ett0. 



To His Excellency the Governor and the Honorable Council. 

The Commissioners on Inland Fisheries beg leave to pre- 
sent their Fifteenth Annual Report. 

Five years ago the Commissioners presented an epitome of 
the previous ten years' work. Since then a new undertak- 
ing — the collection of the statistics of our shore and river 
net-fisheries — has been added to their duties. The owners 
of about one thousand weirs, seines, gill-nets, &c., have made 
returns ; the average number for the last four years being 
about two hundred and forty annually. The falling-off in 
the number fi'om year to year rises, probably, not from a real 
decrease, but from the fact that many of the fishermen have 
given up the trade, and their successors have failed to apply 
for papers. A sufficient number of returns are now on hand to 
justify next year some statements of a general kind. Thirty- 
five ponds have been leased during the past five years, and 
one has been reserved by the State for experiments in fish- 
culture. In the same period there have been distributed of 
eggs or of young fish : Salmon, 339,000 ; California salmon, 
727,500 (these two placed chiefly in the Merrimack and 
its tributaries, in connection with New Hampshire) ; land- 
locked salmon, 988,763 in 131 localities; trout, 39,500 in 
11 localities ; carp, 900 in 40 localities. 

The building of fishways on our smaller streams has been 
encouraged, new ones have been put up, and antiquated 
forms replaced by improved models. Legislation has been 
watched, and the sessions of the Committee on Fisheries have 
been attended, on all important occasions, by one or more of 
the Commissioners. In this way trivial special legislation, 
to which our people are extremely addicted, has been les- 



6 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

senecl, and costly hearings and legislative litigation in large 
measure avoided. 

FiSHWAYS. 

At the request of the inhabitants of Lancaster and other 
towns, application was made to the Commissioners of New 
Hampshire for the construction of fishwaj^s over the two 
dams on the Nashua River in that State, with the under- 
standing that all the dams on the river should be provided 
with suitable passes. These two dams were the first on 
the river ; and, in urging the completion of this work, the 
Board was simply doing what has always been its custom 
— viz., to commence at the lower part of the river, and clear 
the track upward to the headwaters. There was a delay of 
three years after the notice had been given to the New 
Hampshire Commissioners before any thing was done. The 
following note will explain, in part, the cause of the 
delay : — 

Nashua, N.H., June 2, 1877. 
E. A. Brackett, Esq., Massaclmsetts Fish Commissioner. 

Dear Sir, — Your recent' visit here, together with previous visits and 
notifications from our Xew Hampshire Fish Commissioners, in relation to 
building a fishway at our dam on the Xashua River, prompts us to re- 
build our (Jam as early in the season of 1878 as circumstances will allow 
(which is earlier than actually necessary), at which time we shall be 
most happy to build a proper fishway ; provided the Commissioners will 
plan and direct the construction of same. 

Yours truly, 

W. D. CAD WELL, Agt. Jackson Co. 
(By TexMple.) 

The Fish Committee of Lancaster had, at their own ex- 
pense, transported large numbers of young salmon to the 
headwaters of the river ; and the expectation of their return 
led to persistent efforts on their part to have the fishways 
constructed as early as possible. These young fish were 
California salmon, hundreds of thousands of which, through 
the kindness of Professor Baird, have been distributed to the 
States, with a reasonable expectation that they would be- 
come acclimated and prove a valuable addition to our food 
fishes. Unfortunately, from some cause yet to be discovered, 
they have never returned ; and this fact, becoming apparent 
immediately after the completion of the fishway at Nashua, 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 7 

it was thought best not to push the completion of those 
above until some assurance could be given that they were 
needed. 

The Bucksport Salmon Works, from which the eggs were 
procured which resulted in the successful stocking of the 
Merrimack River, had been closed through the withdrawal of 
any active co-operation by the United States Commissioner 
in favor of the more easily obtained California salmon-spawn. 
This year they have been re-opened, and a good supply of 
young Atlantic salmon will be put into the Nashua River the 
coming spring ; and notice has been given to owners of dams 
at Groton and Pepperell that they will be required to put in 
fish ways next summer. 

Saugus River. 

The following letter announces the successful restocking 

of this river with alewives : — 

Wakefield, May 3, 1880. 
Mr. E. A. Brackett. 

Dear Sir, — I have the pleasure of informing you that the re-opening 
and stocking of the Saugus River is a success. Yesterday thousands of 
alewives were seen in the river in Wakefield above all the fishways, and 
no doubt they are in the pond before this. The first alewives were 
planted in the pond three years ago this month, and those seen yesterday 
are the first that have been in Wakefield of their own accord for about 
thirty years. 

Very respectfully, 

OSCAR STOWELL. 

Salmon in the Merrimack. 

There was a large run of salmon in the Merrimack this year; 
but owing to the early and unprecedented drought, and the 
reckless depredations committed by the fishermen on the 
lower part of the river, comparatively few of them reached 
their spawning-grounds. 

The salmon, kept back by the low water, congregated near 
North Andover and at the mouths of the brooks between 
there and Haverhill, and consequently became an easy prey 
to the poacher. 

These depreciations, which took place in the night, were 
not known until it was too late to remedy the evil. 

The number taken cannot be correctly ascertained ; but, 



8 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

making due allowance for exaggerated reports, it is evident 
that enough salmon were destroyed to have yielded some 
hundreds of thousands of spawn. 

The fish wardens at Lowell and Lawrence are men of char- 
acter, and have faithfully discharged their duties ; but many 
of the wardens below Lawrence are as useless as the fifth 
wheel to a coach. If they exercise any influence, it is in 
favor of the violation of law; and in some instances they 
are known to have directly aided in the destruction of the 
salmon. 

A more efficient system of protection, is demanded, not 
only in the interest of this State, but in justice to New 
Hampshire. 

Report of State Hatching-House at Plymouth, N.H. 

Plymouth, N.H., Nov. 15, 1880. 
To E. A. Brackett, Commissioner of Inland Fisheries for the Commonioealth of 
Massachusetts. 

The 100,000 eggs mentioned in my last report, obtained from the 
salmon taken at the hatching-house on the Pemigewasset River, were 
hatched with a loss of four and a quarter per cent; or, in other words, 
4,245 eggs failed to hatch. 

In December, 1879, 1 received 45,000 Atlantic salmon-eggs from Bucks- 
port, Me. These were hatched with a loss of 1,785. During the month 
of May the entire hatch of both lots (about 139,000) were put in the 
Pemigewasset River, from one to two miles above Livermore Falls. 
This year twenty-one salmon have been caught at the hatchery, varying 
in weight from seven to eighteen pounds. The nets were set May 26. 
The first salmon was caught June 10. By the 9th of July nineteen were 
captured. One of these injured herself in the pound, causing fungus to 
grow, from the effects of which she died on the 14th of July. After the 
9th of July no salmon came up the river till Oct. 2. If we can trust the 
memory of the oldest inhabitant, the water was lower than it had ever 
been before. 

A great many salmon were seen in the Merrimack during this dry spell. 
There was no considerable rise in the river till November; and undoubt- 
edly they chose to spawn below the hatching-house rather than to come 
up to their spawning-ground so late in the season. Two, however, 
reached me in October, — one the 2d, and the other the 27th. As usual, 
all were caught in the night. Nine were females; and from them we 
have secured 60,000 eggs as follows: — 

Oct. 23, from one fish 10,000 

24, from three fish 19,000 

26, from two fish 13,000 

31, from, two fish 12,000 

. Nov. 2, from one fish 6,000 

60,000 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 9 

This season a little over 200,000 eggs have been taken from our 
breeding- trout, and a few are not ripe yet. The first spawn were taken 
Sept. 25. 

Since my last report no money has been spent in improvements: but 
the people of Xew Hampshire are very anxious that the facilities for 
trout-breeding be increased, thinking that a little extra effort might place 
within the easy reach of all this rich and gamey fish, which will thrive in 
the small streams, and can be caught by those not specially skilful; and 
I recommend that six plank trout-ponds be built next spring as soon as 
the frost is out of the ground. 

The expense would not be large, and it would greatly assist in pro- 
ducing, as well as procuring, the spawn. 

Yours truly, 

A. IL POWERS. 

Report of t;he Superixtendent of the Lawrence Fishway. 

Lawrence, Mass.. Nov. 11, 1880. 
E. A. Brackett, Commissioner. 

Dear Sir, — I send you to-day my report of fish seen in the Lawrence 
fishway this year. Think it contains about every thing of any importance. 
There were more fish in the fishway (with perhaps the exception of ale- 
wives) the Jirst of the summer than any season before. The inspections 
of the fishway, and observations by different parties from the bridges, go 
to show that in June the river was full of salmon. The unprecedented low 
water during August, September, and October, prevented a full run of 
fish, though lately — that is, since the 1st of November — suckers have 
appeared in some numbers; so I shall continue to keep water in the fish- 
way, and draw off, until no fish are to be seen. 

Quite a number of young alewives were seen in October, in the flume 
to the paper-mills on the north canal, trying to get down stream. I 
think they go through the wheels without getting much hurt, they are so 
small. 

Yours respectfully, 

THOS. S. HOLMES, 
f Superintendent Lawrence Fishery. 

Report of Fish seen in the Lawrence Fishway in the Year 

1880. 

April 26. A few suckers, first fish seen this year. 

26 to May 6. Saw nothing but suckers and chubs. River high and 
muddy nearly all the time. 
May 7. A few suckers, chubs, and lamper eels. 

8. Suckers, chubs, and lamper eels, run large; a few alewives. 

9. Suckers and chubs, run large; lamper eels and alewives, run 

small. 
10. Suckers, chubs, lamper eels, and alewives, run moderate; 
one black bass. 
2 



10 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

jNIiiy 11. Suckers, run large; chubs, lamper eels, and alewives, run 
small; two black bass. 

12. Suckers and lamper eels, run large; a few chubs and alewives, 

schools of "red-fin" shiners, one silver eel, one black bass. 

13. Suckers and lamper eels, run very large; chubs and alewives, 

run small ; two black bass. 

14. Suckers, chubs, and lamper eels, run large; alewives, run 

moderate. 

15. Suckers, chubs, lamper eels, and alewives, run large; one 

black bass. 
10. Suckers, chubs, lamper eels, and alewives, run large; one 
black bass. 

17. Suckers and lamper eels, run large; a few alewives. 

18. Suckers, chubs, and lamper eels, run large; a few alewives. 

19. Lamper eels, run large; a few suckers and chubs. 

20. Lamper eels, run large; a few suckers, chubs, and alewives. 

21. Lamper eels, run large; a few suckers, chubs, alewives, and 

silver eels (all the silver eels seen are small ones). 

22. Suckers, chubs, and lamper eels, run large; a few alewives 

and silver eels. 

23. Suckers, chubs, lamper eels, and alewives, run large; schools 

of "red-fin" shiners ; a few silver eels. 

24. Suckers, chubs, lamper eels, and alewives, run large. 

25. Lampisr eels, run moderate; a few suckers, chubs, alewives, 

and silver eels. 

2G. A few suckers, chubs, lamper eels, and silver eels. 

27. A few suckers, chubs, lamper eels, and silver eels. 

28. A few suckers, chubs, lamper eels, and silver eels. 

29. A few suckers, chubs, and lamper eels; one salmon, 10 lbs. 

30. A few suckers, chubs, and lamper eels. 

31. A few suckers, chubs, lamper eels, and silver eels. 
June 1. A few lampet eels and silver eels, one black bass. 

2. One salmon, 10 lbs., and three black bass. 

3. A few suckers and lamper eels; three salmon, 10 to 14 lbs.; 

and two black bass. 

4. A few suckers, chubs, and lamper eels; one salmon, dO lbs.; 

three black bass. 

5. A few suckers and lamper eels; Jice salmon, 10 to 12 lbs. 

(5. A few suckers, lamper eels, and alewives; one salmon, 8 lbs. 

7. A few suckers, lamper eels, and small silver eels. 

8. A few suckers, lamper eels, and silver eels. 

9. A few suckers, lamper eels, and silver eels. 

10. A few suckers and lamper eels; one salmon, 20 lbs. 

11. A few suckers, lamper eels, and silver eels. 

12. Alewives, run large; lamper eels and suckers, run small. 

13. Suckers, lamper eels, and alewives, run small; one salmon, 8 

lbs. ; one black bass. 

14. A few suckers, lamper eels, and alewives. 

16. A few suckers and lamper eels; tico salmon, 8 to 10 lbs. 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 11 

June IG. A few suekers, lampar eels, and silver eels; three salmon, 10 

to IG lbs. 
17. A few suekers, laiuper eels, and silver eels; one salmon, 15 lbs. 

(Saw three salmon under Broadway-street bridp^e ) 
IS. A few suckers, lamper eels, and silver eels. 

19. A few suckers, lamper eels, and alewives, run large; one salmon, 

10 lbs. ; two black bass. 

20. A few suckers, chubs, and alewives; one black bass. 

21. At G A :\r., tico salmon, 10 to 14 lbs. At 8 a.m., shut water 

out because river vras low. Found two salmon in the way 
(between 10 and 15 lbs. weight), and one salmon in a small 
pool just below the end of the fish way. All these fish put 
' in river above in good condition. 

During the rest of this week I saw a number of salmon in the 
pools at the foot of the dam. Arthur Dyer, Clarence Dyer, 
and Fred McLanathan (three well-known Lawrence gentle- 
men) undertook to count them one day, and made out 
there were fifteen of them. The next day another gentle- 
man saw them, and thought some of them were shad. 

26. "Water let into fish way in P.M. • 

27. A few chubs and silver eels. 

28. One salmon, 12 lbs. Water shut out at night; low river. 
July 4. Water let into fishway in the morning. In the afternoon, a 

few suckers and silver eels in it. 

5. A few suckers, chubs, and silver eels. 

6. A few suckers, chubs, and silver eels; one salmon, 10 lbs. 

7. A few suckers, chubs, and silver eels. 

8. A few suckers, chubs, and silver eels. 

9. A few suckers, chubs, and silver eels. 

10. A few suckers and silver eels. 

11. A few suckers, chubs, and silver eels. 

12. A few suckers and silver eels. 

13. Shut water out because the river was low. 

17. Let water into fishway in the afternoon. 

18. A few suckers, chubs, and silver eels. Water shut out at 

night. 

22. Let water into fishway in the afternoon. 

23. A few suckers, chubs, and silver eels. 

24. A few suckers, chubs, and silver eels; one black bass. 

25. A few suckers, chubs, and silver eels; three salmon, 10 to 14 lbs. 
2G. A few suckers and silver eels; two black bass. 

27. A few suckers and silver eels. 

28. A few suckers, chubs, and silver eels. 

29. Shut water out; river very low. 

31. Let water into fishway in the afternoon. 

Aug. 1. A few suckers, chubs, and silver eels. 

2, A few suckers and silver eels. 

3. Shut water out this morning; river low. 
7. Let water into fishway in the afternoon. 



12 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Oct. 



Aug. 8. A few suckers, chubs, and silver eels. 
9. A few suckers, chubs, and silver eels. 
10. Water shut out ; river very low. 

From this time to the last of October the water was shut out of the 
fish way, excepting on Sunday, when the water came over the dam. The 
river was exceedingly low; has not been so low before since the dam was 
built. From the last week in October to Xov. 15, saw a few suckers in 
fishway. None seen on the 16th; so shut water out for the season. 
Yours respectfully, 

THOMAS S. HOLMES. 

The drought of the last two years ^ has lowered the river 
in a way very injurious to salmon. This year, when the 
water was shut out of the fishway for a considerable part of 
the season, 28 salraon were seen against 29 in 1879, IT in 
1878, and 47 in 1877. With ordinary water the run of fish 
this year would have been perhaps the largest since the re- 
stocking of the stream. 



LA^^D-LOCKED SAUklON. 

There is good reason to feel satisfied that this most desira- 
ble fish is beingf successfullv established in many of otir 
ponds. Individuals have already been taken weighing from 
one to three pounds. 

Of the spawn received and hatched the past year, the 
following distribution was made : — 



J. A. George, pond in Men don 
E. S. Francis, pond in Pittsfield 
TV. C. Keiley, pond in HolUston 
I. W. Adams, pond in Ashburnham 
J. P. He wins, pond in Sharon 
George S. Bout well, pond in Groton 
v. B. Xewcomb, pond in Brewster . 
Thos. H. Lawrence, pond in Falmouth 
H. E. Priest, pond in Waltham 
William Tinker, pond in Otis . 
H. Hobbs, pond in Weuham 
C. W. Seabury, pond in Millbuiy . 
Asa French, pond in Braintree 
G. L. Fessenden, pond in Sandwich 
A. W. Bisbee, pond in Rochester 
W. E. Gavit, pond in Stockbridge . 



APPROXIMATE NO. 

. 15.000 
. 18.000 
. 5,000 
. 10,000 
. 5,000 
. 4.000 
. 8,000 
. 4,000 
. 2.000 
. 6,000 
. 8,000 
. 4,000 
. 4,000 
'. 2.000 
. 4,000 
. 20.000 



1 On Aug. 1, 1880, the deficit from Jan. 1, 187*J, as compared with the avei 
age rainfall, was about eighteen inches. 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 13 



A. L. Hubbell, pond in Great Barrington 
H. A. Bush, pond in Melrose . 
R. Noble, pond in Westfield . 
Dr. A. Eldridge, pond in Yarmouth 
Winchester and Medford . . . . 



20,000 
2,000 

20,000 
8,000 
7,000 



All parties ordering land-locked salmon must make appli- 
cation in writing, giving a careful description of the pond in 
which they desire to place them. 

'' The plan is to furnish them at the State hatching-house 
in Winchester, free of charge, to all applicants having under 
their control any of the great ponds of the State. For transr 
porta tion, parties should bring with them good clean half- 
barrels or milk-cans holding ten or twelve gallons, a ther- 
mometer, and a dipper for aerating the water. The half-bar- 
rels will carry. from four thousand to five thousand, and the 
milk-cans about three thousand. 

" The introduction of these fish into ponds having neither 
inlet nor outlet will for the present be discontinued." 

A large supply, amounting to about three hundred thou- 
sand, will be ready for applicants next April and May, as 
appears from the following Report of the Superintendent 
of the Schoodic Salmon-breeding Establishment, controlled 
by State and National Governments : — 

Grand Lake Stream, Me., 23d November, 1880. 
Dear Sir, — We are almost through with spawning fish. Total prod- 
uct of eggs will be about 2,375,000. Losses and the reserve will probably 
reduce the number to 1,530,000, which I hope to ship. The large product 
of eggs will necessitate increased expenditure, and I now estimate the 
total at $2,550. Your |300 will entitle you to about 300,000 eggs. Hope 
to begin shipment early in January. Where do yours go ? 

At Bucksport, I presume, we shall be able to distribute 1,700,000 eggs; 
and your share will be about 200,000, — perhaps more. These ought to 
go in December. Can we send yours Dec. 15, or when ? 
Very truly yours, 

CHS. G. ATKINS. 
E. A. Brackett, Esq., Winchester, Mass. 

As these fish are distributed under the care of one of the 
Commissioners at a time when his services are needed else- 
where, applicants are requested to come without delay when 
notified. 

No orders will be received after the 20th of April. 



14 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 



Trout. 

" As tlie cultivation and rearing of trout more strictly 
comes Avitliin Uie scope of private enterprise, it has been 
thought best not to devote any more time or expense in that 
direction than Avas necessary to furnish the desired informa- 
tion in regard to it. At the time the lease was obtained of 
the grounds and ponds for the works at Plymouth, N.H., we 
were obliged to take with them some three hundred trout, 
with the provision that the same number should be returned 
at the expiration of the lease. These, with what have since 
been taken when fishing for salmon, furnish quite a number 
of breeding-fish, from which we have taken this year some- 
thing over one hundred thousand spawn, one-half of which 
belongs to Massachusetts. The State has been to no addi- 
tional expense in procuring these eggs ; and it may be desira- 
ble to furnish a part of the young fish to persons having 
control of streams, on condition that they will keep a record, 
and furnish statistics in regard to them. 

" There are other waters still open to the public, to which 
private parties would be willing to bear the expense of trans- 
portation for the sake of having streams restocked." 

The trout hatched this year were distributed to the follow- 
ing applicants : — 

Joseph Henderson, Boston . . . . . 4,500 

D. A. Eldridge, Yarmouth 5,000 

Charles T. Jenkins, Salem 4,000 

Mr. Eaton, Woburn ,. 5,000 

John Cummins, Woburn . . . . . . 5,000 

Henry Hobbs, Wenham 3,000 

Thomas Talbot, Billerica 5,000 

Ivers Adams, Ashburnham ..... 5,000 

Carter's Brook, Wilmington 4,000 

There will be about one hundred thousand young trout 
ready for applicants the latter part of March ot 1st of April 
next, delivered at the hatching-house in Winchester free of 
charge. 

Connecticut River. 

Beyond placing a superintendent over the fishway at Hol- 
yoke, no expense has been incurred and nothing done toward 
increasing the fish in the river. 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 15 

The reasons for this have been so fully explained in pre- 
vious reports, that it seems useless to rehearse them here. 
Neither the views of the fishermen, nor the opinions of 
those whose sense of duty should lead them to see that jus- 
tice was done to a sister State, have changed for the better. 
On the contrary, countercharges have been made that the 
fisliway at Holyoke was defective, if not entirely useless, and 
that the shad were destroyed on their spawning-grounds. 
Even the Commissioners of Connecticut have published in 
their report statements which, upon more careful investiga- 
tion, might have been show^n to be unreliable. 

They seem to be unmindful of the fact that the fishicay at 
Holyohe teas the result of the joint action of the Conunisdoners 
of the four States interested^ — viz., Vermont, New Hampshire, 
Massachusetts, and Connecticut, — and that the present able 
CoQimissioners of the last-named State were as much respon- 
sible for it as were those of Massachusetts. Certainly, no 
fornial demand has been made by them to change it. There 
can be no question, that, had Connecticut shown any disposi- 
tion to deal fairly in this matter, the Massachusetts Commis- 
sioners would have exhausted every means to correct any 
deficiency in the fish way, and in that effort would have been 
fully sustained by the State. 

As to the sin of "taking shad on their spawning-beds," 
imputed to the Massachusetts fishermen, it should be ob- 
served, that, no matter where or at luhat time of the year a fish 
is killed, its spawn is equally destroyed. Thus, a shad's 
spawn is lost whether the fish be killed in December, eleven 
months before it would have spav/ned, or in June, eleven 
minutes before it would have spawned. Therefore, the 
Connecticut fisherman wdio takes a hundred shad at the 
river mouth destroys their spawn ; and the Massachusetts 
fisherman who, two days later, takes another hundred at 
Holyoke from the same school, destroys their spawn. The 
returns presented below show that Connecticut, in 1879, 
took thirty-two times as mau}^ shad as did Massachusetts, and 
destroyed, therefore, thirty -two times as much spawn, which, 
otherwise, would have been deposited in the river. 

The following statement is taken from the report of Con- 
necticut for 1879: — 



16 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Oct. 



Piers axd Seines. 

Piers and seines are classed together because a pier is simply a place 
made for the purpose of hauling a seine. Of these there are fifteen, and 
they took fifty thousand shad. The greatest number taken at any one 
place was eleven thousand at Selden's fish-place, a short distance below 
the Deep River station on the Connecticut Valley Railroad. These sta- 
tistics comprise only that portion of the river from Deep River down, and 
the number of shad taken above can only be estimated. Those whose 
opinions are considered valuable make this estimate fifty thousand, which 
is accurate enough for practical purposes. 

The whole number of shad taken, then, in 1879, in the Connecticut 
River and sound adjacent, is as follows: — 

Pounds 250,026 

Gill-nets 86,955 

Seines 100,000 

436,9181 

Let it be supposed that the fishermen received fourteen dollars per 
hundred for shad, and the money value of the catch is §61,177.34:; or if 
it be assumed that each shad weighed three pounds, and the retail price 
was eight cents per pound, the value would be 8104,875.44, which shows 
what interest the citizens of Connecticut have in the shad-fisheries of this 
one river. 

The report for this State for the same season will show the 
difference in the catch of the two States. 



Table I^To. IV. — Conxecticut River Seines. 



TOWX. 


Name. Shad. 


Pike. 


Agawam .... 

South Hadley 

Chicopee .... 
West Springfield . 
Springfield .... 


A. Converse 

A. J. Hills 

C. C. Smith . 

J. & H. W. Chapin 

George A. White 

J. 0. Leary 

R. H. Parker . 






1,352 
596 
6,296 
1,224 
1,372 
69 
2,500 


3 










13.409 


3 



The total money value, at fourteen dollars per hundred, 
would be — 



For Massachusetts 
Connecticut . 



^1,876 00 
61,177 34 



1 It should be understood that these figures relate only to shad of three 
pounds and over. Small shad are not counted. 



1880.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



17 



These figures are mainly correct, and against tliem no 
charge or countercharge can avail. 

The}' show conclusively, that, while the breeding-grounds 
are in this State, the catch of fish is almost wholly in Con- 
necticut. 

INTRODUCTION OF Carp (^Cypriiius Oarpio). 

It has been generally understood that Professor Baird, 
United States Commissioner on Fisheries, has been successful 
in introducing the Austrian carp into this country, and that 
extensive breeding-ponds have been prepared at Washington 
for the purpose of raising and distributing these fish. Under- 
standing that a supply could be had for this State, sufficient 
to stock several breeding-ponds, in October messengers were 
sent to Washington, and received five hundred of these fish, 
which were successfully transported to Winchester, with a 
loss of only two. Four hundred of them were sent to the 
Tewksbury Reservoir for safe keeping until suitable breeding- 
ponds can be secured. The balance, with a subsequent ship- 
ment of eight hundred by Professor Baird, were distributed 
as follows : — 



Fish Committee 






. Holliston. 


Hon. ^\iUiam Claflin . 






. Xewtonville. 


Charles T. Jeiildns 






. Salem. 


W. F. Martindale . 






. Enfield. 


John L. Shorey 






. 36 Bromfield Street, Boston. 


William Perliam . 






. Tyngsborough. 


H. L. Loomis 






. Westfield. - 


C. H. Lawrence 






. South Lancaster. 


H. C. Stark . 






. Hyde Park. 


Howard M. Monroe 






. Lexington. 


Dr. D. RusseU 






. Milford. 


Lemuel Harris 






. Charlemont. 


Francis E. Loud . 






. Weymouth. 


G. H. Richards . 






. 16 Pemberton Square, Boston 


John A. Blake 






. Ipswich. 


George C. Mcintosh 






. Needham. 


Samuel Clark 






. Leominster. 


James G. Grinnell . 






. Greenfield. 


Hiram Packard 






. Goshen. 


Thomas L. Peers . 






. East Brookfield. 


J. A. George . 






. Mendon.. 


S. IMorgan 






. Springfield. 


John Birkenhead . 
3 






. Mansfield. 



18 



INLAND FISHEPtlES. 



[Oct. 



Frank E. Ilorton 
Burton Hathaway 
Daniel L. INIitchell 
R. J. Butterfield 
James W. Hannum 
Oliver Ames 
James Carter 
Leonard Huntress 
Walter H. Knight 
Martin Green 
Alexander Johnson 
Joseph Young . 
G H. M. Barrett 
Augustus Eastman 
Benjamin F. Vittum 
Stillman S. Hutchinson 




riainville. 

Islington. 

Taunton. 

"West Chelmsford. 

Ludlow. 

North Easton. 

Wakefield. 

Tewksbury. 

South Framingham. 

Green Hill, Worcester. 

Wiscasset, Me. 

South Sanford, 'Me. 

Rockport, Me. 

North Conway, X.H. 

Dover, N.H. 

Milford, X.H. 



The carp is a vegetable-feeder, exceedingly rapid in growth, 
and will thrive in water too warm and sluggish for the suc- 
cessful culture of other fish. There are in this State hun- 
dreds of acres of meadow and swamp land now producing 
little or nothing, which could, with very little outlay, be used 
for this purpose. Valleys with no permanent stream running 
through, but having a large water-shed, by having a dam 
thrown across, could be made available. The geographical 
character of New England is such as to afford enormous 
facilities for tlie cultivation of carp. The farmer has only to 
learn the few simple facts', in regard to the nature and habits 
of this fish, to turn much waste land to profit. A sufficient 
number have been secured by the State for breeding pur- 
poses, to produce hundreds of thousands in a few years for 
distribution. It is intended to distribute them broadcast 
over the State, — first to those who have artificial ponds for 
their culture, and then into all public waters suitable for 
them. It is to be noticed that no effort will be made to stock 
rivers and ponds containing other fish, until the supply is 
abundant. In ponds containing no other fish, five or six 
carp to "the acre are sufficient for stocking. In procuring 
and making arrangements to breed these fish for general dis- 
tribution, we have no theories or speculations to offer, but 
simply Ccill attention to, and place within reach of, farmers 
and land-owners an industry which has been profitably carried 
on in Europe for centuries. In Austria and Bohemia it is an 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 19 

extensive business. The Prince of Scliwarzenberg possesses 
more than two hundred and fifty ponds of hirge size, the 
smallest having about ten acres" and the largest two thou- 
sand acres' water extent. The carp is the hog of the water, 
feeding upon roots, weeds, and all kinds of refuse-matter, 
rapid in growth, sometimes reaching the weight of fifty or 
sixty pounds. As an edible fish he is neither salmon nor 
trout any more than pork is venison. He is the fish for the 
million. Walton says, ''The carp is tlie queen of livers; 
a stately, a good, and a very subtle fish." 

Hessel says, '• If the carp were a fish of inferior quality, 
like the buffalo-fish, for instance, its sale would doubtless be 
limited to the seaport towns of Northern Germany and the 
principal cities of Central Europe, as Vienna, Berlin, and 
Paris. In the latter city, in spite of an abundant suppl}^ of 
salt-water and different kinds of fresh-water fish, the carp is 
ever prefered to these ; and, with the exception of trout and 
salmon, it frequently commands a price three times as high 
as that of all the rest. For directions how to fish for carp, 
with some quaint remarks on the habits of this fish, see 
"Izaak Walton's Complete Angler." In the Appendix will 
be found an essay on the '• Cultivation of Carp " by Rudolph 
Hessel, superintendent of the carp-ponds at Washington. 

Applications for these fish will be placed on file, and as 
soon as possible filled in the order of their reception. 

While, owing to the drought, the past season has been 
unfavorable for the inland fisheries, there has, nevertheless, 
been a large increase in many places. Quite a number of the 
leased ponds, so far as can be ascertained by the reports, 
have fully met the expectations of the lessees. 

Unfortunately, many of those who have ponds under their 
care have not kept such record as is- required bv their lease ; 
and their returns are simply estimates Avithout any reliable 
data. This is especially the case where ponds are leased to 
towns, and where individual responsibility seems to be almost 
totalh^ ignoi-ed. 

There are in this State 196,342 acres of land covered with 
water, and the object in leasing the ponds is to ascertain how 
far they can be made productive. 

All tlie leases require, that, on the 1st of October of each 
year, the lessee shall make returns to the Commissioners of 



20 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Oct. 



tlie number of fi.sli put in or taken from these ponds. The 
omission of this requirement is a vital one. The following 
table will show the form of return : — 



Report of Edible Fish taken under Permit. 



From 
From 



■188 , to 



IBS 



„ Land-looked Wliite „ Mi.=.celLi'ous 

Black Bass. , Pickerel. ' Red Perch. 

I balmon. Perch. i Varieties. 



Number, i Number. Number. Number. Number. Number 



\ As this matter does not appear to be generally understood, 
the attention of lessees is called to the following regula- 
tions adopted by the town of Winchester, together with the 
form of permit issued to all parties in the town who desire 
to use the rod and line. It will be readily seen, that, if 
some such system as this is adopted by all the lessees of 
ponds, there will be no difiQciilty in making tolerably correct 
returns. 



Regulations for Fishing in Mystic and Wedge Ponds, leased 
BY the State to the Towns of Medford and Winchester. 

1st, The inhabitants of the towns of Medford and Winchester shall 
have the right to fisli in Mystic Pond, and the inhabitants of Winchester 
in Wedge Pond, on Monday, Wednesday, and Saturday of each week, 
from the 1st of April to the 1st of December, after having first obtained, 
from the proper officer of the town having charge of lease, a permit for 
such fishing, containing name of applicant, with date of issue, and signed 
by one or more of said officers. Said permit not transferable, and to 
expire on the last day of Xovember of each year ; and the holder thereof 
shall, on the fifteenth day of October and on the first day of December, 
make full returns, to the authorities granting such permit, of the number, 
species, and estimated weight of edible fish taken luider the permit ; and 
it shall be the duty of said officer to keep accurate account of these per- 
mits and returns, which shall be open to the inspection of the Commis- 
sioners on Inland Fisheries. 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. '25. 21 

2d, The taking of laud-lockeJ salmon is prohibited until further no- 
tice. All salmon caught to be returned to the water alive, and all black 
bass under one pound in weight to be returned to the water alice. 

3d, No set lines, nets, or traps of any desci'iption to be allowed in said 
waters. 

4th, The taking of fish to be confined to naturally or artificially baited 
hook and hand-line. 

5th, Xo person will be allowed to take fish from said pond for the 
purpose of sale. 

6th, Any person failing to comply with the above regulations shall be 
liable for such neglect, and shall forfeit said permit and the right of 
renewal for a term not less than one year. 

7th, Nothing in the above regulations shall be construed as giving 
any right to take fish at times when prohibited by law. 

Approved June 1, 1880. 

E. A. BRACKETT, 
ASA FRENCH, 
Commissioners on Inland Fisheries. 



Permission is hereby givex to to fish in Wedge 

Pond in Winchester, and in Mystic Pond in Medford and Winches- 
ter, subject to the following rules and regulations, established by the 
Commissioners on Inland Fisheries^ of Massachusetts, on Mondays, 
Wednesdays, and Saturdays, from April 1, 188 , to December 1, 
188 , when this permit is to be returned to the Fish Committee of 
Winchester : — 

The taking of land-locked salmon is prohibited until further notice. 
All salmon caught to be returned to the water alive, and all black bass 
caught under one pound in weight to be returned to the water alive. 

No set lines, nets, or traps of any description to be allowed in said 
ponds, and the taking of fish to be confined to naturally or artificially 
baited hook and hand-line. 

No person will be allowed to take fish from said ponds for the purpose 
of sale. 

Any person failing to comply with the above regulations shall be liable 
for such neglect, and shall forfeit this permit and the right of renewal 
for a term not less than one year. 

Nothing in the above regulations shall be construed as giving any right 
to take fish at times when prohibited by law. 

On the first day of December this permit is to be returned, and with it 
the numbers, species, and estimated weight of fish taken from Oct. 15. 



99 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Oct. 



SPECIES. 



Number. Weight. 



Land-locked salmon 
Black bass 
Perch 

White perch 
Pickerel . 
Other fish 




On the 15th day of October tear off at dotted line, and send to Com- 
mittee with the sender's name attached. 



SPECIES. 


>r umber. 


Weight. 


Land-locked salmon ..... 
Black bass ....... 

Perch 

White perch 

Pickerel 

Other fish 







Name, 



There will be between five and six hundred thousand 
3^oung salmon and trout ready for deliver}' at the hatching- 
house in Winchester next spring. This, with the large num- 
ber of both the mirror and leather carp for breeding pur- 
poses, and for which ponds will be immediately prepared, 
will enable us to meet more full}^ the demands made upon 
the commission for the distribution of young fish. 



Legislation. 

Professor Spencer F. Baird, the United States Commis- 
sioner, has called our attention to the fact that the preseut 
statute requiring returns to be made of fish taken by fixed 
apparatus and by nets is inconvenient, because it ends the 
year on Oct. 1 ; so that, in practice, the fish that are taken 
between the middle of September and the middle of October 
are not returned at all. To remedy this defect, the Com- 
missioners respectfully suggest that chap. 104 of the Acts 
of 1876 be amended by substituting in sect. 1, before the 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 23 

word day^ the word twentietli^ instead of the word first ; so 
that the section shall read, — 

Section 1. The owner or owners of every pound, weir, or other 
similar fixed contrivance, or of any fishing pier, seine, drag or gill net, 
used in any of the waters of this State for fishing purposes, shall make 
written report, under oath, to the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries, on 
or before the twentieth day of October in each year, specifying the num- 
ber of each kind of edible fish caught by his or their respective pounds, 
weirs, or other similar fixed contrivances, piers, seines, drag or gill nets, 
during the year next preceding the date of said report. 

Chap. 119 of the Acts of 1877 forbids the establishing of 
any "fish-weir" without a permit from town or city authori- 
ties. Fishermen have set various modifications of the weir in 
defiance of the statute, and have called them by other names. 
To do away with all doubt as to the nature of the apparatus 
referred to, the Commissioners respectfully suggest the inser- 
tion, after the word fish-iveir, of the words pound, pound-net, 
fyke, trap, or similar fixed contrivance ; so that the section 
shall read, — 

Sect. 4. No person shall construct or maintain any fish- weir, pound, 
pound-net, fyke, trap, or similar fixed contrivance within the tide-waters 
of this Commonwealth, unless authorized in the manner set forth in the 
first section of this Act, or from any island within said tide-waters, with- 
out authority in writing from the mayor and aldermen of every city, and 
the selectmen of every town, distant not over two miles from said island. 
Any person who shall construct or maintain any fish-weir, pound, pound- 
net, fyke, trap, or similar fixed contrivance, in violation of the provisions 
of this section, shall forfeit the sum of ten dollars for each day he shall 
maintain such weir or similar fixed contrivance, to be recovered in any 
com't of competent jurisdiction to the use of any cities or towns from 
the mayor and aldermen or selectmen of which he ought to have ob- 
tained the authority aforesaid, and shall also be liable to be indicted 
therefor and to be enjoined therefrom. 

For the proper protection of salmon in the Merrimack, it 
may seem wise to the Legislature to grant more days for fish- 
ing at the beginning of the season, and to shorten the season 
at its end. 

THEODORE LYMAN, 
E. A. BRACKETT, 
ASA FRENCH, 
Commissioners on Inland. Fisheries. 



24 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Oct. '80. 



EXPENSES OF COMMISSION. 



Salary . 
Travelling expenses 



$1,650 00 

2S7 00 



$1,937 90 



Gexeral Expenses. 

Subscription to fund of Schoodie Salmon-breeding 
Establisliment 

Subscription to fund of Penobscot Salmon-breeding 
Establishment . 

A. H. Powers, services . 

Detectives, services and expenses 

F. D. Brackett, services 

Printing 



Sewell Reed, services 

Sundry laborers 

Thomas S. Holmes 

TVire and nets 

Rent of land, Winchester 

Robert Holmes, services and expenses 

E. C. Young, services 

Expressage . 

Legal service . 

Rent, &c., at Plymouth 

E. H. Clark, services and expenses 

Rubber boots and gloves 

Fish meat 

Stencils 

MisceUaneous 



$500 00 



500 00 


375 00 


267 70 


166 15 


86 66 


83 00 


78 75 


70 00 


51 53 


50 00 


36 45 


32 50 


23 62 


27 00 


25 00 


20 40 


• 15 45 


6 99 


2 76 


50 


^ no 16 





$4,357 36 



APPENDIX, 



[A.] 
COMMISSIONERS OX FISHERIES. 



UNITED STATES. 

Professor Spencer F. Baird .... Washington, D.C. 

ALABAMA. 

Charles S. G. Doster Prattville. 

CALIFORNIA. 

S. R. Throckmorton ~ San Francisco. 

B. B. Redding San Francisco. 

J. D. Farwell Alameda. 

COLORADO. 

W. E. SiSTEY Brookvale. 

CONNECTICUT. 

W. M. Hudson Hartford. 

Robert G. Pike . . . . ■ . . . Middletown. 
James A. Bill Lyme. 

GEORGIA. 

Thomas P. Janes (commissioner of agriculture > aj-i f 
and ex-officio commissioner of fisheries) . . > 

ILLINOIS. 

N. K. Fairbank ....... Chicago. 

S. P. Bartlett Quincy. 

J. Smith Briggs Kankakee. 

IOWA. 

B. F. Shaw Anamosa. 

KANSAS. 

D. B. Long Ellsworth. 

KENTUCKY. 

William Griffith, pres., 166 West Main Street . Louisville. 
John B. Walker Madisonville. 



28 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Oct. 



Hon. C. J. Walton 
Hon. John A. Steele 
Hon. J. H. Bruce 
P. H. Darby 
Dr. S. W. Coombs 
Hon. James B. Casey 
Gen. T. T. Garrard 
Hon. W. C. Allen 



Munfordsville. 

Versailles. 

Lancaster. 

Princeton. 

Bowling Green. 

Covington. 

Manchester. 

Owingsville. 



E. M. Stilwell 
Everett Smith 



Bangor. 
Portland. 



T. B. Ferguson . 
Thomas Hughlett 



MARYLAND. 



Baltimore. 
Easton. 



Theodore Lyman 
E. A. Brackett . 
Asa French . 



MASSACHUSETTS. 



Brookline. 

Winchester. 

Boston. 



MICHIGAN. 



Eli R. Miller 
A. J. Kellogg 
Dr. J. C. Parker 



Richland. 
Detroit. 
Grand Rapids. 



MINNESOTA. 

First District, Daniel Cameron . . . .La Crescent. 

Second District, William W. Sweney, M.D. . Red Wing. 

Third District, R. Omsby Sweney, chaii-man . St. Paul. 



MISSOURI. 

I. G. W. Steedman, chairman, No. 2,803 Pine St., St. Louis. 

John Reid Lexington. 

Silas Woodson • St. JosejDh. 

NEVADA. ^ 

H. G. Parker Carson City. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

Samuel Weber Manchester. 

Luther Hayes South Milton. 

Albina H. Powers Plymouth. 

NEW jersey. 

Dr. B. P. Howell Woodbury. 

Col. E. J. Anderson Trenton. 

Theodore Morford Newton. 



1880.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



29 



NEW YOKK. 

R. Barnwell Koosevelt, 76 Chambers Street 
Edward M. Smith ..... 
Richard U. Sherman ..... 
Eugene G. Blackford, 809 Bedford Avenue 

NORTH CAROLINA. 

L. L. Polk (commissioner of agriculture) 
S. W. Worth (superintendent of fisheries) . 



Robert R. Livingston 
H. S. Kaley 
W. L. May . 



NEBRASKA. 



Xew York. 
Rochester. 
New Hartford. 
Brooklyn. 

Raleigh. 
Morgantown. 

Plattsmouth. 
Red Cloud. 
Fremont. 



J. C. Fisher, president 
R. CuMMiNGS, treasurer 
L. A. Harris, secretary 



OHIO. 



Coshocton. 

Toledo. 

Cincinnati. 



PENNSYLVANIA. 



H. J. Reeder 
Benjamin L. Hewit 
James Duffy 
John Hummel 
Robert Dalzel 
G. M. Miller 



•IT 











Easton. 

Hollidaysburg. 

Marietta. 

Selinsgrove. 

Pittsburg. 

Wilkesbarre. 



RHODE ISLAND. 

Alfred A. Reed Providence. 

John H. Barden Rockland. 

Newton Dexter Providence. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

A. p. Butler Hamburg. 

TENNESSEE. 

^Y. W. McDowell Memphis. 

George F. Akers Nashville. 

W. T. Turley ' . Knoxville. 



J. H. Dinkinj 



. Austin. 



A. P. RocKwooD (absent; information from Prof . 7 o li. j y p-j. 
J. L. Barfoot, curator Desert Museum) . . ) 



VERMONT. 



M. Goldsmith 
Charles Barrett 



. Rutland. 
. Grafton. 



30 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Oct. 



VIRGINIA. 

Col. Marshall McDonald Lexington. 

WEST VIRGINIA. 

Henry B. Miller AVheeling. 

Christian S. White Romney. 

N. M. LowRY Hinton. 



WISCONSIN. 

Gov. William E. Smith, ex officio 
Philo Dunning, president 

J. V. Jones 

C. Valentine, secretary and treasurer . 

Mark Douglas 

John F. Antisdel .... 

Christopher Hutchison 

H. W. Welsher, superintendent . 



Madison. 

Madison. 

Oshkosh. 

Janesville. 

Melrose. 

Milwaukee 

Beetown. 

INIadison. 



dominion of CANADA. 

W. F. Whitcher Ottawa. 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 31 



,[B.] 

LISTS OF POXDS LEASED. 

By the Commissioners on Inland Fisheries^ under Authority given 
by Chap. 384, Sect. 9, of the Acts of 1869.^ 



1870. 

Feb. 1. Waiishakum Pond, in Framingliam, to Sturtevant and others, 

20 years. 
Mar. 1. Tisbury Great Pond, in Tisbury and Chilmark, to Allen Look 

and others, 10 years. 
April 1. Mendon Pond, in Mendon, to Leonard T. Wilson and another, 

20 years. 
Sept. 12. Baptist Lake, in Xewton, to J. F. C. Hyde and others, 20 

years. 
Oct. 15. Archer's Pond, in Wreiithatn, to William E. George, 15 years. 

1871. 

Jan. 10. Nine Mile Pond, in Wilbraham, to B. F. Bowles, 10 years. 

30. Little Pond, in Falmouth, to F. H. Dimmick, 10 years. 
April — . Spectacle, Triangle, and Peters Ponds, in Sand\yich, to G. L. 
Fessenden and another, 5 years. 

17. Long Pond, in Falmouth, to Joshua S. Bowerman and 

three others, 20 years. 
May 15. Pratt's Pond, in Upton, to D. W. Batcheller, 20 years. 

18. Little Sandy Pond, in Plymouth, to William E. Perkins, 15 

years. 
Xoy. 1. Punkapoag Pond, in Randoljih and Canton, to Henry L. 
Pierce, 20 years. 

1872. 

Jan. 1. Sandy Pond, Forest Lake, or Flint's Pond, in Lincoln, to 

James L. Chapin and others, 20 years. 
July 20. Little Pond, in Brain tree, to Eben Denton and others, 20 

years. 

1 "We would remind lessees of ponds that they are required, by their leases, to use all 
reasonable eflbrts to stock their ponds, and keep accurate records of the same, and make 
returns of their doings to the Commissioners on the 1st of October, each year, of the num- 
ber and species of fish which they have put in or removed from their ponds. Any failure 
to comply with these conditions is a breach of contract invalidating their lease. It is impor- 
tant that the State should 'know ,iust what is being done ; and, whei-e there appears to be 
mismanagement or apparent failure, the Commissioners will visit the ponds, and ascertain, if 
possible, the cause. 



32 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

1873. 

May 1. Meeting-house Pond, in Westminster, to inhabitants of West- 
minster, 15 years. 
1. Great Pond, in Weymouth, to James L. Bates and others, 15 
years. 

July 1. Little Sandy Pond, in Pembroke, to A. C. Brigham and others, 
16 years. 

Sept. 1. Pontoosuc Lalie, in Pittsfield and Lanesborough, to E. II. 
Kellogg and others, 15 years, 
ct. 1. Farm Pond, in Sherborn, to inhabitants of Sherborn, 15 
years. 

1. Spot Pond, in Stoneham, to inhabitants of Stoneham, 15 

years. 
Nov. 1. Lake Chaubunagungamong, or Big Pond, in Webster, to 

inhabitants of Webster, 5 years. 
Dec. 1. Lake Wauban, in Needham, to Mollis Hunnewell, 20 years. 

1874. 

Mar. 1. Walden and White Ponds, in Concord, to inhabitants of Con- 
cord, 15 years. 

2. Upper Naumkeag, in Ashburnham, to inhabitants of Ashburn- 

ham, 20 years. 
April 1. Elder's Pond, in Lakeville, to inhabitants of Lakeville, 15 
years. 
20. North and South Podunk Ponds, in Brookfield, to inhabitants 
of Brookfield, 15 years. 
May 1. Maquan Pond, in Hanson, to the inhabitants of Hanson, 15 
years. 
2. Brown's Pond, in Peabody, to John L. Shorey, 15 years. 
16. Wickaboag Pond, in West Brookfield, to Lemuel Fullam, 15 

years. 
20. Unchechewalom and Massapog Ponds, to the inhabitants of 
Lunenburg, 20 years. 
July 1. Hardy's Pond, in Waltham, to H. E. Priest and others, 15 
years. 
1. Hockomocko Pond, in AVestborough, to L. N. Fairbanks and 
others, 15 years. 
11. Mitchell's Pond, in Boxford, to R. M. Cross and others, 15 

years. 
11. Hazzard's Pond, in Russell, to N. D. Parks and others, 20 
years. 
Oct. 1. East Waushacum Pond, in Sterling, to inhabitants of Sterling, 
20 years. 
20. Middleton Pond, in Middleton, to inhabitants of Middleton, 
15 years. 

1875. 

Jan. 1. White and Goose Ponds, in Chatham, to George W. Davis, 

15 years. 
Mar. 1. Lake Pleasant, in Montague, to inhabitants of Montague, 10 

years. 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 33 

1875. 

Mar. 1. Hood's Pond, in Ipswich and Topsfield, to inhabitants of 

Topsfield, 15 years. 
April 1. Chauncey Pond, in Westborough, to inhabitants of West- 
borough, 15 years. 
3. West's Pond, in Bolton, to J. D. Hurlburt and others, 15 
years. 
15. Gates Pond, in Berlin, to E. H. Hartshorn and others, 15 

years. 
24. Pleasant Pond, in Wenham, to inhabitants of Wenham, 15 
years. 
May 1. Morse's Pond, in Needham, to Edmund M. Wood, 15 years. 

1. Great Pond, in North Andover, to Eben Sutton and others, 

20 years. 
1. Chilmark Pond, in Chilmark, to J. Nickerson and others, 
agents, 20 years. 
July 1. Winter Pond and Wedge Pond, in Winchester, to inhabitants 
of Winchester, 15 years. 
1. Haggett's Pond, in Andover, to inhabitants of Andover, 20 
years. 
Aug. 1. Oyster Pond, in Edgartown, to J. H. Smith and others, 20 
years. 
7. West Waushacum Pond, in Sterling, to inhabitants of Ster- 
ling, 20 years. 
9. Mystic (Upper) Pond, in Winchester, Medford, and Arling- 
ton, to inhabitants of Winchester and Medford, 15 years. 
Oct. 1. Little Chauncey and Solomon Ponds, in Northborough, to in- 
habitants of Northborough, 15 years. 

1876. 

Feb. 1. Great Sandy Bottom Pond, in Pembroke, to Israel Thrasher 

and others, 15 years. 
Mar. 1. Dennis Pond, in Yarmouth, to inhabitants of Yarmouth, 15 
years. 
1. Crystal Lake, in Wakefield, to Lyman H. Tasker and others, 
15 years. 
20. Lovi^er Naumkeag Pond, in Ashburnham, to inhabitants of 

Ashburnham, 18 years. 
28. Dennison Lake, in Winchendon, to inhabitants of Winchen- 

don, 15 years. 
28. Phillipston Pond, in Phillipston, to inhabitants of Phillips- 
ton, 20 years. 
May 8. South-west Pond, in Athol, to Adin H. Smith and others, 15 

years. 
June 1. Norwich Pond, in Huntington, to inhabitants of Huntington, 
20 years. 
10. Dug Pond, in Natick, to W^. P. Bigelow and others, 15 years. 
Oct. 1. Farm and Learned's Pond, in Framingham, to inhabitants of 
Framingham, 15 years. 
5 



84 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

1876. 

Oct. 1. Whitney's Pond, Wrentham, to inhabitants of Wrentham, 15 
years. 
1. Little Fond, in Barnstable, to George H. Davis, 15 years. 

1877. 

Mar. 1. Nine Mile Pond, in Wilbraham, to inhabitants of Wilbraham, 
15 years. 
15. Pentucket and Rock Ponds, in Georgetown, to inhabitants of 
Georgetown, 15 years. 
Aug. 10. Onota Lake, in Pittsfield, to AVilliam IL Murray and others, 

15 years. 
Oct. 1. Fort, Great Spectacle, and Little Spectacle Ponds, in Lancas- 
ter, to inhabitants of Lancaster, 20 years. 
1. Battacook Pond, in Groton, to George S. Graves and others, 
15 years. 
Nov. 1. Tispaquin Pond, in Middleborough, to Abishai Miller, 15 
years. 
1. Asnebumskitt Pond, in Paxton, to Ledyard Bill and others, 
15 years. 
Jan. 1. Sniptuit, Long, Snow, and Mary's Ponds, in Rochester, to 

inhabitants of Rochester, 15 years. 
Mar. 16. Asnaconcomic Pond, in Ilubbardston, to Amory Jewett, jun., 

15 years. 
April 1. Dorrity Pond, in Millbury, to inhabitants of Millbury, 10 

years. 
May 1. Spectacle, Peters, and Triangle Ponds, in Sandwich, to George 
L. Fessenden, 10 years. 
1. Bear Hill Pond and Ilall Pond, in Harvard, to inhabitants of 
Harvard, 15 years. 
July 1. Lake Buell, in Monterey and New Marlborough, to Andrew 

L. Hubbell and others, 5 years. 
Oct. 1. Eel Pond, in Melrose, to J. A. Barrett and others, 15 years. 

1. Accord Pond, in Hingham, South Scituate, and Rockland, to 

inhabitants of those towns, 10 years. 
1. Wright's and Ashley's Ponds, in Holyoke, to Henry C. Ewing 

and others, 10 years. 
1. Magog Pond, in Acton and Middleton, to inhabitants of 
Acton, 15 years. 
Halfway Pond, in Plymouth, taken by Commissioners for 5 
years from March 1, 1878, in accordance with provisions of 
chap. 62 of the Acts of 1876. 

1879. 

Feb. 1. Lake Mahkunac and Lake Overic, in Stockbridge, to inhabit- 
ants of Stockbridge, 10 years. 

June 1. "Bald Pate," "Four Mile," and " Stiles " Ponds, in Box- 
ford, to inhabitants of Boxford, 10 years. 

July 1. Silver Lake, in Wilmington, to inhabitants of AVilmington, 10 
years. 
1. Fresh Pond, in Falmouth, to Thomas H. Lawrence, 20 years. 



1880.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



86 



1879. 

Oct. 1. 



Nov. 1. 



188C 




Jan. 


1. 


Mar. 


1. 




15. 


May 


1. 


June 


1. 




1. 


July 


1. 


Sept. 


1. 



Pomp's Pond, in Andover, to inhabitants of Andover, 15 
years. 

Lake Quinapowitt, in Wakefield, to inhabitants of Wake- 
field, 14 years. 

Granite Cove Pond, in Gloucester, to David Babson, 10 

years. 
Lake Winthrop, in HoUiston, to inhabitants of Holliston, 15 

years. 
Massapoag Pond, in Sharon, to inhabitants of Sharon, 10 

years. 
Tisbury Great Pond, in Tisbury, to Allen Look and others, 10 

years. 
Lidian Pond, in Kingston, to inhabitants of Kingston, 10 

years. 
Jordan Pond, in Shrewsbury, to inhabitants of Shrewsbury, 

15 years. 
Swan and Marthi's Ponds, in North Reading, to inhabitants 

of North Reading, 15 years. 
Herring Pond, in Eastham, to William H. Nickerson, 10 

years. 



36 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 



[C] 
LEGISLATION. — 1880. 



[Chap. 61.] 

An Act to regulate Fishing in Certain Waters by Fish 
Pounds. AND other Fixed Apparatus. 

Be it enacted^ Sfc, as follows : 

Section 1. From the first day of May to the fifteenth day of June in 
each year no person shall set, or permit to remain set, any fish pound, 
weir, trap, fyke or other similar fixed apparatus for catching fish, except 
gill nets, between the hours of six o'clock on Saturday morning and six 
o'clock on the succeeding Sunday evening, so as to catch any fish, in the 
tidal waters of the county of Dukes County and of the county of Bristol 
and of the towns of Mattapoisett, Marion and Wareham in the county of 
Plymouth, and in the tidal waters on the westerly boundaries of the 
towns of Sandwich and Falmouth at and near Buzzard's Bay, and on that 
portion of the southerly boundary of the county of Barnstable extending 
from the south-westerly corner of the town of Falmouth easterly to Point 
Gammon in the town of Yarmouth. 

Sect. 2. Whoever by himself or by his servants or agents, or as the 
servant or agent of another, violates any of the provisions of this act, shall 
be punished by a fine of not more than two hundred dollars nor less than 
one hundred dollars. 

Sect. 3. One-half of the penalty paid on conviction shall be for the 
use of the person commencing the prosecution whether by complaint or 
indictment. 

Sect. 4. All prosecutions under this act shall be commenced within 
three months after the offence committed and not afterwards. 

Sect. 5. The provisions of this act shall not be construed so as to 
permit fishing with such fixed apparatus where it is now forbidden by 
law. [Approved March 5, 1880. 

[Chap. 68.] 

An Act to regulate the Taking of Salmon in this Common- 
wealth. 

Be it enacted, Sfc, as follows: 

Section 1. Whoever takes or catches any salmon in any of the 
waters of this Commonwealth for a period of two years from and after 
the first day of April in the year eighteen hundred and eighty shall be 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 37 

punished for each offence by a fine not less than fifty nor more than two 
hundred dollars, or by imprisonment in the house of correction not less 
than two nor more than six months : provided^ that any one catching 
salmon when lawfully fishing, and immediately returning them alive to 
the waters whence taken, shall not be subject to the penalty provided in 
this section. 

Sect. 2. Except as provided in the last clause of the preceding sec- 
tion, whoever takes or catches any salmon at any time in any of the 
waters of this Commonwealth, except with naturally or artificially baited 
hook and hand line, shall be punished, for each fish so taken or caught, 
by a fine of not less than fifty nor more than two hundred dollars. 
^Approved March 8, 1880. 

[Chap. 86.] 
An Act relating to Salmon Trout. 

Be it enacted^ Sfc, as follows : 

Section 1. The provisions of chapter two hundred and twenty-one 
of the acts of the year eighteen hundred and seventy-six shall not apply 
to the species of fish known as salmon trout, provided the same have not 
been taken in any of the waters of this Commonwealth. 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. \_Approved 
March 11, 1880. 

[Chap. 122.] 
An Act to authorize the Towns of Dennis and Yarmouth to 

REGULATE THE SaLMON AND TrOUT FiSHERY IN BaSS RiVER. 

Be it enacted, Sfc, as follows : 

Section 1. Section one of chapter thirty-seven of the acts of the 
year eighteen hundred and forty-nine, entitled "An Act to authorize 
the towns of Dennis and Yarmouth to regulate the fisheries in Bass 
River," is hereby amended by inserting after the words "herrings or 
alewives and perch," the words "salmon and trout;" and after the 
words "Bass River," the words "at the mouth thereof;" and section 
four of said oiiapter is hereby amended by inserting after the words " her- 
rings, alewives or perch," the words " or salmon or trout," and by strik- 
ing out of the last line of said section four the word "twenty," and 
inserting in lieu thereof the word "forty." 

Sect. 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. \_Approved 
March 19, 1880. 

[Chap. 200.] 

An Act to authorize the Selectmen of Towns and the 
Boards of IVEayor and Aldermen of Cities in the Common- 
wealth to control Certain Fisheries within said Towns 
and Cities. 

Be it enacted, Sfc, as follows : 

Section 1. The selectmen of all towns and the board of mayor and 
aldermen of cities within the Commonwealth shall have full power when 



38 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

so instructed by said towns and cities to control and regulate the taking 
of eels, clams, quahaugs and scallops within their respective towns and 
cities, including ponds which are now or may hereafter be leased by the 
fish commissioners under chapter three hundred and eighty-four of the 
acts of the year eighteen hundred and sixt3'-nine; and may grant permits 
prescribing the times and methods of taking eels and the shell fish above 
named within their said towns and cities, and may make such other regu- 
lations in regard to said fisheries as they may deem wise and expedient. 
But the inhabitants of any city or town, without such permit, may take 
from the waters of their own or other cities and towns, eels and shell 
fish above named for their own famih' use; and from the waters of their 
own towns they may take any of the shell fish above named for bait, not 
exceeding three bushels, including shells, in any one day, but subject 
nevertheless to the general rules piescribed bj' the selectmen of towns and 
the boards of mayor and aldermen in cities as to the times and methods 
of taking said fish. 

Sect. 2. Whoever takes any eels or any of the shell fish mentioned 
in the preceding section without such permit, and in violation of this act, 
shall on conviction pay a fine of not less than three nor more than fifty 
dollars and costs of prosecution ; said fine and forfeituie imposed under 
this act to be recovered by indictment or complaint before any trial jus- 
tice or any court of competent jui isdiction within either of said counties. 

Sect. 3. All acts and i^arts of acts inconsistent with this act are 
hereby repealed. 

Sect. 4. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Approved 
April 17, 1880. 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 89 



THE CARP AND ITS CULTURE IN RIVERS AND LAKES, 
AND ITS INTRODUCTION IN AMERICA. 

BY RUDOLPH HESSEL. 

[Extracted from the Report of the U. S. Commissioner, Part IV., 1875-1876, pp. 865-900.] 



A. — Introduction. 

The present article is intended to give a brief description of the well- 
known carp of Europe, its nature, way of living, its ratio of natural and 
artificial increase in open waters, rivers, and lakes, the most approved 
methods of its culture, and the proper construction of ponds and breed- 
ing establishments. An additional object in view is to draw attention to 
the introduction into the United States of this valuable fish as specially 
adapted to its needs. 

B. — The Races of Carp : their History and Habits. 

1. — The Species and Varieties. 

The carp, Ci/prinm carpio, of the family Cijprinidce, has a toothless 
mouth, thick lips, and four barbels on the upper jaw. In place of the 
usual teeth of the mouth, there are a number of stout teeth on the 
pharyngeal bones, which are arranged in three rows. It has one single 
dorsal, which is longer than the anal. Both these fins have at their 
origin, on the anterior edge, a strong ray, which is serrated in a down- 
ward direction. The caudal -is of semi-circular shape, and the natatoiy 
bladder is divided into two sections, with connecting air-passage. The 
scales have an entire edge, and the body is compressed on the sides. 
The general color of the back and sides is a dark olive-brown, the abdo- 
men often of a whitish-yellow or orange tint. The coloring depends, as 
wdth all fishes, partly upon the age and season, partly upon the water, 
the soil, and also upon the food of the fish. 

Be it remarked that the carp, which has occasionally been compared 
to the buffalo-fish, has no resemblance to it, with the exception of the 
similarity of their coat of scales; neither does the flesh of the buffalo- 
fish ever come up to the excellence of tiiat of the carp. 

The carp w'as, in all probability, originally introduced into Europe 
from Central Asia many centuries ago, and is now common in most of 
the large rivers. In some parts of Europe, principally in Bohemia, 
Austria, Southern, Central, and Northern Germany, it has become do- 
mesticated. 



40 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

The carp is alleged to have been imported into England in the year 
1504. In Austria, which possesses the most extensive carp-fisheries in 
Europe, the culture of the carp can be traced as far back as the year 
1227. Tlie Emperor Charles IV. of Germany, by granting sundry privi- 
leges, favored the establishment of ponds in his dominions, and the 
monks were especially assiduous in the culture of fish in ponds. As 
early as the first half of the fourteenth century, Bohemia had its first 
large carp-pond, and the culture of this fish progressed in that country, 
as also in Poland and that district which now comprises German Austria; 
also in Upper Lusatia, Saxony, Silesia, and Bavaria. A celebrated 
establishment for carp-culture, with large, extensive ponds, was located, 
as early as the fourteenth century, near the town of Wittingau, in 
Bohemia, Austria. The first beginning of it may be traced back to the 
year 1367. At that time the lords of Rosenberg called into existence 
and maintained for centuries these establishments on a scale so extensive 
that to this day they are the admiration of the visitor, the main parts 
having survived, while the race of the Rosenbergs has long been extinct. 

The manor of AVittingau suffered greatly fi-om the calamities of the 
Thirt}'^ Years' War, and with it, in consequence, its fish-culture. The 
latter only recovered the effects of it after passing, together with the 
large estate of a rich monastery of the same name, in the year 1670, into 
j)Ossession of the Princes of Schwarzenberg, theu' present owners. The 
extent which carp-culture has reached on these princely domains will be 
seen from the circumstance that their artificial ponds comprise an area of 
no less than twenty thousand acres. The proceeds amount to about five 
hundred thousand pounds of carp per annum. The ponds of the Princes 
of Schwarzenberg are probably the most extensive of the kind on the 
globe. They are usually situated in some undulating lowland country, 
where small valleys have been closed in by gigantic dams for the purpose 
of forming reservoirs. Similar establishments, though not equally ex- 
tensive, are found in the provinces of Silesia and Brandenburg; as, for 
instance, near Breslau and Cottbus, in Peitz and Pleitz, which I visited 
last year. In Hesse-Cassel, Hanover, Oldenburg, IMecklenburg, and Hol- 
stein there are also many hundreds of ponds, none of them covering more 
than a few acres, but almost every large farm possessing at least one of 
them. 

It will be easily understood that after such an exclusive culture in 
ponds, continued through centuries, as also an existence in open water, 
where the Cyprinidce w^ere left more to themselves, a number of varieties 
or rather genuine species, Cyprinus carplo, showing striking differences 
from the races, were developed: these races, though derived directly from 
the original type, just as with our domestic animals. They are divided 
into three chief groups: — 

1. Cyprinus carpio communis^ the scale carp; with regular, concentric- 
ally arranged scales, being, in fact, the original species improved. 

2. Cyprinus carpio specularis, the mirror carp; thus named on account 
of the extraordinarily large scales which run along the sides of the body 
in three or four rows, the rest of the body being bare. 

3. Cyprinus carpio coriaceus, sive nudus, the leather carp; which has on 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 41 

the back either only a few scales or none at all, and possesses a thick, 
soft skin, which feels velvety to the touch. 

The two last named are distinguished from the original form by a 
somewhat shorter and stouter, but more fleshy, body. It is rather diffi- 
cult to decide which of these three species is the most suitable for culture. 
There are some districts where only scale carp are bred and mirror carp 
are not valued, as there is no demand for any but the former in the 
market; as, for instance, in Bohemia, in the above-mentioned domain of 
Wittingau. Again, in other districts, as in parts of Bavaria and Saxony, 
&c., for the same reason, rhirror carp or leather carp only are bred. 
There is, in fact, no sufficient reason for making any distinction among 
these three varieties; for, if they are genuine types of their respective 
species, they are indeed excellent and desirable fish. 

The assertion which has been made at times that the scale carp is 
better adapted for transportation than either the mirror or leather carp 
by reason of its coat of scales, which would protect it more efficiently 
from the accidents incidental to transfer, as also against inimical or 
hurtful attacks in the ponds (the mirror carp having very few and the 
leather carp no scales), is not correct. In transportation, scales are not 
only inefficient for protection, but they frequently cause the death of the 
fish, especially in transporting the so-called breeding-fish; for, if a scale 
be torn off in part only, ulceration will ensue, and the fish, of course, will 
die. Again, should any scale be lost, the bare spot will very soon begin 
to fester or develop a confervaceous growth, and the consequences will 
be the same. On the contrary, the leather carp, which, oddly enough, 
like the frog, is destitute of covering, will bear a great deal more ill 
usage and injury, whether young or old, than the scale carp. The 
smooth, slippery skin of the leather carp suffers much less from friction 
during transportation than the scale carp; and any slight wound will 
heal up much more easily, as the epithelium will cover it immediately, 
and the formation of a new skin can progress under its protection. I 
have often had the opportunity of seeing such scars upon the skin of the 
mirror carp, and even more so on that of the leather carp. They are the 
effects of an injury from the sharp edges of the heron's bill, the bite of a 
pike, or some other hurt, and I never saw any thing of the kind on a 
scale carp; for, if one of these be wounded, it almost invariably dies. 

The carp will sometimes cross with some related species of the 
Cyprinidce, — for instance, Carassius vulgaris: and, in consequence, hybrids 
have been engendered, which sometimes resemble the genuine carp so 
much that it is often difficult for the student, as well as for the professed 
culturist and experienced fisherman, to immediately recognize them. 
Such fishes are valueless as food, on account of their bad and very bony 
flesh. One of the hybrids mentioned is the Carpio lollaril, — Cyprinus 
striatus, which was formerly regarded as a separate species. It is a cross 
between the carp and Carassius vulgaris (crucian carp), a very poor and 
bony fish, which, in Germany, is sometimes called "poor man's carp." 
Some varieties exist of this common fish. The latter has even been 
dignified by a specific name of its own, Cai-assius gibelio. 

The spawning seasons of the crucian and the true carp coincide, and, 
6 



42 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

where kept together, hybrid races may readily be formed; tliat period 
inchiding the time from the month of May until August. 

In order to determine this question, I myself managed to bring about 
such crosses by placing (1) female common carp with male crucian carp, 
and (2) female crucian carp with male common carp, in small tanks, con- 
structed with this end in view; (3) I also put together female Carpio 
koUarii with male common carp, — this for the sole purpose of testing the 
capability of propagation of the Carpio kollar'ii. which had been doubted. 
In the two former cases I obtained forms analogous to the Carpio kollarii, 
sometimes approaching in appearance the true carp, at others the crucian 
carp. In the third case, however, having placed ripe Carpio kollarii 
together with Cyprinus carpio, I obtained a ijroduct with difficulty to be 
distinguished from the genuine carp. I took the trouble to feed them 
for three years, in order to try their fitness for the table; but their flesh 
was exceedingly poor and very bony, and could not be compared by any 
means to that of the common carp. 

Considering, then, the whole extensive tract of country devoted to 
fish-culture in Central Europe, where crucian carp are to be found from 
Italy to Sweden and Norway, from France to the boundaries of Eastern 
Siberia; considering the many who cultivate on a small scale, and the 
owners of badly stocked ponds, with their different doubtful productions, 
— how often do we find in the markets or ponds very nice crosses which 
have been propagated through from three to ten generations, and which 
are sold for carp ! There are many small sheets of water in Germany, 
France, Austria, Italy, Holland, and Belgium, and probably also in Eng- 
land, the proprietors of which imagine, in good faith, that they have 
stocked their ponds with good, genuine carp, which, in reality, through 
careless selection or ignorance, are hybrids which may even have been 
cultivated for two or three generations. In some ponds in Switzerland, 
near the lake of Constance, some crosses of Ahramis hrama were found as 
late as twenty years ago. 

2. — The Ilahits and the Mode of Reproduction. 

The carp is partial to stagnant waters, or such as have a not too swift 
current, with a loamy, muddy bottom, and deep places covered with 
vegetation. It inhabits now most of the larger and smaller rivers of 
Europe, particularly the Elbe, Weser, Rhine, Danube, Po, Rhone, Ga- 
ronne, Loire, then the Bavarian and Swiss lakes, the lake of Constance, 
&c. ; even salt water seems to agree with it very well. I have taken it in 
the Black Sea, where its weight often amounts to from fifteen to twenty 
pounds. It is also found in the Caspian Sea in great numbers, and is 
known there by the name of Sassan. 

It is an advantage that the carp is able to live in water where other 
fishes could not possibly exist; for instance, in the pools of bog-meadows 
or sloughs. However, it is not by any means to be inferred from this 
that the best locality for carp-ponds of a superior kind could be in such 
situations. The presence of too much humic acid is unfavorable to the 
well-being of the carp, as we shall see presently in the chapter upon the 
establishing of fish-ponds. 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 48 

The carp lives upon vec^etable food as well as upon worms and larvae 
of aquatic insects, which it turns up from the mud with the head. It is 
very easily satisfied, and will not refuse the ofRal of the kitchen, slaugh- 
ter-houses, and breweries, or even the excrement of cattle and pigs. I 
propose to enter further upon the subject of feeding it when I speak of 
its culture in ponds. 

In the moderate zone — that is to say, in Central Europe — the carp will, 
at the beginning of the cold season, seek deeper water to pass that period 
in a kind of sleep. This will sometimes occur as early as the beginning 
of November, if the winter should set in early; and it is to be remarked 
that they will retire at an earlier period in ponds than in rivers. They do 
so always in groups of from fifty to a hundred and more. They make a 
cavity in the muddy ground, called a "kettle:" in this they pass the 
time until spring, huddled together in concentric circles with their heads 
together, the posterior part of the body raised and held immovably, 
scarcely lifting the gills for the process of breathing, and without taking 
a particle of food. They do not take any food from the beginning of 
October, and continue to abstain from it, in some countries, until the end 
of ;March, and in colder districts even somewhat later. It will not an- 
swer, however, to depend on this habit when transporting them for propa- 
gation in the spring or winter time, more especially young carp one or 
two years old. The fish will arrive in a worn and hungry condition, and 
must be kept in a tank constructed on purpose for observation, where it 
has no chance to bury itself in the mud: here it will sometimes take a 
little food. At such times I generally make use of boiled barley, or rye- 
flour converted into a kind of tough paste by the addition of hot water, 
and with this I mix a little loam and rye-bread ; but I continue the feed- 
ing only until I can judge from the looks of the fish that they have re- 
covered. This method I followed with the carp which I imported from 
Europe for the purpose of breeding in the winter of 1876-77. It is a 
most striking fact that the carp, though it does not take any food during 
this winter sleep in its natural retreat, does not diminish in weight, 
while, in the so-called " winter chambers," it does so to a remarkable 
degree. These " winter chambers " are large tanks, a thousand to five 
thousand square feet in size, or less: they are sometimes walled in with 
masonry; sometimes they are constructed of wood. Fishes intended for 
sale are kept in them for a few weeks or months during the winter. 

The carp does not grow in the winter. Warmth alone seems to exer- 
cise a favorable influence upon it, and to promote growth. It only grows 
in the months of May, June, July, and August, and does not appear to 
continue doing so in September. The slight increase in weight which 
takes place during the latter month seems to grow out of an accumula- 
tion of fat which is being deposited around the entrails. In ponds which 
contain plenty of food and healthy water, in an ordinar}^ year, the 
growth and increase of weight in the year will be represented in figures 
as follows : — 



44 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Oct. 





Per cent of Ori- 
ginal Weight. 


Per cent of 
Growth. 


May 

June 

July 

Auo-ust ........ 

September ........ 


10-15 

33 

36 . 

20 

6 


13 
31 
34 

18 
4 


Total 


110 


100 



If the weather in the month of May be mild and warm from the be- 
ginning, a better growth may be expected, amounting, as in June, to 
about thirty per centum. This month (May) is decidedly of great impor- 
tance for the growth of the fish during the current year ; for, in propor- 
tion as the fish has grown in the short space of one month, it will take 
more food in the following ones as the increase of its growth and conse- 
quent wants will demand. Guitarists, therefore, consider the month of 
May as being the most important of the whole period of the carp's 
growth. The above-given calculations, of course, are limited to ponds 
in which no artificial feeding is resorted to, but in which there is suffi- 
cient food by reason of the good quality of the water and soil which pro- 
duces it. 

In small ponds, situated in parks or gardens, which possess favorable 
soil and river-water, the increase of weight will be even a little greater 
if feeding is had recourse to, for such small ponds (covering only half an 
acre) cannot produce sufficient food themselves. On the whole, feeding 
is a makeshift, as will be seen presently, and which in very large ponds 
of more than from twenty to a thousand acres should not be made use of. 

The above calculations are only admissible for Central Europe, from 
the Adriatic to the Baltic and the North Sea. In countries farther north, 
as in Sweden, the growth of the carp is less; as, on the contrary, in more 
southern countries than Central Europe — for instance, in lllyria, Dalma- 
tia, Southern Italy, Southern Spain, and partly, also. Southern France — 
the result is more favorable still. There a milder and warmer climate, 
an early spring, a very warm summer and autumn, and a late winter, 
which, in addition, is mild and short, combine to exercise a favorable 
influence upon the thriving condition of the fishes. 

In these warm climates the fish becomes lively at a much earlier sea- 
son, if it does at all pass the winter in that lethargic state, without tak- 
ing any food, than it does in the countries of the northern parts of 
Central Europe. 

The pond carp of Central Europe generally leaves its winter retreat 
when the rays of the spring sun have warmed the water thoroughly, 
while at the same time it begins to seek for food at a somewhat earlier 
period in rivers and lakes. At the beginning of the month of March 
the eggs have developed themselves considerably in the body of the fish, 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 45 

and it only needs a few weeks of warm weather to bring about the 
spawning season. This commences in the middle of May in such lakes 
and ponds of Central and Northern France, Southern Germany, and Aus- 
tria as have a warm situation and are sheltered from the cold winds. It 
continues in some localities throughout June and July, and sometimes, 
in more elevated situations, until August ; as, for instance, in Franconia 
and Upper Bavaria. The spawn of so late a season, however, is scarcely 
fit for breeding purposes, as the fish cannot grow much more during the 
short space of warm weather. It remains very small, and suffers greatly 
from the ensuing winter weather, and is easily dwarfed at that time. 
The spawning of the individual fish does not take place all at once. 
Days and weeks may pass before it will have left the last egg to the care 
of nature. At times, upon the setting-in of rainy, cool weather during 
this period, it wiU be interrupted, but re-assumed as soon as the tempera- 
ture grows warmer again. Culturists altogether dislike cold weather at 
this time, as not only the eggs, but the young fry also, suffer much from 
it. Wet, cold summers are no more profitable to the culturist of carp 
than to the agriculturist. In the southern part of Europe the spawning 
season commences at an earlier date than in Central Europe. In Sicily, 
in the neighborhood of Palermo, where there are some private ponds, the 
carp begins to spawn at the commencement of the month of April. This 
is said to be the case also in the French province of Constantine, Algeria, 
Africa. 

The abundance of eggs in the carp is very great, and it is this circum- 
stance which will explain its extraordinary increase in the natural waters. 
A fish, weighing from four to five pounds, contains, on an average, four 
hundred thousand to five hundred thousand eggs. Other statements 
figure still higher. I not only made calculations myself formerly, repeat- 
ing them in 1876 on a female mirror carp, which I obtained from the 
environs of Gunzenhausen, Bavaria, and which, curiously enough, at the 
end of November, was entirely ripe, but I also obtained statements from 
culturists on whom I could depend. The calculation I made in the fol- 
lowing manner: after freeing the eggs from all the fat and the enclos- 
ing membrane, and after having washed them in alcohol, I comited off' 
exactly a thousand of them; these I weighed, and according to the result 
I deduced the number of the whole. In the somewhat longer-bodied 
scale carp, I generally found comparatively more eggs than in a mirror or 
leather carp, though all were of equal age and weight. 

During the spawning season an appreciable change takes place in the 
male; protuberances, like warts, appearing on the skin of the head and 
back, and disappearing upon the expiration of that period. This is a 
peculiarity with most of the cypriuoids. Some time before the spawning 
season sets in, the falling out of the pharyngeal teeth takes place: these 
grow anew every year. 

Some days before spawning, the fish show an increased vivacity: they 
rise more often from the depths below to the surface. Two or three or 
more of the male fish keep near the female: the latter swims more 
swiftly on a warm, sunny morning, keeping mostly close to the surface, 
followed by the males. This is called " streichen,^^ — running-spawning. 



4t) INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

and is more frequent in warm than in windy and rainy weather. The 
female prefers spots which are overgrown with grasses and other kinds of 
aquatic plants, such as Utricularia, Ni/wphcea, and Alisma. The male 
fishes follow close to the very water's edge, as far as the diminished 
depth will allow them. They lose all their timidity and precaution, so 
that they may be taken quite easily. They lash the water in a lively 
way, twisting the posterior portion of the body energetically, and shoot- 
ing through the water near its surface with short, tremulous movements 
of the fins. They do so in gioups of two or three males to one female 
fish, and forming an almost compact mass. This is the moment when 
the female drops the eggs, which immediately are impregnated by the 
milter. As this process is repeated several times, the female drops proba- 
bly only from four hundred to five hundred eggs at a time, in order to 
gain resting time, so that it will require days and weeks before it has 
given up the last egg. 

The eggs of the carp are adhesive, not detached, like those of the 
Salmonidce ; these latter lying loosely on the ground, while the former 
adhere in lumps to the object upon which they have fallen. As soon as 
the egg has left the body of the fish, it swells up a little, the mucus, which 
surrounds it, serving as a means to fasten itself upon some aquatic plant, 
stone, or brushwood. Those eggs which have no such object to cling to 
are lost. I found numerous eggs on the reverse sides of the leaves of the 
Nijmpliceacea and their stems, the Phellandj-ium, and Ulricularla ; but the 
greater number of them I discovered on the Festuca Jluilans, which, 
among fishermen, is known generally by the name of " water-grass." Its 
narrow, long, strap-shaped, thin leaves spread softly over the water's 
surface, as also its numerous branches in the water afford to the fish the 
sought-for opportunity to deposit its eggs upon its tender leaves. The 
seeds of this grass are an excellent food for the carp. This may be 
regarded as a useful indication to be acted upon in the construction of 
ponds. 

The eggs will develop themselves quickly, if assisted by warm weather. 
As early as the fifth or sixth day the first traces of dusky spots, the eyes, 
will be visible, and toward the twelfth, or at the latest the sixteenth, day 
the little embryo fish will break through its envelope. This rapid devel- 
opment takes place only in shallow, thoroughly warmed ponds, or in such 
as were expressly constructed for hatching, and called breeding-ponds. 
If these ponds are deep, and consequently their water is colder, the 
hatching process may require as many as twenty days. In from three to 
five days the young fish has absorbed the yolks, and seeks its food. If 
the breeding-pond be productive enough to furnish the necessary food 
for so many young fishes, these will grotv very rapidly. I shall return to 
this subject hereafter. 

I remarked above that the carp prefers stagnant or slowly running 
water with a muddy bottom, and that it lives upon vegetable as well as 
animal food, aquatic plants, seeds, w^orms, and larvae of water-insects: 
it is therefore no fish of prey. It does not attack other fishes, and has 
no teeth in its mouth, but only in the throat, and is, on account of its 
harmlessness, an excellent fish for the culturist, as well as for stocking 
large lakes and rivers in general. 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 47 



3. — The Growfh and Size. 

Its growth differs according as the fish inhabits cold or warm water, 
a river, hike, or pond, finding plentiful food therein, or being fed. An 
additional factor is the quality of the soil, whether muddy or stony. In 
cold water, or such as has a stony ground, the carp will not progress 
favorably. For this reason the statements concerning its normal size, 
attained to in a certain given time, differ widely. Very naturally it 
will exercise an extremel}' great influence upon the thriving of the fishes, 
whether the pond contains a great number or only a few of them ; 
whether it is overstocked, as culturists term it; or whether there are only 
a proportionate number of fishes in it, according to its capability of j)ro- 
ducing food. Other considerations remain to be mentioned ; namely, is 
the pond provided with supplies from brooks falling into it, or are the 
fishes to be fed? The latter course is almost indispensable in the culture 
of trout. The expenses incurred in this case diminish the hicome of the 
culturist: if not resorted to, the result will be the same, as the value of 
the fish will be smaller. This feeding is needless with the carp, if it be 
cultivated judiciously in suitable ponds; and for this reason alone the 
culture of the carp is preferable to that of the trout. 

In rivers and lakes it grows larger, although the same fish, for the 
reason, probably, that in a larger space, which at the same time yields 
more sheltered retreats, it escapes, from the pursuit of man more easily 
than in regular artificial ponds, and finds more plentiful supplies of food. 
The question of the species, or I would rather say the race, is of great 
moment, particularly in respect to carp-culture in ponds. 

A favorable result may be expected from the culture of this fish 
wherever the necessary water is to be found, be it in the North or South, 
and that, too, as well in ponds as in open lakes and rivers. 

The normal weight which a carp may attain to in three years, whether 
it be scale carp, mirror carp, or leather carp, is an average of from three 
to three and one-fourth pounds; that is, a fish which has lived two sum- 
mers — consequently is eighteen months old — will weigh two and three- 
fourths to three and one-fourth pounds the year following. The growth 
may turn out to be even more favorable in a warm year, or if only a few 
fishes have been placed in a pond, as we shall see farther on in the chap- 
ter treating of pond-culture and the operations of the culturist. 

Carps may reach a very advanced age, as specimens are to be found in 
Austria over one hundred and forty years old. 

The increase in length only continues up to a certain age; but its cir- 
cumference will increase up to its thirty-fifth year. 

I have seen some common carp in the southern parts of Europe — in 
the lowlands of Hungary, Servia, Croatia, Wallachia, as also in Mol- 
davia and the Buckowina — which w^eighed from thirty to forty pounds 
and more, measuring nearly three and one-half feet in length by two 
and three-fourths feet in circumference. 

Old men, whose credibility and truthfulness could not be doubted, 
assured me, and gave the most detailed accoimts, of the capture of this 
species of fish in former years, giants, which weighed fi'om fifty to sixty 



48 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

pounds, and which they had seen themselves. During the Crimean war, 
in 1853, a French engineer officer, stationed at Widdiu, on the Danube, 
in Turkey, killed a carp by a bullet-shot some distance below the city: 
this fish weighed sixty-seven pounds. I had some of its scales in my 
possession, of which each had a diameter of two and one-half inches. 
Their structure indicated to a certainty that the age of this fish could be 
no. more than twenty-four years at the most. It is a well-known fact 
that two large carps, weighing from forty-tw^o to fifty-five pounds, were 
taken several years ago on one of the Grand Duke of Oldenburg's do- 
mains in Northern Germany. They had been kept in some particularly 
favorable water, productive of plentiful food, and had been used as 
breeding-fishes. These two specimens might, from their size, be calcu- 
lated to be comparatively very aged fishes : it was proved that they were 
only fifteen years old. If we may credit the chronicles kept centuries ago 
by old families, and especially by the monks, who had taken possession 
of all the best localities along the banks of the beautiful blue Danube, 
then still greater giants had been caught, and that in the waters of the 
Danube itself. A chronicle of the monastery of Molk, in Austria, refers 
to a carp weighing seventy-eight pounds, which had been captured on 
Ascension Day in 1520. Another record speaks of a carp w^hich had 
been taken in the third decennium of the present century in the lake of 
Zug, in Switzerland, and which weighed ninety pounds. These giants 
are certainly only wonderful exceptions, and have become celebrated 
through the scarcity of such occurrences; but still these facts are en- 
couraging illustrations that it is possible £or such large specimens to 
grow up in favorable water. All the countries where these large fishes 
have been found, and which are situated between the Black, the North, 
and the Baltic Seas, are pretty nearly such as have a late spring and a 
long, cold winter. Near Widdin th6 Danube has been frozen repeatedly. 
There the carp passes from five to seven months in its winter sleep, 
during which it does not grow. If this fish thrives so well in the coun- 
tries which have such a very cold winter (on an average they have the 
same winter temperature as Boston, Chicago, Milwaukee, Pittsburg, 
Philadelphia, New York, Baltimore, and St. Louis), where the rivers 
have not enough food for these fishes by far, their level being regulated 
by dams, which are a subject of constant complaint to the fishermen, 
how much more would they thrive in the waters of this country with 
their great riches of food! But, if we take into account the rivers of the 
mild south and south-west of the United States, what success may not be 
expected for this fish in those regions V 

If the carp finds food in superfluity, it wiU grow much more rapidly 
than the above statement indicates. This gives an increase of from three 
to three and one-fourth pounds in one year and six months ; but this is 
only the normal one, the food consumed being of an average amount. If 
the fish obtain food very plentifully, it will grow more rapidly. In this 
case, again, it is to be considered that the waters of the milder climates 
of this country possess this advantage, scarcely to be judged of or es- 
timated at its proper value as yet, that the fish may be able, during three- 
quarters of the year or even the whole year round, to take food, and will 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 49 

omit the lethargic winter sleep conditioned by the cold winter. There is 
scarcely a comparison to be made so far as the carp are concerned between 
the rivers of this country, so richly supplied with food, which it will not 
be compelled to seek for it under a constant strife for existence, and those 
of the much poorer waters of the Rhine, Elbe, Rhone, &c. In the 
waters of its native country, in Central Europe, after its first wakening 
from the long winter sleep, it seeks most diligently after the contents of 
the seeds of the Nupliar luteum and Nymplicea alba, the yellow and white 
water-lily, the Plidlanclrium aquaticum, Festuca flnitans, &c. The waters 
of the United States abound in all these plants and numerous others, the 
seeds of which will serve the fish as food; for instance, the wild rice 
{Zizania aqualica and Z. Jiuilans), the well-known Tuscarora rice or 
"water-oats" with its great riches of seeds, and many others, which 
will yield food profusely, and which European waters do not possess, thus 
giving a great advantage to the American carp-culturist. And then there 
is the cultm-e of fish in ponds. There are culturists in Central Europe 
who, wishing to see the fish growing more rapidly, take the trouble 
to feed them with soaked barley, which they occasionally throw out in 
different places; and, by doing so, they have had a very full success, the 
fish growing larger, that is, more quickly, when not thus fed. By intro- 
ducing the above-named wild or natural water-plants in carp-ponds, they 
will be perpetuated ; and the grains which have fallen to the bottom of 
the water will form an ample article of food for the first spring days, if 
we do not prefer to give them the almost worthless offal of the slaughter- 
houses. I do not advocate the so-called artificial feeding of this fish 
where the ponds themselves yield food in ample abundance, a consumma- 
tion toward which the Tuscarora rice will largely contribute. 

Let us once more consider the fact of its extraordinary increase of 
weight of about a hundred and ten per centum in the exceedingly short 
space of four months; for during the cold winter time, when ice thickly 
covers rivers and lakes, nature banishes it into its temporary tomb, which 
it chooses and digs for itself, to hold its winter sleep in. This fish needs 
from fifteen to eighteen months of growth, to gain, accoi'ding to a low 
estimation, the w- eight of three pounds without being fed. But much 
more satisfactory results are frequently arrived at when favorable cir- 
cumstances combine, and when it will reach a greater weight There 
are some culturists who obtain in the space of time fishes of four pounds' 
weight: of course they possess warmly situated ponds, which thaw very 
early in spring, and perhaps they assist nature in some degree by feeding 
the fishes. 1 have done so myself in two successive years, which were 
exceptionally warm, when I fed the fishes with the almost worthless malt- 
refuse, or " grains." They increased visibly, and attained to the above- 
mentioned weight in the same space of time. 

This fifteen to eighteen months of the actual time of growth transpires 
during a period of three years and six months, as intervening months of 
winter sleep are to be included, during which the growth is interi-upted. 

I will not recur to what this fish promises to become in the milder 
regions of the south, where neither ice-bound water nor cold tempera- 
tures force upon it the lethargy of the winter sleep; where it will have 
7 



50 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

the longer space of from eight to ten months, or maybe the whole 
year, including the mild winter, for the most vigorous and rapid develop- 
ment, — not, as in Europe, the sparingly allotted four or five months. 

It is not to be doubted that the carp will arrive at the weight of from 
two and three-fourths to four pounds in one year in those warm climates, 
when in colder regions it requires two years and six months. I do not 
think that I am mistaken in this: I am ready to stand by this assertion, 
which the future will surely verify. 

I believe I have said all that is most desirable for the culturist to 
know concerning the carp and its natural history ; and I will now treat 
briefly of its culture in ponds, rivers, and lakes, as also the construction 
of ponds. 

C. — The Culture of Carp axd Coxstructiox of Ponds. 
1. — Its Adaptability/ to Artijicial Culture. 

The conclusion from what has been said will be, that the carp is ex- 
cellently qualified for culture in enclosed waters, as artificial ponds, and 
also for the stocking of open waters, such as rivers and lakes, for what is 
called " free fishing." 

It is in the power of the culturist to i^roduce, by means of artificial 
impregnations and hatching, as also by the natural increase of this fish, 
with its abundance of eggs, any amount of fry, as well for fresh water 
as most probably also for salt water, as the fact of its occumug in the 
salt water of the Black, and very frequently in that of the Adriatic Sea, 
will demonstrate. 

There is no other fish which will, with proj'^er management, be as ad- 
vantageous as the carp. Its frugality in regard to its food, its easy 
adaptability to all waters, in rivers, in lakes and ponds, and even salt- 
water estuaries, its regular, rapid growth, and its value as a food-fish, 
are its best recommendations. 

2. — The Localities best adapted to a Carp-Pond. 

I will try to describe, in the first place, the manner in which carp- 
cultm-e in ponds is conducted in Central Europe, and subsequently ex- 
plain more fully its introduction in open waters. 

If intending to establish carp-ponds, it will be necessary to ascertain 
the following points before the execution of the plan : — 

1. Is there a sufficient quantity of water at hand for all purposes, for 
the summer as well as winter? 

2. Is the ground, soil, and water favorable for culture? 

3. It is important to examine the land minutely, in order to find what 
are the components of the soil, for not every kind of soil is suitable for 
carp-culture. 

4. It ought to be decided from the commencement how large the estab- 
lishment is intended to be, whether only for private use and pleasure, or 
whether wholesale production of the fish as an article of trade is contem- 
plated. 

If points 1 and 2 have been satisfactorily settled, then the gTOund 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 61 

must be examined, particularly whether it is so constituted as not to 
allow the collected water to penetrate, and whether the ground is sandy 
or loamy. Above all, it must not be neglected to measure the depth of 
the stratum which holds the water, and to be fully assured that it is 
sufficiently impermeable to withstand the pressure of the water and to 
hinder its oozing through, so as to prevent the consequent drying-up of 
the pond. 

A rocky, gravelly ground is not appropriate for carp-culture. Sandy 
ground, without a considerable mixture of loam, clay, and humus, is of 
small use. I speak here of large ponds of considerable extent. Small 
ponds witli a sandy bottom may be improved by supplying them with 
loam, as it is frequently done in agriculture. 

Loam is a mixture of a small per centum of sand and a larger quan- 
tity of clay, and is suitable for ponds. If such ground contains some 
marl, or, better, some little elements of humus, it is of the greatest ad- 
vantage for fish-culture. These constituents of humus, if dissolved, give 
the water a yellow, muddy coloi-; and this water supports by its ingredi- 
ents a profuse number of microscopic beings, which again form the 
support of a larger class of creatures, and represent therefore the pro- 
ductiveness of food of the pond, on which, in its turn, the carp depends 
for its sustenance. Too much humus or dissolved peat is injurious. 
Water which runs through bog-meadows or oak-woods is not of much 
use, because it contains too much humic acid and tannin: these impart a 
mouldy taste to the fish. A too considerable amount of gypsiferous earth, 
carbonate of lime, or sulphate of lime, is injurious also. Should any 
mineral springs fall into a pond, they must be turned off. The most 
favorable water will always be that which comes from rivers and brooks. 
Ponds might be constructed which would fill themselves with rain-water 
during the winter or at any other time; but such water takes a mouldy 
taste easily, which it will communicate to the fishes, as does the water 
from bogs also. 

In Europe experience has shown that water coming from fertile fields 
and meadows, carrying with it particles of offal from villages, is best 
adapted for caip-culture. 

Spring-water direct from the ground is not favorable, and ought to 
be conducted for at least a few hundred yards through wide, shallow 
ditches, in order to receive more nourishing components from the air as 
well as the earth, and above all to be waimed to some extent by the sun 
and warm air. 

A tract of land, such as above described, merits the preference as a 
site for a pond, if in other particulars the ground is favorable and has 
not too great a fall. If this were the case, very high and strong dams 
would be required for the collection of water. Such dams cost large 
sums if constructed of good watei-proof material. 

A low, undulating country, with only slight elevations or hills, where 
the small valleys are easily closed up by dams for the purpose of foiming 
reservoirs, is favorable, the construction of these dams involving com- 
paratively trifling expense. 



52 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

3. — The Construction of the Ponds. 

Ponds must not be too deep, as the water will be colder and will har- 
bor fewer insects, larvae, and worms, which form part of the carp's food: 
besides, this fish does not grow quickly in cold water. A depth of three 
feet in the centre of the pond is sufficient; toward the outlet-sluice it 
may be from six to eight feet deep, but only for an area of from two 
hundred to one thousand square feet. In the depths of this " collector " 
the fishes seek their resting-place for the winter, and also in summer, 
when the water is too warm near the edge. The outer part of the pond 
should not be deeper than one foot for the distance of about seventy or 
a hundred feet, so that the water there may be warmed more thoroughly 
by the sun. 

Toward the centre of the pond, and in accordance with its size, a cav- 
ity of from twenty to fifty feet in length, and two feet deeper than the 
rest of the ground, should be dug. This will serve the fishes for a resting- 
place in summer and winter. This cavity is sometimes called a "ket- 
tle," though the appellation varies in different localities. 

From the entrance of the pond to the other end, where the " collector " 
and the outlet-sluice are situated, two or three ditches of two feet in 
depth and four feet in length must be made, which cut the deeper 
"kettles " transversely as far as the collector. These ditches are intended 
to carry all the fishes into the collector when the pond is being drained. 
The collector is nothing but a place of from twenty to forty feet in length 
and breadth near the outlet-sluice, one foot deeper than the remaining 
bottom of the pond. In ponds of superior construction it has generally 
a wood flooring, and must be cleaned of the mud every year, so that the 
fishes may not become too much soiled by the mud. 

In speaking of the erection of a breeding establishment for carp, I 
have in view a water-extent of at least thirty-five to seventy acres' area, 
which in Central Europe would be considered an establishment of about 
one-third magnitude. 

The inflow of water into the pond should never be allowed to be direct; 
as, for instance, a brook falling into it. This often causes the water to 
rise at an inopportune time, carrying into the pond other fishes, especially 
the rapacious pike. The carp also has the disposition to swim toward 
the inflowing water, by which means it is drawn away from its proper 
feeding-places. The water should be conducted into the pond sideways 
from the stream; and, if it should be a small brook only, it may be turned 
off entirely, and carried alongside the pond, from which point the latter 
can be easily supj^lied with water. 

The inlet-sluices from the stream must of course be of a strong and 
practical construction, so that an overflow is impossible ; and they ought 
to be provided with gratings to prevent other fishes from intruding. 

It is an indispensable condition for the culture in ponds, according to 
established rules, that they be so constructed as to allow of being thor- 
oughly drained, so that the fishes may betaken out without any difficulty. 
The bottom of ponds should be of such a description as to permit their 
being dried up for agricultural purposes if necessary. 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 53 

In Europe ponds of from ten to two thousand acres' extent are frequent- 
ly to be found, which, after having been used for fish-culture for a time, 
are dried up; and sometimes grass, oats, wheat, &c., are planted on the 
ground. This improves the soil exceedingly for fish-culture. I mention 
this simply in order to show that the soil gains by this manipulation, not 
only for fish-culture, but also for agriculture. If the soil at the bottom of 
ponds has been freed from the humic acid by vegetation, after being 
ploughed and exposed to the air thoroughly, fishes will thrive incredibly 
well in them. This I intend as a suggestion particularly for farmers 
■who would wish to establish a small pond of perhaps five or six acres' size, 
to show that the soil of their land would not lose, but rather gain, by 
doing so. Agriculture and carp-culture go hand in hand in some Central 
European countries, and form a kind of complement to one another. 
To-day a piece of ground may be a field or fertile meadow ; next year 
it will be found to be a productive pond, to serve again one or two years 
later its first purpose. 

If the size of the principal and supplementary ponds has been decided 
on, the height, depth, and width must be measured, and the levels of the 
ground and dams, if such are needed, should be carefully taken. The 
levelling of the bottom is required to assist in the determination of the 
depth of the ditches, "kettles," collector, and outlet to be dug in it. 

In the erection of the required dam it is most important that it be 
constructed of the very best material, so as to make it secure against the 
destructive influence of the water. It ought to be three times as wide at 
its base as it is high, and at the top the width should be the same as the 
height. The interior, or water-side, should be less inclined than the ex- 
terior one. 

Before the foundation of the dam is laid, the ground where it is to 
stand must be dug out to a depth of two, and a width of from four to five, 
feet throughout the whole length of it. If the ground does not consist of 
loam, it must be filled up with it about one foot deep, and this must be 
tamped down hard. A second layer follows, and is disposed of in the 
same manner. This is repeated, the clay being moistened every time 
if required, and then beaten down solidly. This lower stratum is but 
the foundation of the dam, which is formed from the earth dug out of 
the pond or its vicinity. This is continued until the dam is completed. 
Care must be taken, however, that the construction and tamping-down 
of this lower stratum be done in layers, and that nothing but good clay be 
used. In this manner the material of the foundation will become a very 
tenacious mass, which will not allow any water to penetrate. The 
completion of this laborious task will be a source of ultimate satisfaction, 
as many disadvantages, which might arise after the filling of the pond, 
will be done away with through its agency. The dam should not be 
made entirely of clay; for in midsummer, during the great heat, it would 
dry out too much on that side most exposed to the sun, and consequently 
it would become full of fissures, through which the water would escape, 
and this might become disastrous for the establishment. 

On account of the required outlet-sluices, &c., the fact must be kept 
in view, that such newly constructed dams will sink ten per cent after a 



54 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

lapse of time of little move than a year, with the exception of that por- 
tion which has been solidly made. The dam shonld be sodded. For the 
draining- of the pond, at the " fisliiiig-out " season, it sliould have an 
outlet at the lower end, if no otlier advantageous arrangements can be 
made for the purpose. The use of wood-work for the channel should be 
avoided, its durability not being sufficient. The most desirable con- 
struction would be that the outlet-channel consist either of masonry-work 
or water-pipes, which may be made either of clay or iron. This channel 
or pipe must be so made that it can be closed tightly or opened again 
readily if needed, and must be provided with two or three fold gratings 
to prevent the escape of the fishes upon the opening of the sluice. At 
the same time there should be an outlet-channel, several feet in breadth, 
at the side of the pond, to allow the water to run off. This must also be 
secured by grating, but should be kept open always, so that, in case of 
continued rainy weather or sudden and violent showers of rain or thunder- 
storms, no overflowing of the banks or dams may be possible through the 
unexpected rising of the water in the pond. Large fish-ponds of several 
hundred acres' extent (some have a surface of twelve hundred, fifteen 
hundred, or two thousand acres) have generally, and according to their 
size, two or three outlets I have described, and which pass underneath the 
dam. The outflow from these is usually regulated by adjustment of the 
flood-gates from the top of the dam. 

The so-called " Monche " (monks) are wooden boxes, which stand in 
the pond at a distance of a few feet from the dam. They are perforated 
like a sieve, or are provided with small adjustable boards, and wooden 
pipes run from them through the dam. In Bohemia they are called 
" carp- houses." They are, however, rarely used in large establishments 
at present, only such culturists making use of them who have but small 
breeding-ponds at their command and carry on culture on a small scale. 
These locks suffer too much from the water, air, and sun, as also from the 
pressure of the ice in winter, so that they require considerable repairs at 
an early date after their first coming into use; but they serve their 
purpose fully in small .ponds, especially in smaller ponds, which are in- 
tended for pleasure or experiment. 

There are so many different ways of constructing these subterranean 
sewers, that I may as well pass them over: they belong more particularly 
to the department of hydraulics. It is the province of the culturist to 
find for himself that which will be the best and most practical method in 
the construction of outlets. 

If it be desired to make use of natural ponds, of which there are num- 
bers in every State of the Union, it is necessary to ascertain whether 
they can be put into the proper condition for regular culture. This can 
only be done if the influx of water can be regulated and the entire drain- 
age of the pond made possible. An intrenchment will be required 
with such ponds in order to make them dry. Trunks of trees 
should be taken out of them; and where they are too deep they should 
be filled up, or, if this cannot be done, they should be brought into con- 
nection with the above-described sewers on the bottom of the pond. If 
this is not done, too many fishes ^\■ill remain embedded in the mud when 
the pond is being drained, and this lessens the profits to a great extent. 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 55 

Should any brooks fall into such ponds, as is often the case with large 
ones, they must be kept under strict observation on account of possible 
overflows which might occur. If it be practicable, the brook had best 
be turned off and conducted alongside the pond, when the latter can be 
supplied with water if required. 

Such brooks, coming from a neighboring hilly territory or from moun- 
tains, will frequently occasion an overflow if either a thunder-shower or 
sudden thawing of snow and ice should set in. In the latter case the 
ground might be too hard with the frost to allow the water to run off 
readily. 

If the overflow should even be inconsiderable, it would still exercise an 
injurious influence upon the fishes, as the influx of so much water, which 
in all probability would contain unfavorable substances, would be apt to 
drive them from their winter retreat. 

In summer, sudden, violent rain-showers may cause an overflow 
within a few minutes, which will carry off the fishes, and eventually may 
destroy all the ponds. To secure against this, the construction of re- 
serve-sluices, such as are contrived in artificial ponds, and a wide reserve- 
ditch alongside the pond, w^hich is destined to carry off the threatening 
high water, are recommended. A small dam between the pond and 
brook, instead of the reserve-ditch, will sometimes answer. 

Great caution is necessary in the selection of the site for a pond or the 
natural pond, which is to be converted into a carp-pond. 

Overflows not only injure the ponds and fishes, but may result in a 
still worse disaster, — that of carrying away the fishes into strange waters 
and destroying the ponds. 

The fundamental rule in carp-culture is, that the water be of the same 
depth in summer and winter. If the supply of water is too plentiful, 
great quantities of mud are carried into the pond, embedding the grass 
which grows in it and on its banks: this, in consequence, will rot and 
poison the water. The carp immediately desert such water on account of 
its offensive odor, and retire from their proper feeding-places to depths 
deficient in production of food. 

The mud, w'hich is being constantly reproduced, consists of the re- 
mainders of plants. From these, different gaseous compounds develop 
themselves in midsummer, and the fishes become sickly in consequence. 
In this case, especially if they rise to the surface seeking for air, more 
water must be supplied through the inlet-sluice, when they will recover 
by degrees. A casualty of this description may occur in very large 
ponds, though no overflow may have taken place. 

Pernicious gases develop themselves from the mud even in winter; but 
they rarely have any bad effects, being injurious only if the water is 
covered by ice, when the fishes die from suffocation. For this reason 
large apertures are cut into the ice for the supply of fresh air. 

4. — Slocking (he Ponds, and Care of the Fishes. 

■ To carry on carp-culture in a regular and judicious manner, several 
ponds are required, according to the various purposes they are destined 
for. 



56 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

1. The hatching-pond. 

2. The breeding-- pond. 

3. Tlie; culture or regular carp pond. 

The hatching-pond serves more particularly for natural impregnation 
and hatching, or rather for natural propagation generally, by placing a 
number of male and female fishes into the pond. Here the females drop 
the eggs, during the spawning season, upon aquatic plants, where they 
are impregnated by the male. 

In stocking ponds, three females are calculated to two males, some- 
times twice that number, per acre. The females bear a great number of 
eggs, as has been remarked before; but the smaller number only aie 
impregnated: neither do all these come to life. 

The most liberal estimate will not exceed the number of from eight 
hundred to one thousand young fishes to one spawner; the aggregate per 
acre amounting to from four thousand to five thousand. 

It is scarcely possible to say what is the most desirable number of 
milters and spawners for stocking ponds, as the views on this subject 
differ widely in Europe. I believe, however, the above to be correct, and 
it ia accepted as such by all extensive establishments. 

The above-mentioned result will be much more favorable if the old 
rule, now unfortunately almost forgotten, is observed, — to feed the carp 
which are in the spawning-pond, shortly before and during the season of 
spawning, so as to prevent their searching for food, which generally leads 
them to eat their own eggs. After the fish have laid their eggs, they 
must simply be removed from the ponds, which prevents their eating the 
eggs. This useful rule, formerly much practised in Europe, has unfortu- 
nately fallen into disuse: in fact, it has almost been forgotten, probably 
because carp naturally increase very fast.^ By removing the spawners, 
three times as many young fish are kept alive than by leaving them in 
the spawning-ponds. On no account should too great a quantity of 
young fish be placed in a pond. The above-mentioned number of four 
thousand to five thousand young fish to the acre requires water which is 
very rich in natural food. If there are too many young fish in the 
spawning-pond, they grow very slowly, as the pond cannot produce the 

1 In Germany this rule is only observed by some small pisciculturists; in France, on 
some of the former lordly manors, — in the department of the " Seine inferieure" and in the 
department of the " Rhone," — where they likewise had the custom to plant aquatic plants 
{Ultricularia, Phellandriuin, &c.) in loosely plaited baskets, which, when covered with the 
impregnated eggs, were transferred to other ponds. Duharael also practised this in his 
time. This practice has doubtless led Dr. Lamy of Rouen to his artificial spawning-places 
made of reeds. By an order of the Abbot of the Benedictine Convent of Kremsmiinster, in 
Upper Austria (founded in 777), of the year 1529, the fishers of the convent domain were 
reminded that spawning-carps must be of a certain age and size, and must consequentlj' be 
weighed. After spawning, they had to be removed from the pond. This convent is still in 
existence, and is the wealthiest convent of the Austrian monarchy, owning upwards of one 
hundred and fifty large villages, and possessing a large and valuable librarj' and observatory 
and scientific collections. But the order of the good old abbot is no longer observed. Simi- 
lar orders were, in former centuries, also given by other convents in Austria, as Lambach, 
in Upper Austria, Wellehrad, in Moravia, and others. The fishermen's guilds of Nurem- 
berg and Bamberg had, about the year 1600, similar rules, which were placarded in their 
guild-halls, and which were strictly observed. At present such rules are not known in either 
place. 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 57 

necessary quantity of food. Such fish are scarcely one to two inclies 
long when they are one to two years old: only the head grows a little, 
\Nhilst the rest of the body remains small. As soon as young fish feel 
the want of food for any length of time, the gristle and bone of the 
skeleton harden, thus bringing its development to a close, not allowing 
nature fair play, and the fish remains a cripple for the rest of its life, 
even if it is placed in ponds affording unlimited supply of food. It is 
therefore better either to place fewer young fish in the ponds or to make 
the ponds larger: it \vill be found to pay. The young fish will grow 
rapidly; their development will be healthy, and e\ien during the first 
year they Avill reach the lengtli of five to six inches. Strong and healthy 
fish can thus be placed in the giowing-ponds, and here, too, they will 
grow rapidly. If there are too many young fish for the water-area, it is 
better to place them in some lake, brook, or river. On no account should 
they be kept in the pond. Beginners in carp-culture usually consider it 
quite a sacrifice to let so many young fish loose in the open river or lake: 
they keep them, and later they will bitterly regret their parsimony, or 
rather their imprudence, by having weak or not fully developed fish. 

The hatching-pond should not be as large as the breeding-pond: its 
depth not to exceed one or one and a half feet. The outer portion, or, 
as it is termed, the low- water margin, should generally be from two to 
five inches in depth, and from thirty to forty feet in width. Provision 
should be made that Fesluca Jiuilans grows there plentifully; for the 
fishes give the preference to this plant for the deposition of eggs, as I 
before observed. But the bottom of these hatching-ponds must be of 
similar construction to that of the larger ones; that is, they must be 
provided with the above-described cavities, or kettles, collectors, and 
collector-ditches. The "collectors" must be cleaned from the mud 
every spring: they need not be as deep in these ponds as they are in 
such as are intended for the reception of larger fishes; a depth of from 
four to five inches only being required for fishes of minor size. The 
hatching-ponds have outlets and reserve-sluices in the dam, at the lower 
end or on the sides, to guard against overflows. These ponds must be 
secured against the intrusion of pike, eels, bass, cat-fish, tritons, water- 
snakes, turtles and water-lizards, rats and water-fowls, or any voracious 
animals, and, in the South, the alligator. A fine grating will prevent the 
entrance of the former: against the latter various traps are in use, and 
other means might be devised. It is of the highest importance that new 
ponds be assiduously kept clear of the animals mentioned, and of many 
others not named here. 

In small establishments, embracing only a few acres, it well be found 
advantageous, in spite of the somewhat greater expense, if the ponds 
(both natural and artificial), either all or singly, are surrounded by a 
very close board fence, three to four feet high, and going four to six 
inches into the ground. Such a fence will afford no protection against 
aquatic birds, water-snakes, and muskrats; but it will exclude the snap- 
ping-turtle, the most dangerous and voracious enemy of fish, which is 
more to be feared than either cranes or otters. This detestable animal 
has been known to clean a pond of fish, and then, led by its sense of 
8 



58 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

smell, to follow the fish, going even up hill and against the stream. At 
night it seizes the fish, which, not suspecting any danger, rest at the 
bottom, with its sharp fangs, resembling shears, and kills them. It is a 
peculiarity of carp to keep at the bottom during the night, and likewise 
during cold and gloomy weather; and the snapping-turtle would therefore 
have many an opportunity of destroying them. Large iron fish-hooks, 
with a piece of meat fastened to them as bait, will do good sei-vice, if 
distributed in suitable places on the banks. This should be done from 
spring to October. The pieces of meat should be of such a size that 
even large carps cannot bite them: they will then form a most attractive 
bait for the ugly monsters. These hooks should be fastened with a 
strong brass wire, as the snapping-turtle could easily bite through twine, 
and should be inspected every day. 

In placing spawners in ponds, great caution must be practised in their 
selection, so that only really healthy fishes may be introduced, and not 
such as are aifected by fungous growths, the gelatinous polyp, or other 
disease. In Europe the polyp, in particular, has frequently destroyed 
the productiveness of ponds for many years. 

The newly obtained young fry are left in the hatching-ponds during 
the winter, after which they are to be transferred to the larger ponds. 

The catching of the j'oung fishes must be done with great care, and the 
water must be drained off through the grated outlets very slowly, so that 
no fishes may remain in the mud ; for, if a new hatching operation is con- 
templated in the pond, the newly hatched fishes will be retarded in their 
growth on account of the scarcity of food, this being consumed by any 
remaining larger ones. The young fishes must be handled carefully ; for 
the slightest injury of the scales may cause disease and death. 

The breeding-ponds have the same construction as the hatching-ponds ; 
they have dams, reserve-sluices, outlet-channels, collectors, and ditches 
in the bottom. The only difference is in being deeper and larger than 
hatching-ponds. They have an average depth of one foot and nine inches, 
and the width of their shallow borders is from seventy to eighty feet. 
The " kettles " have a depth of four and one-half feet from the surface : 
their borders are from six to eight inches deep. The growth of grass 
should also be advanced in these ponds. In small ones of about four or 
six acres, the " kettles " may have a length and width of sixty or seventy 
feet. 

The stocking of the breeding-ponds takes place in spring, immediately 
after the emj)tying-out of the hatching-ponds : it lasts from the latter 
part of March until April. 

From eight hundred to one thousand breeding-fishes maybe calculated 
to an American acre, eight hundred being the average. To cover possi- 
ble risks, one hundred more may be added, as in the most successful 
pond slight losses are to be expected. 

In favorable ponds, where the carp is left to seek its food, it will have 
gained a weight of about one and one-fourth pounds in the ensuing 
autumn. In small ponds, about one acre in size, where feeding is prac- 
tised, they will weigh more. 

In the southern countries of Eui'ope, in favorably situated ponds, they 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 59 

will sometimes reach a weight of two pounds in the same space of time. 
This I found to be the case in Southern France. However, these favor- 
able results are only attributable to the mildness of the climate, and I 
doubt not that proportionably better results may be arrived at in the 
south of this counti-y. 

In ponds of small capacity, in which nourishing food is produced in 
small quantities, the results of breeding are not very encouraging. 

An advantage will be gained in northern, colder countries, by leaving 
the young fishes two summers in the breeding-ponds : that is, they are 
transferred to a second, larger one, and only fi'om this they pass into the 
culture or real carp ponds. This will answer especially well if the bottom 
of the pond is poor, or if feeding has not the desired effect. 

This method is followed by many competent culturists in Germany and 
Austria, who, in the possession of extensive lands and excellent numer- 
ous ponds, find it to their advantage, as it enables them to place larger 
breeding-fishes in the carp-ponds ; and, though this is done a whole year 
later, the loss of time is compensated for by the large size of the fishes 
produced in the carp-ponds. 

In the spring of the third year those fishes which have been one year 
in the breeding-pond are transferred to the carp-ponds, the construction 
of which I have described before. Fishes having been kept in the breed- 
ing-pond for one summer only, without being fed, will be found to weigh 
at the expiration of that time from one to one and one-fourth pounds, 
while those which remained there two summers will show a proportionallv 
greater increase of weight. In Southern Hungary and Croatia the fishes 
kept in the breeding-ponds but one summer occasionally thrive more 
favorably. Differences in the ratio of weight are commonly owing, as I 
observed before, to climatic influence ; and the greatest and most rapid 
increase will be found in localities where there is an early spring and 
where the months of September and October are warm, but particularly 
where the nights are still and mild during spring and autumn. 

Breeding-ponds should have a certain number of fishes only placed in 
them when they are stocked, and that number should never be exceeded. 
For the culturist it is important to bear in mind, that, the younger the 
transferable breeding-fishes are, the less expense they will have caused, 
and the sooner their money-value may be realized ; all carps weighing 
two and one-half pounds and more being for the market. 

To stock a culture-pond of one acre, four hundred to five hundred carp 
of one pound in weight will be required : and in the following year, or 
rather in the autumn of the same year, when the fishes are taken out for 
the market, they will weigh in a good pond two and three-fourths to 
three pounds each, or about twelve hundred to two thousand pounds in 
the aggi-egate. In some localities only two hundred carp are taken to 
one acre of American square measure ; in other places, more. 

Pike 1 are frequently put into carp-ponds in Europe without reducing 
the number of the carp, one pike being added to twenty-five or thirty of 
the former. This is an old practice, which has been proved of great use 

1 ilales are selected for this purpose. 



60 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

by experience, assisting through the effects exercised in the improvement 
of culture ; that is, the favorable progress of the fishes. The carp is a 
very indolent fish, which frequently remains for many hours in the same 
place at the most favorable period for feeding; namely, in summer. It is 
aware of the pike's voracity, and remains always cautiously at a distance 
from it. The introduction of the pike is practised for two reasons: (1) 
That the carp may not constantly remain in the same feeding-place, but, 
frightened away by the pike, may visit others also ; (2) it is done, and 
principally so, to prevent the more mature carp from spawning. Should 
the spawning occur, as is the case occasionally, the young fry w^ill be 
devoured by the pikes, which otherwise would have deprived the large 
carps of their food. The pike will also destroy those fishes and their 
spawn which had succeeded in getting into the ponds without the knowl- 
edge or through the inability of the culturist to prevent it. Great care 
is required in the introduction of the pike ; specimens of minor sizes 
than that of the carp must be selected. The growth of the pike being 
much more rapid than that of the carp (three hundred per cent per 
annum), the former should be younger by one year at least than the 
latter, so that it may not prove dangerous to the carp. If this precaution 
is taken in the introduction of the pike, it will be an actual boon to the 
carp-colonies ; for it will not only exterminate by degrees all those para- 
sitical fishes which intrude themselves into the ponds, but it will devour 
frogs, or the smaller kinds of its own species, as well as water-snakes 
and tritons. 

Should the pike suffer from w^ant of food, after having cleared the 
pond of all these animals, it must be supplied with it. Small spoiled 
fishes, or such as have been stunted in their growth, will answer the pur- 
pose. If this is neglected, the hungry pike will attack its companions, 
the carps; and, though it may not devour them, it will mortally wound 
them with its teeth . 

I have so far given the principal traits of natural carp-culture, and 
wdll speak more explicitly of the artificial impregnation and hatching of 
the carp's eggs in my next report. So far as I know, this latter method 
has been little, if at all, employed in Europe, although it offers much 
greater advantages for the production of vast quantities of spawn. My 
own experiments were rewarded by the best results. I intend continuing 
them this summer in Baltimore, and hope to communicate the results 
hereafter. 

I now proceed to give a few rules of general importance for the con- 
struction and management of carp-ponds. 

The ponds should have as shallow a border as possible. Their depth 
should be in accordance with their size, — one foot in the culture or regu- 
lar carp ponds where large fishes are kept; one-half foot in breeding, and 
one-fourth to one-half foot in hatching, ponds. The borders should be of 
considerable wndth. It is desirable in any case that a great number of 
such shallows be contrived in ponds, as these are the principal feeding- 
places of the carp. 

Another important condition to be considered is this, that the water 
in ponds must be of the same depth all the year round, any variation in 
this having an injurious influence upon the fishes. 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 61 

Ponds of smaller circumference, of from ten to fifteen acres, are, 
according to results obtained, better suited for carp-culture than very 
large ones, a hundred to a thousand acres in extent. These are fre- 
quently found in Central Europe upon tracts of land belonging to some 
princely domain. In the former the fish finds more security, the bottom 
of the pond being smoother : it also suffers less from the waves, these, 
being high and rough in large ponds, becoming very detrimental to the 
spawn and breeding-fishes, especially during storms, when they are cast 
ashore, and become the prey of water-fowls or perish in some other 
manner. 

The diminution of water by evaporation must be made up for by a 
fresh supply : this, however, must not exceed the quantity actually 
needed for maintenance of the regular height of water. Small ponds of 
from one to fifty acres' area, which serve some commercial or industrial 
purpose, as mills, &c., and which are constantly varying the height of 
their water, cannot be considered as favorable for regular culture-ponds. 
Although the fishes may grow to a pretty good size in them, they must 
still be regarded as belonging to the category of waters for '• free fish- 
ing," like lakes and rivers. In these neither the height of water, nor 
the hatching of the eggs, nor yet the increase of aquatic animals, can be 
regulated at will. Still, leaving these waters to lie waste on this account 
would be a pity; for, if stocked with, carp, they will, in spite of all disad- 
vantages, remunerate the proprietor, and the care which he bestows on 
them will be a source of much pleasiu'e. 

I beg to make some remarks, in conclusion, relative to the introduc- 
tion of the carp, and its increase in open waters, in which it is solely left 
to the care of nature, and to which subject I alluded at the commence- 
ment. 

We introduce into our waters migrating fishes, such as the salmon and 
shad, and find it profitable, for the reason that they consume but little 
food in the rivers, growing up in the sea and ascending into fresh water 
as large fishes. We also maintain in our lakes white-fish, bass, pike, &c. 
These are all fond of animal food and belong in part to the class of fishes 
of prey. The carp, on the contrary, lives upon vegetable food, insects, 
larvae, and W'Orms; but it never attacks other fishes or their spawn. It 
can be produced in masses, and then be transferred into the waters des- 
tined for its reception. This can be done either by artificial impregna- 
tion and hatching, or in the way of natural increase. 

For each of these methods two ways of action are open : (1) the 
spawn can be transferred into open water as soon as it is free from the 
egg', or (2) the young fishes may be kept in ponds for a season until they 
have had time to grow, — that is, for one summer. In the latter case, 
the rule, that fishes which are destined for open waters must not be 
artificially fed, is to be strictly adhered to. Carp which have been used 
to feeding in that manner will not be so apt to find the food for them- 
selves which until then had been supplied to them. Tormented by 
hunger, they will lose the fear of their enemies, and the consequent 
cautiousness, falling an easy prey to them before many weeks will have 
elapsed. 



62 ' INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

Tf artificial feeding is not intended, the ponds for the reception of the 
small fishes must be proportionately larger, so that they may find food in 
sufficient quantities in a natural way. Both methods have tlieir advan- 
tages. If the young fry is transferred into open water five or six days 
after hatching, there will be no necessity for the establishing of large 
ponds. A great number of eggs must, however, be hatched in this case; 
for the small fishes will be destroyed in vast numbers by their enemies. 

The better method of the two is certainly this : to keep the young 
fishes in large ponds until the fall, when they will have reached the age 
of five or six months. During tliis time they will have had the opportu- 
nity to learn how to find their food by their own efforts, such ponds pro- 
ducing it profusely to satisfy all their wants, and thus they will be 
prepared for their stay in open waters. To carry through the latter 
method, a larger extent of water is required, nature itself having indi- 
cated precisely the conditions under which and the limits in which the 
natural and unimpaired growth of the young fishes may be expected. 

They do not require as extensive a pond during the first months of 
their development and growth as those whicli have reached a more 
advanced age. For this reason it will be more advantageous to choose 
the middle way by retaining the young fishes in the ponds for about one 
or two months, and then to give them their liberty, instead of transfer- 
ring them immediately after the hatching or keeping them for five or six 
months. By acting upon this suggestion, the incalculable advantage will 
be gained that the fishes profit by the rich food of the open waters 
during the season, and will have grown strong enough to fight more suc- 
cessfully for their existence. For this purpose establishments for artifi- 
cial breeding, constructed with a regard to the demands of climate, are 
essentially needful in these open waters, so that the greatest possible 
number of eggs may be hatched. 

In Europe the subject> of stocking open waters M'ith carp has been 
discussed, because there, in its native country, its excellent adaptation 
for this purpose has been recognized. 

I observed above that this fish is found in great numbers in most of 
the European rivers, particularly in the Rhine. Although this river has 
a very swift current, which at times forms rapids, here neither mud nor 
suitable ground is to be found which would qualify these localities for 
feeding-places for the rather indolent carp. Still, there are numbers of 
shallows and small creeks, the borders of which are richly oveigrown 
with grass and Fe.stuca Jiuitans, where the fishes find food plentiful and 
multiply. 

The river carp is not as fleshy as the pond carp : this is accounted for 
by the great amount of bodily exercise which it is naturally compelled to 
take. In many places it is more highly appreciated than the pond carp, 
probably because the river-water does not impart to it the mouldy taste 
which is sometimes found with the carp inhabiting ponds situated in 
marshy localities and morasses which have not a sufficient supply of fresh 
water. 

The assertion in regard to the preference given to the river carp will 
be found to be correct, especially in regard to the Rivers Rhine, Elbe, 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 63 

Weser, Vistula, Loire, Rhone, Garonne, and tlie Danube. The latter is 
celebrated in song as the beautiful, blue Danube: in reality its water 
has, during the greater part of the year, a grayish-white, rnuddy color, 
and a very swift current. It has, however, particularly in Austria, 
Hungary, and the lowlands in general which border upon it, numerous 
branches which creep along sluggishly, and also many small creeks with 
almost stagnant water. 

A great number of fishes of prey inhabit this river, — the pike, perch, 
the rapacious hucho (Salmo hucho), and, above all, the never-satisfied 
wels (Sihiruf! glanis), v^hich, in the low^er Danube, reaches a weight of 
five hundred pounds. Its habits being similar to those of the carp, it 
lies on the mud banks or feeding-places of this fish, and becomes its most 
dangerous enemy and insatiable destroyer, and still the carp increases in 
the Danube. From the city of Ulm, where this river begins to be navi- 
gable after its escape from the Black Forest, a thousand miles downward 
to its mouth on the Black Sea, as also in this one, the carp is found. To 
this fact allusion has been made on a former occasion. The carp thrives 
best in those parts of the Danube where the water is least clear, — at the 
influx of the muddy w^ater of its tributaries. At one time I was present 
at a draught of a seine, which took place close to the quay of the city of 
Pesth, in Hungary, and was arranged by Mr. Szihelsky Ferentz. At 
that point the river is constantly ploughed by steamers, steam-tugs, canal 
and ferry boats, and it would have seemed that there could not be many 
fishes there ; yet three hundred fine carp, weighing from one to five 
pounds each, were taken in one dranght of the net, within the distance 
of about one-quarter of an English mile. The carp is partial to this 
locality, because it finds abundant food there in the oiTal from kitchens, 
slaughter-houses, breweries, and the sewers of both the cities of Ofen 
and Pesth. In the European lakes — for instance, in the lakes of Con- 
stance, Zurich, and Geneva — the carp comes sometimes from these into 
the ports to seek for food. 

Comparing the water of the Danube with that of the Mississippi, I feel 
convinced that I may safely assert that the carp would thrive excellently 
in the latter, although its water appears to be even more muddy and 
rapid than that of the Danube ; and I believe this to be true of the Mis- 
souri and Ohio and many others of its tributaries. The Mississippi has 
near its borders many spots where the current is slow, and which are par- 
tially covered with vegetation. There are also numerous creeks, where 
the fishes would find food plentifully in the alluvial mud on the banks. 
What has been said of the Mississippi will be found to be the case with 
many other, or probably nearly all, American rivers. They will be found 
to be adapted for the introduction of the carp, so long as they are not moun- 
tain torrents which have to break their way through rocky and pebbly 
ground. The increase of this fish is of great importance from an eco- 
nomical point of view, especially so in regard to the south-western waters. 

Under the present circumstances it is to be hoped that the endeavors 
which have been made for this purpose may before long be rewarded by 
success, and become a fait accompli, and that the difiiculties which will 
have to be overcome may not prevent the achievement of it. The effort 
will and must meet with success at last. 



64 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

5. — Talcing the Fish from the Ponds. 

The emptying-out of ponds demands the greatest caution and attention. 
The water must be made to flow off very gradually through the several 
outlets, all of which are to be kept open at the same time. It requires 
frequently from ten to eighteen days to draw off the water. The fishes 
are driven carefully and slowly with. boats into the principal ditches. 
They must not be chased on any account, or they will bury themselves in 
the mud. Occasionally many thousands will do so within a few moments, 
and will remain there, pressed together closely, and so perish through 
suffocation. This is recorded as having occurred from time to time, 
when, during the process of driving them into the ditches, the fishes were 
startled by some unknown cause, and all sank into the mud instantane- 
ously. Through the impossibility of extricating them speedily enough, 
many hundreds and even thousands perished, the owner sustaining heavy 
losses in consequence. To guard against such an emergency, prepara- 
tions should be made for an immediate supply of water in similar cases, 
in order to save the fishes. If the fishing-out progresses in the regular 
manner, the fishes will by degrees draw off from the ditches into the col- 
lector. The collecting takes from five to six days in large ponds, con- 
taining frequently one hundred to four hundred tons of fishes. Care 
should be taken, that crowding them together may be avoided. On the 
evening before the fishing-out, when the water of the pond has been 
diminished to the depth of half a foot, those fishes which have been col- 
lected are shut off from the pond by a large net ; and in the early morning, 
at the dawn of day, they are caught. As so large a number of fishes 
cannot be disposed of at once, they are transferred to the so-called mar- 
ket-ponds, from which they are sold by degrees to fish-dealers. These 
market-po^ids are quite small, capable of holding from two thousand to 
three thousand pounds of fish only, and are supplied with running water. 

Those who never saw the fishing-out of a carp-pond can scarcely im- 
agine the beautiful sight of so many thousand fine fishes, fat and well 
fed, raising their high, broad backs, and thick, puffy lips above the water; 
their heads side by side ; all being nearly of the same size, weighing from 
four to five pounds ; their bodies closely pressing against each other, look- 
ing like an immense herd of sheep imprisoned in one large net upon a 
circumference of three thousand to four thousand feet. Closer and closer 
the circle is drawn around them, until its extent measures only about 
two acres, when they are caught by thousands, weighed in lots of one 
hundred pounds, and then they are placed into the market-ponds. 'J'he 
pikes, which have reached an almost equal weight, are put into pike- 
ponds. It requires often two or three days to weigh the fishes, ponds of 
one thousand or two thousand acres' area containing on an average two 
hundred tons of carp and twenty tons of pike ; tench and other fishes not 
included. 

I assisted once at the fishing-out of one of these ponds, which took 
place in the neighborhood of the town of Guben-Fleitz, province of Bran- 
denburg, Germany. The pond was the property of a competent culturist 
and valued friend, Mr. Thomas Berger of Georgenhof, near Cottbus- 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 65 

Peitz. The ponds in which this gentleman carries on carp-culture exceed 
the extent of six thousand Prussian acres. The pond which was fished 
out at the time I speak of was but a small one, not more than two hun- 
dred acres in size ; yet, to my surprise, I found that the greater number of 
the fishes were fine specimens of about three pounds' weight, though they 
were but in their second year, having weighed no more than one and one- 
fourth pounds five short months before (the fishingout took place at 
the beginning of October), and they had attained to this great weight in 
a comparatively very limited space of time. Several establishments of 
this kind are located in that district, and they commonly belong to some 
large princely domain (crown property). They are, like all large fisher- 
ies, admirably managed, and the results are most satisfactory. 

6. — Mixed Carp-CuUure. 

We have so far spoken of carp-culture, according to the different age 
of these fish, in special ponds (hatching, breeding, and carp ponds), 
termed "class-culture" in Central Europe. We must now speak of 
another method pursued in so-called "mixed ponds," in which there 
are fish of all ages, from one year to eight to ten years. 

Not much can be said regarding this method, as there are no hatching 
and breeding ponds, but only one pond, which, however, must combine 
all the characteristics of the class-ponds. It must therefore have shallow 
places, overgrown with grass or aquatic plants {Fcstuca Jluitans and Phel- 
landrium), for the spawners and the young fish, and also places, eight to 
ten feet deep, for the larger fish. If such a pond is to yield some profit, 
it must also be particularly rich in food. A natural pond may be used, 
or, if such a one is not found, it may be artificially constructed. It is 
indispensable, however, that such a pond should have the same depth of 
water all the year round ; and it should be so arranged that even the last 
drop of water can be let off, as occasionally even the smallest fish, meas- 
uring only two to three inches in length, must be taken out. Such 
"mixed ponds " must likewise have " collectors " and "collector-ditches." 
It will also be found very useful to construct a sort of hatching-place on 
some flat and sunny place near the bank : i.e., a so-called cut in the 
bank, measuring forty to one hundred feet in length and thirty to fifty 
feet in breadth, and having a depth of five inches to one and one-half 
feet. This cut should be thickly planted with the above-mentioned 
aquatic plants, and ought, so to speak, to be the only place in the pond 
where carp can ascend from the depth in order to deposit their eggs con- 
veniently and engage in the spawning process- 
As soon as this has taken place, the entrance to this cut is closed with 
a net, so the eggs cannot be eaten by the fish. This net may be removed 
when the young fish have come out of the eggs; but it is preferable to 
leave it in its place for some days, that the young fish may be able to 
feed for some time undisturbedly. 

In Europe this method was generally adopted by beginners in carp- 
culture, commencing with a " mixed pond," and gradually proceeding to 
the small "hatching-pond," and finally to the " breeding-pond," as the 
great advantage of separate ponds for the different ages of fish over the 
"mixed-pond" system soon became evident. 
9 



QQ INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

In such a "mixed pond" no pike must be kept for regulating the 
stock, as may be done in a class-pond; for all the small fish would then 
soon be devoured. It must be made a strict rule, that, with the excep- 
tion of the tench (Cyprlnus tinea), no other kind of fish, however harm- 
less, is allowed in the pond. Tlie tench is related to the carp: but it 
spawns four to five weeks later; so there can be no danger of cross-breeds. 

Great care should be taken that no gold-fish (Cyprinus carpio auratus) 
or bream (Brama) get in the pond ; for these fish would soon mix with 
the carp, and tend to degenerate the breed. Such fish should therefore 
be removed or killed at once. The gold-fish, especially the milter, swims 
in spawning-schools like the carp, and at the very same season. It thus 
spoils the eggs of the carp, as all eggs which it impregnates will pro- 
duce spotted fish, having at least a silvery streak, one-fourth to one-half 
inch long and one-eighth inch broad, between the caudal and the dorsal 
fin. Such bastards (the cross-breeds of gold-fish and Carassius also re- 
semble them) do not grow larger than gold-fish, and have as many bones. 
They are unfit for table use, and entirely unsuited for ornament, as they 
are neither genuine carp nor gold-fish, and are disagreeable objects in the 
eyes of the scientist or connoisseur. If such fish are not removed imme- 
diately, the consequence will be another cross-breed during the next 
spawning season, — for such a hybrid spawns, like the gold-fish, when it 
is a year old, — and the breed of carps would degenerate still more. It 
is best to kill such worthless cross-breeds at once, as they are apt to give 
great trouble. 

I would embrace this opportunity to impress, upon every carp-culturist 
who intends to make breeding experiments with any carp procured 
through the United States Fish Commission, the importance of having 
if possible only one of three above-mentioned kinds of carp, unless he 
can have every kind in a separate pond. Thus, the common carp (^Cypri- 
nus carpio communis) should never be placed in the same pond with the 
" mirror carp" or the " leather or naked carp " (Cyprinus carpio alepido- 
tus, coriaceus vel nudus), nor should the two last-mentioned vai'ieties ever 
be in the same pond. Cross-breeds would invariably be produced, and 
in such a manner that one would have neither genuine common carps nor 
genuine mirror or leather carps, but a cross-breed of all the three varie- 
ties. Not even when quite young and not yet capable of spawning 
should these varieties be put together, because, even if they are kept 
strictly separate during the spaw-ning process, the young fish would never 
have the sharply marked characteristics of their variety as regards form 
and color, but would approach nearer to the "mirror carp" and the 
"common carp." The carp has a striking tendency, when Jiving with 
other varieties, to approach the primitive form of the common carp, and 
finally to be merged in it. These beautiful varieties should therefore be 
kept strictly separate. Lack of ponds or any other reason should never 
induce people to mix them. 

If the breeding experiments are to be accompanied by good results, a 
pure variety should be selected, and the finest and best milters and 
spawners, showing strongly all the characteristics of their variety, should 
be procured; and the experiments will be crowned with success. 



1880.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 25. 67 

I must return to the so-called " mixed culture," by mentioning that it 
is not to be recommended. In Central Europe it is never practised by 
scientific pisciculturists, but only by small operators mostly in so-called 
"peasants' ponds." This method does never yield a certain and truly 
profitable result. 

7. — Feeding the Carp. 

In conclusion, I will make some remarks on the feeding of carp in 
close ponds. It is not every natural pond which is a good pond, having 
the essentials of a good soil at the bottom, and capable of producing suffi- 
cient food for the fish. If these conditions are wanting, the fish must 
be fed. This is, as a general rule, only necessary in ponds with sandy 
bottom without any clay. As I have said before, I am not in favor of 
feeding fish, as my stand-point is that of the rational culturist, sharing the 
opinion with most of the prominent pisciculturists of the Old World, 
that the carp should find its own food in the ponds. 

If, however, the nature of the bottom demands artificial feeding, or if 
suitable food can be had at a remarkably cheap price, the feeding should 
be done with great caution. Never feed in one and the same place. Even 
if the pond be very large, distribute the food in different places near the 
banks. If the food is always put in one place, or even if it is distributed 
over two places, the carp will stay in the neighborhood of these places, 
will become languid, and, instead of scouring the other parts of the pond 
in search of food, will remain at the bottom. It will even, if surrounded 
by the richest food, grow fat, but never have any firm flesh: nor will it 
ever grow much in length, as the somewhat phlegmatic fish does not get 
the exercise which favors its growth. 

Never give them much food at one time, but by degrees, in small 
quantities, — never during the day, but either early in the morning or in 
the evening. During the hot season only feed them late at night, be- 
cause the carp, if it has eaten sufficiently in the morning, will remain at 
the bottom all day; while, during the higher temperature of the water, it 
is necessary for its health that it should swim round, and get a change of 
water. It is therefore useful to place in ponds containing large carps a 
limited number of pike, which, however, must be smaller than the carp. 
The carp fears the pike, and flies from it. If there are pike in the pond, 
the carp will get more exercise, and will seek natural feeding- places, 
whither, on account of its innate sluggishness, it would never have gone. 

Pond carp are accustomed to other food than the river carp. The 
former confine themselves to worms, larvae, and plants; while those living 
in streams find all sorts of animal and vegetable refuse. These latter can 
also stand a greater amount of food, as the current naturally makes them 
take more exercise, thus increasing their appetite. It is different with 
the pond carp: if you give it too much food, it will not take any more 
than is necessary to satisfy its hunger. The remnants will remain at the 
bottom, and, if their quantity be considerable, they will spoil the water. 
If these remnants are chiefly animal refuse, as flesh or blood, fungi will 
grow on them, and will then produce, as with the salmon and trout, dis- 
eases of the skin, the gills, and, in the case of the carp, sometimes in- 
ternal diseases. 



68 INLAND FISHERIES. [Oct. 

The writer once had the following experience: During his absence a 
number of large carp were fed on coagulated blood, which had begun to 
putrefy. The fish devoured it eagerly, got sick, and most of tliem died in 
a few days from an inflammation of the intestines. Spoilt food should 
never be given to fish. If slaughter-house or kitchen refuse can be had, 
give these, chopped up small about the size of peas. Never give so 
much that remnants remain for any length of time in the water and 
begin to putrefy. Let no one be induced, by the circumstance that the 
carps like to eat the dung of hogs, sheep, and cows, to feed them on any 
putrefying matter. There are instances on record that thereby epidem- 
ics, particularly diseases of the scales, have originated. 

The carp likes, above every thing else, vegetable matter, such as cab- 
bage, lettuce, boiled potatoes, corn, turnips, pumpkins, melons, &c. 
The refuse of malt from breweries and distilleries is also very good 
food for carp; and, wherever such refuse can be had, it should be given 
to the fish. 

The small pisciculturist, having a pond of perhaps one to two acres 
near his house, will often be able to feed his fish on refuse, as he will 
always have it fresh from the kitchen and stable. 

In conclusion, I earnestly recommend Ihe culture of the carp to all 
pisciculturists. If the value of the carp for table use has once been 
recognized, it will become a highly esteemed fish, especially in the neigh- 
borhood of large and populous cities, and its culture will yield a larger 
and more certain profit than the expensive trout. 

8. — Extent of Carp-Culture in Europe. 

In Europe many thousand acres of artificial waters are to be found. 
In these enormous quantities of carp are bred. Some of these ponds, 
or rather lakes, have an extent of about one thousand to two thousand 
acres. They are provided with gigantic dams, many of them sixty feet 
high. By these the water is closed in into broad valleys, containing no 
other fishes than carps from four to five pounds in weight. If we con- 
sider the size of these lake-like ponds, surrounded by enormous dams 
which are overgrown with oak-trees one hundred to three hundred years 
old, series of three and more of these lakes being not uncommon, then 
we can form some idea as to the remunerativeness of these establish- 
ments, particularly in Bohemia. 

The standard establishment with regard to the most extensive busi- 
ness transactions is found in Austria. The. Prince of Schwarzenberg, 
of whom I have spoken previously, possesses more than two hundred 
and fifty ponds of large size; the smallest having about ten acres', the 
largest two thousand acres' water extent. 

We find many villages where ponds of fifty to two hundred and more 
acres are maintained at the expense of the community. 



1880.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



69 



[E.] 

Returns of Weirs, Seines, and Gill-Nets. 

The number of these from which returns have been received since the 
passage of Act (chap. 104, 187G) is as follows: — 





1880. 


1879. 


1878. 


1877. 1876. 


Sea-seines 

Weirs ...... 

Gill-nets ...... 

Sundry fresh-water fisheries . 


26 
66 
71 

48 


34 

53 

100 

46 


34 
52 
97 
55 


35 

56 

120 

42 


17 
24 
16 



During the past season, as compared with that of 1879, the weirs 
have taken less shad, alewives, mackerel, scup, and blue-fish; and 7nore 
herring (large increase), striped bass, squeteague, Spanish mackerel, flat- 
fish, and menhaden (very large increase). The seines, less herring, scup 
(very great decrease), squeteague, mackerel, tautog, blue-fish, frost-fish 
(strong decrease), perch, and smelts; and moi'e shad (very great increase), 
striped bass (double), alewives (fourfold), flat-fish (threefold), menhaden- 
(very great increase), and eels. The gill-nets, less alewives (hardly any), 
striped bass (very few), squeteague, blue-fish^ tautog, flat-fish (strong 
decrease), menhaden (hardly any), and eels (few); and more shad 
(twenty-fold), herring, scup (the last two fourfold), and mackerel (three- 
fold). The fisheries of the Taunton River and those of the little streams 
show a large increase of shad and alewives; while the shad-fisheries of 
the Merrimack and Connecticut continue to languish and dwindle. 
These fine streams together produced only two and a half times as many 
shad as the little Taunton. 



70 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



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1880.] 



PUBLIC DOCUjMENT — No. 25. 



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J. G. Rand . 
Reuben Ryder . 
Joseph Sears 
Isaac Small . 
W. C Snow 
R. Swift 
Isaac Tyler . 
R. Wareham 
J. C. Weeks. 
J. E. Weeks 
Benjamin Coan . 
C. N. Grozier 
Isaac Smith . 
J. F. Stevens 
E. P. Worthen . 
P. L Paine . 
L.&K. Small . 

E. Dill . 

J. Fulcher . 
J. Pennin)an 
C.H.Smith. 
Unknown . 
J. Gould & Co. . 
A. Mayo 

William Patterson 
J. F. Smith . 

F. S. Crowell 
J. Pierce 
Vennez Kelley . 
David Bearse' 


O 

o 
H 








c 2 _____ .2 


Frovincetc 

Truro 

North Tru 
Eastham . 

Chatham 

Dennis 

West Deni 
Hyannis 



1880.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



75 



1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


i 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 




§§'""" 


1 


2,f)45 
3,9()() 
2,729 
905 
1,194 
15 
1,581 
2,114 
1,189 
1,223 
1,599 
4,959 

408 




1 1 1 I . t^ 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 






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1 

CO 














W. F. Carney . 

C. E. Bearse 

W. W. Hal let . 
T. B. Kelley 
Moses Sturs^es 
J. C. Allen & Co. 

D. W. Deane 
A. H. Adams 
J. B. Brooks 
H. B. Cash* 
J. O. Freeman 
W. F. Ramsdell t 
James Small 

J. G. Smith . 
















Hyannisport 
Centreville 

Barnstable 
Fairlias en 

Nantucket 


3 
e 



76 



INLAND FISHERIES. 



[Oct. 



Table No. IV. — Connecticut River Seine- 



Town. 


Name. 






Agawani .... 

South Hadley . 
Springfield .... 


A. Converse 

A. J. Hills 

C. C. Smith 

J. O. Learv 

R. H. Parker ..... 


1,324 
459 

4,098 
107 

1,1.39 


2 


Total .... 


7,727 


2 









Table No. V. — Merrimack River Seines. 



Town. 


Name. 


1 


.2 

< 


c 

o 

s 


CS 

1 


North Andover 
Bradford . 
West Newbury 
Newbury 

Amesbury . 








Madison Kimball . 
H. A. Nisbett . 
W. P. Goodwin 
A. E. Larkin . 
A. C. Nelson . 
Ira P. Newton 
Jonathan Morrill . 




639 

16 

6 

1,478 


- 3 ! 5 

- : - [ 3 

1,800 - - 

21,950 - ' - 

8,650 - - 

- - 2 


Total . 













2,139 32,400 3 ^ 10 

! 



Table No. VI. — Taunton River Seines. 



Town. 


Name. 


'6 


i 

< 


i 

a 
1 

'B 


Berkley 
Dighton 

Middleborough 
Raynham . 

Taunton 
Somerset 






Nichols & Shove 
E. Hathaway 
I. N. Babbit 
Fred. P. Case 
N. Chase and others 
C. N. Simmons . 
George Brayton . 
G. B. & E. Williams 
W. A. Robinson . 
J. W. Hart . 
George H. Simmons 




575 
550 
674 
350 
280 
1,000 

483 
553 
356 


154,000 
150,000 

94,716 
120,000 

50,000 
150,000 

70,060 
269,380 

95,812 

111,900 

8,480 


30 


Total .... 




4,821 


1,274,348 


30 



1880.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 25. 



77 



Table No. VII — Other Fresh- Water Seines, or Dip-Net Fisheries. 









CO 


■S 


i 

C3 




Town. 


Name. 




> 


£ 


£ 


H 






5 




P 


S 




"Wevmonth 


Weymouth Iron Company 


_ 


132,875 


_ 




_ 


Kingston 


Cobb & Drew . 


450 


11,847 


- 


- 


- 


Plymouth 


William S. Hadaway 


- 


- 


10,000 


_ 


- 




M. B. Marble . 


_ 


12,219 


- 


1 


- 


Sanchvicli 


J. G. Battles 




2 


271,200 


- 


_ 


- 




Town of Sandwich 




2 


186,400 


- 


_ 


- 


Barnstable 


Nine Mile Pond Fisl 


1 Co 


; 


68,800 


_ 


- 


- 


Brewster 


Y. B. Newcomb 




- 


54,896 


- 


_ 


- 


Wellfleet 


Georore Baker . 




- 


42,516 


- 


- 


- 


Harwich . 


T. Ellis 






- 


180,058 


- 


- 


- 


Dennis . 


AV. Crowell 






- 


4,3<10 


- 


- 


- 


Yarmouth 


D. L. Baker 






- 


7,800 


- 


- 


- 


Mashpee . 


M. Amos . 






17 


34,475 


- 


- 


- 


'« 


W. R. Mingo 






- 


8,800 


- 


- 


- 


'< 


George T. Oakle 


V 




! - 


2,050 


- 


1 


- 


'< 


W. H. Simon 






- 


2,780 


- 


- 


- 


Falmouth 


A. R. Baker 






- 


7,400 


- 


- 


- 


East Wareham, 


George Sanford 






- 


326,400 


- 


- 


- 


Fall River 


C. V. S. Remington 




- 


12,000 


- 


- 


- 


Marion . 


C. A. Hammond 




- 


6,158 


- 


3 


- 




A. F. Holmes . 




- 


476 


- 


- 


- 


Mattapoisett . 


A. H. Slmrtleff . 




- 


273,132 


- 


- 


- 


Westport 


S. J. Tripp . 




- 


14,799 


106,330 


924 


4,606 


" 


L. White . 




- 


2,908 


- 


- 


- 


Chilraark 


H. M. Smith, Estate of 


- 


31,468 


- 


- 


- 


Total 


. 






471 


1,695,847 


116,330 


929 


4,606 



Table No. VIII. — Seine-Fishery at Mouth of the Merrimack. 









60 














c 




£ 


i 




i 










OJ 




to 








1 


1 




s 


s 


3 


N. Lattime 


20 9,500 


29,300 


600 


12 


20 


15